London, Midland and Scottish Railway

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The London, Midland and Scottish Railway ( LMS ) was a British railway company . It belonged to the so-called Big Four , which emerged as part of a reorganization of the British railway system, known as grouping , and existed from 1923 to 1947.


Steam locomotive 6229 "Duchess of Hamilton" in the York Railway Museum after the streamlining was re-fitted

The LMS came into force when the Railways Act 1921 came into force on January 1, 1923. The first years of the new company were marked by clashes between the two largest original companies, the Midland Railway and the London and North Western Railway , which were bitter competitors before the merger were. Representatives from both camps were convinced that the business methods they had used so far were better suited to the LMS.

Over time, the corporate policy of the former Midland Railway prevailed. For example, the rolling stock was kept in the traditional Midland carmine red. The LMS, like the Midland Railway in the past, also relied on the use of smaller steam locomotives with lower consumption, which ran in multiple traction if required. It wasn't until William Stanier was hired as chief engineer in 1933 that tensions eased. Instead of going back to the concepts of the original companies, he introduced new ideas in locomotive construction.

The length of the LMS route network was 12,537 km when it was founded. Main routes were the West Coast Main Line and the Midland Main Line , which connected London with the Midlands, the north-west of England and Scotland. In London, the Euston and St. Pancras railway stations were served by the LMS.

The LMS was in competition with the LNER with its express trains between London and Scotland . In the mid-1930s, both companies introduced streamlined steam locomotives in order to reduce travel times. One of the most famous LMS trains on this route was the 'Coronation Scot', which competed with the LNER 's ' Flying Scotsman '.

After the enactment of the Transport Act 1947 , the LMS was dissolved on January 1, 1948 and incorporated into the newly established British Railways . From then on, the LMS route network formed the operating regions of London Midland Region and Scottish Region . The routes in Northern Ireland have been transferred to the Ulster Transport Authority.

Origin companies of the LMS

Main companies

The main companies that made up the LMS were (length of route network in brackets):

Other companies

Another seven smaller companies ran their own businesses:


The other subsidiaries only existed by name, but were nevertheless mentioned in the Railways Act for legal reasons.

Original parent company LNWR:

Original parent company MR:

Original parent company CalR:

Original parent company HR:

Original parent company NSR:

Two or more original parent companies:

Joint venture of the LMS parent companies

Multiple Partners: Carlisle Citadel Station and Goods Traffic Joint Committees (multiple partners)


LNWR and L&YR:

FR and MR:

FR and LNWR:

CalR and G & SWR:

Joint venture after 1923

Together with London and North Eastern Railway :

Together with Great Western Railway :

Together with Southern Railway

Together with Metropolitan District Railway :

Routes in Ireland

See also


  • OS Nock: A History of the LMS. Vol. 1 The First Years, 1923-1930 . George Allen & Unwin, 1982. ISBN 0-04-385087-1 .
  • OS Nock: A History of the LMS. Vol. 2 The Record Breaking Thirties, 1931-1939 . George Allen & Unwin, 1982. ISBN 0-04-385093-6 .

Web links