USATC class S 160
|USATC S 160
ÖBB series 956 / ČSD series 456.1 / MÁV series 411 / FS 736 / SŽD Ш А / JDŽ 37 / OSE Θγ / TCDD 45 171–220 / PKP Tr201, Tr203 / CR KD6
|Numbering:||ÖBB 956.01–16, 117–130
SŽD Ш А 1–200
OSE Θγ 521–537, 551–560, 571–595
TCDD 45 171–220
PKP Tr201 -1-Tr201-75, Tr203-1-Tr203-500
Baldwin , Philadelphia , USA (755)
ALCO , USA (712)
LIMA , USA (653)
|Year of construction (s):||1942-1945|
|Retirement:||ÖBB: until 1955
ČSD: until 1973
|Axis formula :||1'D h2|
|Gauge :||1435 mm, 1524 mm, 1668 mm, 1676 mm, 1067 mm|
|Length over buffers:||18,338 mm|
|Fixed wheelbase:||4725 mm|
|Total wheelbase:||7087 mm|
|Friction mass:||49.7 t|
|Wheel set mass :||16.0 t|
|Top speed:||75 km / h|
|Indexed performance :||1200 hp|
|Driving wheel diameter:||1448 mm|
|Impeller diameter:||880 mm|
|Control type :||Heusinger-Walschaert|
|Number of cylinders:||2|
|Cylinder diameter:||482 mm|
|Piston stroke:||660 mm|
|Boiler overpressure:||16 bar|
|Number of heating pipes:||150|
|Grate area:||3.81 m²|
|Superheater area :||61.50 m²|
|Evaporation heating surface:||164.0 m²|
|Water supply:||26 m³ / 24 m³|
|Fuel supply:||10 m³|
|Brake:||Westinghouse compressed air brake|
The USATC Class S 160 were war locomotives of the United States Army Transportation Corps USATC. These locomotives had to be usable worldwide and therefore comply with the English vehicle gauge, which is one of the smallest for full-gauge railways. A total of 2120 units were manufactured by Baldwin , ALCO and LIMA , making this class one of the most frequently built locomotives in the world. Most of the machines were coal-fired, some of the most recently built were oil-fired.
Use of the S 160
The S 160 in Great Britain
The first machines came to Great Britain on November 27, 1942 . They were used on loan from the four major railway companies (174 from GWR , 168 from LNER , 50 from LMS and six from SR ). Four of them were used by the British military.
The S 160 in continental Europe
After the Allied invasion on June 6, 1944, the USATC S 160 began delivering to continental Europe. The first machines came from England, where they had already been kept in stock for this purpose. The first transfer consisted of 14 pieces that came to Cherbourg in June 1944 .
After the end of the Second World War , locomotives of the USATC S 160 class were used in many countries.
140U series in France
There were 121 locomotives here, they were forwarded to other countries in 1947.
736 series in Italy
From January 1944 a total of 244 S 160s were transferred to Italy . The machines came from North Africa on the one hand and directly from the USA on the other.
After the end of the war, the FS took over all machines as 736.001-248 , with 736.244-248 being five of six machines that had been sunk in the port of Rimini but could be lifted, the sixth locomotive was used as a spare parts donor.
In the second half of 1959, 25 units were sold to the Greek State Railways OSE .
Row Ш A in the Soviet Union
In 1943, 200 S 160s were delivered to the Soviet Union . They were designated as SŽD Ш A 1–200 (transliterated Š A [Sch A ], where “A” stood for America). Sixty actually corresponded to the USATC class S 166 and fifty belonged to the USATC class S 162 , which differed in details from the S 160. Six machines were lost in the sea, one remained in the USA for testing purposes. The locomotives were already delivered to match the local broad gauge for 1520 mm gauge, but were otherwise not adapted to the local conditions, so that they were soon converted. Among other things, they received weatherproof cabs.
After the Second World War , the Ш A dominated traffic in Estonia until the mid-1950s when the ТЭ (TE) series locomotives displaced them into the shunting and branch line service. The last of the 60 locomotives used in Estonia are said to have been in service until 1968.
In 1957, 50 machines for use on the Cape- gauge network of Sakhalin were re-tracked to 1067 mm and were given the designation Ш У (Sch U ), where "U" probably stood for Ulan-Ude , where some of the machines were re-tracked.
Row 37 in Yugoslavia
From 1945 a total of 65 S 160s came to Yugoslavia on the initiative of UNRRA . They were designated as JDŽ 37.001-065 and used on the Slavonski Brod - Belgrade , Vrpolje - Sarajevo and Sisak - Split routes. Another S 160 (USATC 3242) also came to Yugoslavia. The locomotives were retired in the late 1960s due to defective boilers.
956 series in Austria
After the Second World War, the ÖBB took over 30 class S 160 units from the USATC. The 30 machines were classified by the ÖBB as 956.01–16 and 956.117–130 . The 956.1 designates unchanged locomotives compared to the S 160 series, while the other 16 machines were adapted to Austrian customs and were given larger cabs. Since the "rattlesnakes" - as they were called - did not really prove themselves, most representatives of the 956 series were retired in 1955. The 956.129 followed in 1956. The 956.130 became the pre-heating system Vz 900735 in 1955, 956.14 detto Vz 0 1026 but not until 1957. The latter was stationed in Attnang-Puchheim and was not taken out of service until 1971.
The S 160 in Germany
In 1947 40 S 160s were on the road from Bremen on the Deutsche Reichsbahn , a total of around 200 locomotives were in operation, in addition to Bremen (Hbf and Vbf) they were stationed in Koblenz-Lützel and Mainz-Bischofsheim. They never had a DR designation because they were traveling for the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA). After the end of this mission they were transferred to Hungary .
Θγ series in Greece
In 1947 27 S 160s came to Greece . They were designated OSE Θγ 521-537 (Thg) and 551-560 , the former being coal-fired, the latter being oil-fired machines. The 25 locomotives sold from Italy to Greece during the second half of 1959 were given the numbers 571-595 .
Row 45 in Turkey
In 1947 50 S 160s came to Turkey . They were designated as TCDD 45 171–220 and were slightly modified. The air pump was positioned on the side of the smoke chamber and the smoke chamber door changed. They were in use until the late 1980s. Two machines came into military service.
456.1 series in Czechoslovakia
The Czechoslovak State Railways ČSD also took over 80 class S 160 locomotives from the USATC as reconstruction aid after the Second World War and assigned them to the 456.1 class . The locomotives were located in the Brno , Olomouc and Bratislava depots and were mainly used for heavy freight trains. At the end of the 1960s, most of the locomotives had to be shut down due to boiler damage. The last 456.1 retired from service in 1973.
Row 411 in Hungary
In 1947, MÁV procured 510 USATC 160 units from American stocks, which they designated as the 411 series. 483 pieces were put into service, the others served as spare parts donors. The machines were not viewed as temporary temporary help, but were intended to handle freight traffic for two decades. Therefore, it was decided to make extensive renovations according to the Hungarian conditions. For example, the standing boilers were given movable stud bolts, the blowpipe and chimney were exchanged for Hungarian brands, the standard smoke chamber door of the MÁV was installed, the reversing lever was exchanged for a control spindle and the tender wheels were replaced with better ones. In addition, a Hungarian feed water treatment and the circulation process were installed, which meant that the boiler could be protected.
Tr201 and Tr203 series in Poland
From July 1946 to October 1947 the Polish State Railroad received the PKP 575 S 160 units. The first 75 units came on the initiative of UNRRA and were given the designation Tr201-1 – Tr201-75 . The remaining 500 pieces came directly from USATC and were referred to as Tr203-1 – Tr203-500 , although there were no differences from the machines initially delivered.
The locomotives were slightly modified (chimney height) and used in front of freight trains. When the PKP noticed in the mid-1950s that the condition of the boilers in its Ok22 series was increasingly deteriorating, it decided to use the Tr203 boilers, which were still in good condition, for the Ok22 and to install new small boilers on the Tr203, which was thus boilerless. In this way, two Ok22s were converted to Ok55 and a former Tr203 to a TKr55 tank locomotive .
The PKP may also have received 30 more S 160s as spare parts donors.
The S 160 in the USA
Seven S 160s remained in the USA after their delivery. After the Second World War, twelve came to Alaska , two of which returned from Europe. Six of these twelve machines remained in operation until 1955.
1958 five locomotives from Alaska were sold to the Ferrocarril de Langreo in Spain . Among them was a machine that has already been to Europe, it is the only locomotive of this type that has crossed the Atlantic three times.
The S 160 in other countries
In addition to the above, S 160s also came to South Korea (101 units), China (40 units as CR series KD6), Tunisia (6 units), Algeria (25 units), Morocco (4 units), India (60 units) and Jamaica (2 pieces as USATC class S 161 ). Ten locomotives came to Mexico (series GR-28), two to Peru (series 80).
The locomotives had a steel fire box. The boiler was fixed to the frame at the front and back. Originally the locomotives only had a locomotive brake and no train brake.
The economical construction, which was intended for quick production, caused problems in some areas. The locomotives only had a water level indicator. In the event of false reports, this led to boiler explosions several times .
Received S 160
The following S 160s have been preserved:
- UK (USATC 5820, ex PKP Tr203-474) on the Keighley and Worth Valley Railway
- UK (USATC 3383) on the Mid Hants Railway
- UK (USATC 2089, ex PKP Tr203-288) on the North Yorkshire Moors Railway
- UK (USATC 1631, ex MÁV 411.388) on the East Lancashire Railway
- TCCD 45172
- MÁV 411,118 (ex USATC 3540)
- MÁV 411,264 (ex USATC 2781)
- MÁV 411,358 (ex USATC 1613)
- PKP Tr201-51
- PKP Tr203-296 (ex USATC 2438, ALCO 70787, 1943)
- USA: Museum Fort Eustis (Virginia)
- USA: Alaska Railroad 577 (being refurbished (2017))
A total of around 30 locomotives have survived.
- Andreas Knipping: USATC S 160 war locomotives. Part 1: Development and use in Germany. In: Eisenbahn-Kurier 4 (2014) pp. 38–46,
- Andreas Knipping: USATC S 160 war locomotives. Part 2: Post-war use all over the world. In: Eisenbahn-Kurier 5 (2014) pp. 64–70,
- Rail traffic currently 1997/3
- Foreign steam locomotives in Austria, Bahn in Fig. 73, 1990
- Mihály Kubinszky (ed.): Hungarian locomotives and railcars , Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 1975, ISBN 963-05-0125-2
- R. Tourret: Allied Military Locomotives of the Second World War , Tourret Publishing, Abingdon, 1976, 1977, 1995, ISBN 0-905878-06-X
- List and pictures of the S 160 preserved in the US ( Memento from February 16, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
- The USATC S160 2-8-0s in The London & North Eastern Railway (LNER) Encyclopedia
- Photograph of the 456.172 company photo taken in 1972 on k-report.net
- Photograph of the preserved 411,118 of the MAV
- Guus Ferrée: Reliable between Alaska and Tunisia . In: railway magazine . No. 4 , 2017, ISSN 0342-1902 , p. 52 .
- Herman Gijsbert Hesselink, Norbert Tempel: Railways in the Baltic States . Verlag Lok-Report, Münster 1996, ISBN 3-921980-51-8 , p. 127 .
- Guus Ferrée: Reliable between Alaska and Tunisia . In: railway magazine . No. 4 , 2017, ISSN 0342-1902 , p. 52 .
- Guus Ferrée: Reliable between Alaska and Tunisia . In: railway magazine . No. 4 , 2017, ISSN 0342-1902 , p. 55 .