Stadler flirt

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Stadler FLIRT
RABe 523 of the Zug urban railway
RABe 523 of the Zug urban railway
Numbering: CH : RABe 521, 522, 523, 524, 526, 527, 528
UIC-D : 0426.1, 0427, 0428, 0429, 1429, 2429, 1430
DB : 429, 1428
NSB : Type 74
PKP : Series EN75
KM : Series ER75
Number: 1694 sold, Dec. 2018
Manufacturer: Stadler Rail
Year of construction (s): since 2004
Axis formula : depending on the design
Gauge : 1435 mm
1520 mm
Length: depending on the design
Height: 4185 mm
4120 mm (Flirt 3)
Width: 2820 - 2880 mm
3200 mm (NSB)
3480 mm (Flirt G)
Wheel set mass : up to 20.0 t (motor bogies)
Top speed: 120 to 200 km / h depending on the version
Hourly output : 1300–5200 kW depending on the version
Continuous output : 1000–4000 kW depending on the version
Starting tractive effort: 200 kN
175 kN (Flirt 3)
240 kN (NSB)
300 kN (Flirt G)
400 kN (SOB VAE)
Number of traction motors: depending on the design
Seats: depending on the design
Floor height: 1120 mm

The Stadler flirtation (proper spelling FLIRTs for " f left l earlier judges (as i NNOVATIVE now as i ntercity- and) R egional- T riebzug") is one of the Swiss Railways manufacturer Stadler Rail for the regional and suburban train -Transport constructed and produced electric low-floor - multiple unit . Since the third generation, the Flirt has also been offered with diesel-electric and bimodal drive . It is now used not only in regional traffic.

The basic version of the Flirt was developed for the Swiss Federal Railways (SBB) and bears the series designation RABe 523 . In addition to the other SBB variants RABe 521 , RABe 522 and RABe 524 , the vehicle was often sold in other countries and to various railway companies, including the variant RABe 526/527/528 .

The vehicles have low masses and high accelerations and braking decelerations. By Swiss standards, the top speed of 160 km / h in local transport is very high. Trains up to this maximum speed are permitted in Germany without equipment for liner train control .



Basic type of flirting is commissioned by the SBB for the light rail train RABe developed four-part series 523. The sister series 521, 522 and 524 differ in principle only in terms of traction equipment and train control systems for the neighboring countries.

The Flirt is not only confusingly similar to the newer versions of the articulated multiple unit GTW , the traction equipment and the driver's cab of the Flirt are also very similar to those of the current, electric GTW series. The main drive consists of an IGBT - pulse inverter with 750 volt DC bus voltage. As a special feature, the auxiliaries are integrated in the main converter. The converter system comes from ABB and is manufactured at the Turgi site .

The differences between the Flirt and the GTW are more numerous: the redundant drive equipment (transformer, drive converter, etc.) is located in the end car, directly behind the driver's cab above the motor bogie . Therefore, a FLIRT can continue to drive on its own even if a drive component fails. The pantograph ( two for five-part and multi-system units) is attached to the roof of one of the intermediate cars and supplies both drive units. The transformer is located on the roof above the driver's cab. The wagons are connected to one another by Jakobs bogies . It is possible to cross the train from the foremost to the rearmost car without a step. The Flirt is offered with up to four intermediate cars (six-part). The diesel-electric and two-motor vehicles are available in a maximum of four parts. There is also a drive module similar to that of the GTW. In contrast to the GTW, this drive module is based on two Jakobs bogies. In contrast to the GTW, the Flirt car bodies are made of lightweight aluminum . The two-part Flirt with only one motor bogie supplied to Abellio Rail are a special version .

The continuous power on the wheel is normally 500 kW per driven axle.

Technical changes in Flirt 3

With the Flirt 3, which was first delivered in 2013, Stadler implemented a number of technical developments to the original version of the Flirt. The most striking change is the redesigned front, which can be traced back to the entry into force of the crash standard DIN EN 15227 : Under the glued front there are now deformation elements that are intended to guarantee the driver a survival space in the event of a collision. There is anti-climbing protection on the sides , and the central buffer coupling has also been optimized with regard to energy absorption in the event of collisions. The driver's cabs of the Flirt 3 have separate entry doors; the predecessors were only accessible through the passenger compartment.

Compared to the first generation of the Flirt, the motor bogies have been changed: the wheel diameter has been increased, while the wheelbase has been reduced. The motor bogies are thus identical to those of the Stadler Kiss . Optimizations in fire protection now allow driving into tunnels with a length of up to five kilometers. Optionally, a sprinkler system can be installed, with which the Flirt 3 can enter tunnels with lengths of up to 20 kilometers. The electronics have also been updated, the control of the brakes has been revised and an energy-saving mode has been implemented that can be switched on when the vehicle is parked.

Sales and manufacturing internationally

Since the first award by SBB, further vehicles have been sold to Hungary , Swiss private railways, Germany , Algeria , Poland , Italy and Norway . In addition, Flirt was sold in broad gauge to Estonia , Finland and Belarus . By the beginning of 2013, 788 trains had been sold. In August 2015 there were 1120 railcars sold. In 2015, Stadler Rail received its first order for Flirt trains from the Netherlands and the United States (USA). The first order from Great Britain followed in 2016.

The vehicles are manufactured at the Bussnang (Switzerland), Berlin-Wilhelmsruh (Pankow) and Szolnok (Hungary) locations ; the final assembly of some orders takes place in the country in which the order is placed.

Derived types

Was derived from flirting under the term "meter gauge Flirt" the concept of ordered in 2009 meterspurigen Be 4/8 of Aare Seeland mobil (ASM), which (also known as "Star" S chmalspur- T riebzug for a ttraktiven R egionalverkehr) are referred to, and in 2007 the ordered ABe 4/8 "diamond" ( D ynamic, i NNOVATIVE, a ttraktiver, m odern, a Giler N ahverkehrs t riebzug) of the BDWM transport . The multiple units consist of two low-floor end sections with traction equipment and a motor bogie each , which are saddled onto the non-powered intermediate car. As with Flirt, the highly redundant electrical and pneumatic equipment is located on the roof and directly behind the driver's cab above the motor bogie. On Jacobs bogie like flirting because it no low-floor car transitions are possible with meter gauge vehicles has been omitted. In contrast to Flirt, parts of the car body were screwed together because of the small number of pieces . Similar to Star and Diamant, the meter-gauge trains in western Switzerland have conceptual similarities with flirtation.

In 2007, the Rhaetian Railway ordered a total of 20 «Allegra» multiple units, 15 of them in a two-system version ( ABe 8/12 ), which will be used on the Bernina route from spring 2010 . Another five have been used in the single-system version ( ABe 4/16 ) for urban traffic since 2011 . Mechanically, these traits also have little in common with the Flirt. The two-voltage ABe 8/12 has the same performance as a standard Flirt, but spread over twice as many axles.

Flirt battery

In October 2018, Stadler presented the prototype of a battery-powered railcar based on the Flirt. The three-part multiple unit reaches a top speed of 140 km / h. It can draw power from the overhead line as well as run on non-electrified routes. The batteries are charged on electrified sections of the catenary or while stationary via charging stations. The range in battery operation is up to 150 km. In 2019, the state of Schleswig-Holstein was the first customer to order 55 two-part units of this type. The corresponding supply contract was signed in October 2019.

Series in use


The first flirtations in Germany were the RABe 521 multiple units of the SBB (or EuroThurbo ) registered in Switzerland on the Wiesentalbahn and on the Seehas (see below ). On December 21, 2005, the Federal Railway Authority granted approval for operation in double traction .

For cantus Verkehrsgesellschaft , which has been operating the north-east Hesse network since December 2006, its parent companies Hamburger Hochbahn (from 2007 BeNEX ) and Hessische Landesbahn have each procured seven three and three four-car Flirt trains. The 20 vehicles, the modeled on the series names of the DB with 427 (three-part) or 428 have been numbered (four parts), operating on the routes Göttingen - Eichenberg - Kassel, Kassel - Bebra - Fulda, Göttingen - Eschwege - Bebra and Bebra - Eisenach . Since the vehicles were already delivered at the beginning of November, they ran until December on the Friedberg – Hanau line (operated by the Hessische Landesbahn) and on the KBS 209.60 in the Berlin  - Eberswalde area (operated by the East German Railway , to which the Hamburger Hochbahn to 50% is involved).

The Abellio Rail NRW operates in December 2007 with nine three-piece and two-piece eight Flirt EMUs regional traffic between the cities of Essen , Hagen , Iserlohn and victories . In contrast to the other variants, the two-part variant ordered for the first time has only one powered bogie and is only approved for 140 km / h. The trains are owned by the leasing company CB Rail .

At the beginning of 2006, DB Regio ordered five five-part Flirt multiple units for traffic on the Baltic Sea coast, which will be in service on the Rostock - Stralsund - Lietzow - Sassnitz ( Hanse Express ), Sassnitz - Stralsund and Binz - Lietzow routes until December 15, 2019 came. The vehicles were delivered in August 2007 as the 427/827 series and have been in service since December 9, 2007. At the beginning of 2009, the DB Flirt was rebranded as the 429 series.

Stadler received the largest order to date in Germany in October 2006 from Angel Trains Europe for Keolis . 25 four-part Flirt have been used by the Eurobahn on the Hellweg network in North Rhine-Westphalia since the end of 2008 . The order volume was more than 100 million euros.

Angel Trains ordered a further 4 four-part and 14 five-part Flirt from Stadler in November 2007. These vehicles are in turn leased from Keolis (Eurobahn) to operate the RE 3 Rhein-Emscher-Express and RE 13 Maas-Wupper-Express lines .

The Westfalenbahn has been serving the Teutoburger Wald network with Flirt multiple units since December 9, 2007, with 14 three-car and 5 five-car trains.

In 2008 Vias 19 ordered Flirt for the won Rheingau network (RMV line 10). Since December 2010, 14 four- and 5 three-part vehicles have been in use on the stretch on the right bank of the Rhine from Frankfurt via Wiesbaden, Rüdesheim and Koblenz to Neuwied. The Hessische Landesbahn has also been using FLIRT trains on RMV line 40 (Frankfurt - Gießen - Siegen) since 2010. Six five- and three three-car trains were ordered in 2008 for this transport service.

Alpha Trains ordered five three-part Flirt for use on the Freilassing - Berchtesgaden route from December 2009 . These railcars are leased and operated by Berchtesgadener Land Bahn , a consortium under German law made up of Regentalbahn and Salzburg AG .

7 March 2011 Stadler announced the appointment of seven three- and 28 six-car Flirt trains for the E network Rosenheim by Veolia known. These are the first series-produced Flirt 3 vehicles. Since December 2013, the trains have been used by the Bayerische Oberlandbahn (BOB) under the Meridian brand between Munich, Rosenheim, Salzburg and Kufstein. Due to problems with the approval by the Federal Railway Authority , however, not all vehicles were available at the start of operation. On August 1, 2014, Alpha Trains took over the trains as part of a sale and lease back transaction.

On July 5, 2011, the "Zweckverband SPNV Nord Rheinland-Pfalz" announced that the DB Regio Südwest had won the Europe-wide tender for the "RE-Netz Südwest E-Traktion". From December 2014, the RE 1 (Koblenz - Trier (- Luxembourg /) - Saarbrücken - Ludwigshafen - Mannheim), RE 2 (Koblenz - Frankfurt), RE 4 (Mainz - Ludwigshafen - Karlsruhe), RE 14 (Mainz - Ludwigshafen - Mannheim) 28 five-part flirt can be used. Between Koblenz and Trier (RE 1) should the flirtation, together with the Kiss the CFL operate coupled. The operation was only delayed.

Since December 14, 2014, the FLIRT trains have been in use as planned on all SÜWEX (Südwest-Express) routes.

On November 2, 2011, DB Regio announced a framework agreement with Stadler, Alstom Transport Deutschland and CAF for the delivery of up to 400 electric multiple units . From this framework agreement, 14 four-part flirts were called up for use on the RE 42 regional train line between Münster, Essen and Mönchengladbach in the VRR. The first railcars, known as the 1428 series, have been in service since February 9, 2015.

On April 11, 2012, the Nordbahn Eisenbahngesellschaft was awarded the contract to operate the central regional network in Schleswig-Holstein . Seven five and eight six-part flirts are used here. At the start of operations on December 14, 2014, only ten multiple units were available.

The WestfalenBahn since December 2015 sets fifteen four-part Flirt one on the Emsland line Münster-Rheine-Emden, which of Alpha Trains were rented.

On June 12, 2013, it was announced that Abellio had ordered 20 five-part FLIRT 3 multiple units. The 13 single and 7 multi-system trains (15 kV, 16.7 Hz / 25 kV, 50 Hz / 1.5 kV direct voltage) have been running on the Lower Rhine network ( Düsseldorf – Arnhem and Wesel – Wuppertal ) since 2016 .

For the operation of the S-Bahn lines S 2, S 3, S 9 and S 28 of the S-Bahn Rhein-Ruhr as well as the North Rhine-Westphalian regional train lines RB 32, RB 40 and RE 49 from December 2019, Stadler has 41 railcars of this type Flirt 3 XL built, which are rented by the Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Ruhr to the operator of these lines, Abellio Rail NRW (whereby the S 28 line will continue to be operated by Regiobahn GmbH ).

Go-Ahead Verkehrsgesellschaft Deutschland ordered a total of 45 Flirt 3 to operate lots 2 and 3 of the Stuttgart network , 11 of which were three-part and 15 five-part for lot 2 and 9 four-part and 10 six-part for lot 3. In November 2018 the first multiple unit ET 4.02 (1428 016) presented to the public. In July 2020, an order to equip the multiple units with ETCS and ATO was put out to tender . The trains should u. a. Level 3 capable, equipped with train integrity monitoring and prepared for FRMCS . The project is scheduled to start in January 2021 and run until December 2027. The equipping of a first multiple unit (first in class) is to begin in October 2021, and test and preliminary operations will begin in April 2024. All vehicles are to be equipped with ETCS Level 2 (according to Baseline 3 Release 2 ) and ATO (with static timetable data) by January 2025 . In the years 2026 and 2027, the continuous commissioning and approval according to TSI ZZS 2022 , including further "innovations", should take place.

At the end of May 2017, the Keolis Deutschland subsidiary eurobahn received the first of eight five-part Flirt 3 multiple units that had been ordered for traffic on the Bielefeld – Bad Bentheim – Hengelo route. It was given the company number ET 4.01 and is listed as 2429 011.


Swiss Federal Railways

SBB RABe 521 in Basel Badischer Bahnhof
Two SBB RABe 522 Flirt France in Delémont station
Interior of a SBB RABe 521 on the Wiesentalbahn

The first vehicle was officially presented on June 4, 2004.

The initial order from SBB comprised 73 four-part vehicles in four variants. From the end of 2004, twelve vehicles of the “Helvetic” RABe 523 series were delivered for the Zug urban railway ; the RABe 521 series developed in parallel and suitable for Germany for the Basel S-Bahn was delivered from mid-2005. Of these 30 vehicles, ten are mathematically for the German subsidiary SBB GmbH (Lörrach division, Wiesentalbahn ). The delivery of the nine vehicles for the Seehas in the first half of 2006 (see next section) also fell into this construction lot, while the last vehicles were taken over at the end of 2006.

Originally, “Euro Thurbo” ordered nine multiple units for the Seehas , which were delivered from the beginning of 2006 and went into regular service from May 1, 2006 to mid-July 2006. Like all “Euro-Thurbo” vehicles, they were given a series designation in the number range of the parent company Thurbo before the “Euro-Thurbo” was merged with the German SBB GmbH in 2005 . As a result, the vehicles became the property of SBB and are permanently rented to SBB GmbH, but initially retained the assigned company numbers. From 2011 the vehicles were given the new designation 521 201 to 209 together with the TSI numbers .

The multi-system trains, which were delivered from the beginning of 2007, required longer due to their approval. The Italian-compatible RABe 524 for the subsidiary TILO ( S-Bahn Ticino ) (19 pieces) went through the approval process in Italy and were delivered by mid-2008. The RABe 522 (12 pieces) suitable for France were completed in the second half of 2008, but could no longer obtain approval due to changed requirements in France. Planned to replace the S1 commuter trains formed with RBDe 562 , the Basel S-Bahn, the S1 was broken again in Basel from December 2008; In the absence of a direct current component, use on the Geneva – La Plaine (–Bellegarde) line was out of the question. Instead, the original RABe 522 “FLIRT Alsace” were “helvetized” for a follow-up SBB order to RABe 523.

A functional two-frequency version (RABe 522) has already been tested through the provisional conversion (high-voltage cable, primary voltage converter, surge arrester, switching devices) of a vehicle of the RABe 521 series (number 011), which was transferred to Hungary for demonstration purposes. Due to provisional permits from Austria and Hungary, the entire transfer could be carried out on our own.

At the beginning of October 2007, SBB announced the purchase of a further twelve FLIRTs (RABe 523) for around CHF 116 million. Eight vehicles are intended for regional traffic on the Aargauische Südbahn (Aarau – Rotkreuz), one for the expansion of the S2 of the Zug urban railway and three for the S8 of the Lucerne S-Bahn . For the “construction” of these vehicles, the actually completed RABe 522 were used, which were finally re-registered as RABe 523 032-043. This implicitly triggered the redesign of the twelve FLIRTs that were ordered for France.

In August 2008, SBB announced an order for 19 FLIRTs (RABe 523) for the RER Vaudois , two additional FLIRTs suitable for France (RABe 522) for the Basel S-Bahn and eleven six-part FLIRTs for TILO (RABe 524 101–111). The RABe 523 013-031 were delivered from mid-2009 to October 2010, followed by the first five six-part FLIRTs. From April to the end of 2011, the remaining six-car FLIRTs and 12 of the 14 ordered “FLIRT France” (RABe 522 201–214) were delivered, while two remained with Stadler for approval drives and were not taken over by SBB until the end of 2012.

In contrast to the “FLIRT Alsace”, the “FLIRT France” obtained approval in France by December 2012. However, contrary to a declaration of intent signed in 2004, TER Alsace was unwilling to use SBB's two-system FLIRT, built and approved for 15 kV at 16.7 Hz and 25 kV at 50 Hz, for the operation of the Basel – Mulhouse section of the Basel S1 rent.

Initially only used in domestic traffic, the trains started operating in August 2014 on the Geneva – La Plaine (–Bellegarde) section in the Geneva area, which was newly electrified with 25 kV and 50 Hz . On December 9, 2017, the Delle – Belfort line was restarted with 25 kV and 50 Hz, which means that the new through trains between Biel / Bienne and Meroux TGV are also operated by SBB with RABe 522.

RABe 523 076 in transN paint

Follow-up orders from the original framework agreement were placed in the following years as required. From the end of 2012 to the end of 2013, 13 FLIRTs (RABe 523 044-056) were delivered for the greater Olten area (“RegiOlten”). In the course of 2014 another 6 six-part FLIRT for TILO (RABe 524 112–117) and 4 four-part FLIRTs were delivered to FMN / Trenord , which are also intended for TILO (RABe 524 201–204). Between the end of 2015 and the end of 2016, another 10 FLIRTs (RABe 523 057-066) were delivered that correspond to the “RegiOlten” version. From the middle of 2017, another 7 FLIRTs (RABe 523 067-073) were delivered as “RegiOlten”; four trains (074-077) were delivered in the transN design.

A further 18 “FLIRT France LEX” (RABe 522 215–232) have been ordered under the updated name “Léman Express” for the expansion of the Geneva S-Bahn network (new line CEVA ); 9 pieces were delivered from the end of 2017 to mid-2018, the remaining 9 were delivered from the end of 2018 to mid-2019.

In spring 2017, 14 four-part Flirt "new generation" worth CHF 125 million were ordered for the Vaud S-Bahn . They are to be delivered in 2021 and are given the numbers 523 101–114. At the same time, SBB initiated the previously announced order for five six-part two-system flirting for TILO, a subsidiary in Ticino. These trains will be required when the Ceneri Base Tunnel goes into operation at the end of 2020. They are given the numbers 524 301–305.

On November 30, 2018, FNM ordered 9 six-part two-system Flirt 3 for cross-border traffic between Italy and Switzerland. A first tranche of 5 multiple units is to be delivered by November 2020, the rest from July 2021. They will be rented by FNM to Trenord for TILO . They are compatible with the RABe 524 previously used by TILO. You will be enrolled in Switzerland as RABe 524 306-314, following SBB-Flirt 3 for TILO.

After the appeal period had expired, the order for 7 four-part FLIRT 3 long-distance vehicles was announced on December 20, 2018 by means of a direct award. The procurement includes an option for seven additional vehicles. The vehicles named “Mouette” (French seagull ) by the SBB should be used on the InterRegio line Bern – Neuchâtel – La-Chaux-de-Fonds (IR 66) from December 2020 and are currently being used by the BLS as RegioExpress (RE) is performed. It has been known since August 2019 that the BLS will operate the above-mentioned route for long-distance traffic. And it has been known since 2020 that SBB will not receive the trains until the 2023 timetable. From December 2025, the vehicles will then be used on the new inter- regional line Basel - Biel .

designation Admission operation area Commissioning Wheel alignment comment
SBB RABe 521 001-011 CH / DE Wiesentalbahn 2004 - 2006 Bo'2'2'2'Bo '
SBB RABe 521 012-030 Basel S-Bahn 2009-2010
SBB RABe 521 201-209 CH / DE Seehas 2009-2010 Bo'2'2'2'Bo ' until 2011 Thurbo / SBB GmbH RABe 526 651–659
SBB RABe 522 201-214 CH / FR Basel S-Bahn 2011 Bo'2'2'2'Bo ' 1st series Flirt France
SBB RABe 522 215-232 Léman Express 2017-2019 2nd series Flirt France
SBB RABe 523 001-012 CH Light rail train 2004-2005 Bo'2'2'2'Bo ' 1st series
SBB RABe 523 013-031 RER Vaud 2009-2010 2nd series
SBB RABe 523 032-043 Lucerne S-Bahn 2009-2010 3rd series
SBB RABe 523 044-056 RegiOlten 2012-2013 4th series
SBB RABe 523 057-066 2015-2016 5th series
SBB RABe 523 067-073 2017 6th series
SBB RABe 524 001-019 CH / IT S-Bahn Ticino 2007 - 2008 Bo'2'2'2'Bo ' Flirt TILO
SBB RABe 524 101–117 2010-2011 Bo'2'2'2'2'2'Bo '
SBB RABe 524 201-204 2014 Bo'2'2'2'Bo '
RABe 521 017 with advertising for the FHNW

On November 1, 2017, SBB's flirtation with full advertising was presented for the first time. The RABe 521 017 carries advertising for the University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland and was at the same time christened Muttenz .

In May 2020, SBB and its subsidiaries Regionalps and Thurbo tendered the delivery of 194 single-story S-Bahn trains. The first trains are to be used from the 2026 timetable . There is a high probability that Stadler will win the contract. For political reasons, such a large contract can hardly be awarded abroad. The new trains are intended to replace vehicles that will have reached the end of their life by December 2035. This includes 82 flirtations who will then only be 25 years old. A service life of 40 years is usual. The aluminum car bodies of SBB-Flirt could cause more problems than the owner admits. The chemically aggressive wastewater from the biological toilets has clogged the car bodies. Stadler was able to evade SBB's claims for compensation after years of dispute.

Private railways

SOB RABe 526 044 / Stadler Flirt
SOB RABe 526 105 Traverso / Stadler Flirt III
Flirt 4 of the BLS in Erlen

The multiple units of the FLIRT concept were also ordered by various private railways. The Schweizerische Südostbahn (SOB) has ordered eleven multiple units to operate the Zurich S-Bahn (S13, S40) and the St. Gallen S-Bahn (S3, S4, S9). Transports Régionaux Neuchâtelois (TRN) has joined this order with a multiple unit. The twelve vehicles were manufactured by Stadler Altenrhein and put into service from February 2007. Two more Flirt were ordered in 2008 by the TRN. In 2010, due to the expansion of the St. Gallen S-Bahn, a further twelve SOB-FLIRTs were ordered, which were delivered in the course of 2013. Transports Publics Fribourgeois (TPF) ordered eight FLIRTs of the same type for the restructured Friborg – Bulle transport service.

In order to replace the current rolling stock of the Voralpen-Express at the end of 2019, the SOB ordered six eight-part FLIRT 3 for long-distance traffic in June 2016; Due to the route profile with inclines of up to 50 ‰, the vehicle is not manufactured as an eight-part 4/18 block train, but rather - similar to the NSB-FLIRT - consists of two closely coupled four-part 4/10 half-trains. In order to stand out from the FLIRT, the vehicle was christened “Traverso” by the SOB. At the same time, five more four-part FLIRTs were ordered to operate the S-Bahn. For the future Gotthard mountain trains in cooperation with the SBB, the SOB exercised an option for eleven additional “Traverso” in December 2017. In December 2018, the SOB exercised a second option: seven additional “Traverso” for the long-distance route Chur – Zurich – Bern, which is to be operated jointly with SBB from December 2021, as well as another five four-part FLIRT.

On January 15, 2018, BLS AG signed a service contract with Stadler for the delivery of 58 six-car Flirt trains of the latest generation (FLIRT 4). This is intended to replace three older vehicle types and standardize the fleet. 28 trains are to be used on the various lines of the Bern S-Bahn , 30 trains are intended for RegioExpress traffic, and will have 2 + 1 seating and a refreshment zone in first class. You will receive the following numbers: RABe 528 101–130 (RE version, of which 125–130 CH-BLSFV), 528 201–228 (S-Bahn version).

designation operation area Commissioning Wheel alignment comment
SOB RABe 526 041-051 S-Bahn St. Gallen
S13 and S40 S-Bahn Zurich
2007 - 2008 Bo'2'2'2'Bo ' 1st series
SOB RABe 526 052-063 2013 2nd series
SOB RABe 526 001-005 Reinforcement Voralpenexpress and S13, S40 2019 Bo'2'2'2'Bo ' Flirt 3, 1st series
SOB RABe 526 006-010 Reinforcement Treno Gottardo and S13, S40 2020 Bo'2'2'2'Bo ' Flirt 3, 2nd series
SOB “Traverso” 101 / 201–106 / 206 Voralpen-Express 2019 Bo'2'2'2'Bo '+ Bo'2'2'2'Bo' Flirt 3, 1st series
SOB “Traverso” 107 / 207–124 / 224 Treno Gottardo 2020 Flirt 3, 2nd series
TRN RABe 523 074-077 2017 Bo'2'2'2'Bo ' correspond to SBB RABe 523 067-073
TRN RABe 527 331 2007 Bo'2'2'2'Bo ' 1st series
TRN RABe 527 332-333 2009 2nd series
TPF RABe 527 191-194 2011 Bo'2'2'2'Bo ' 1st series
TPF RABe 527 195-198 2014 2nd series


In March 2006, Stadler Rail was awarded the contract to deliver 64 four-car FLIRT trains to the Algerian State Railways (SNTF) , which they have been using on the Algiers S-Bahn network since May 3, 2009. The total order volume was around 600 million Swiss francs and included manufacturing (complete production in Bussnang), maintenance and the delivery of spare parts. The delivery of the vehicles began in mid-2008 and lasted until the end of 2010. The vehicles were RoRo ships from Savona to Algiers trajektiert . Since a high volume of traffic was expected, the four-part multiple unit with up to 1,000 standing places and eight doors on each side of the vehicle is specially equipped for this. In addition, up to four units can be coupled.


two FLIRT-ET at Balti jaam in Tallinn

Between 2013 and summer 2014, Stadler delivered 18 electric (for around 80 million euros) and 20 diesel-electric multiple units with a gauge of 1520 mm to the Estonian railways (brand name: Elron ). The electric railcars are designed for a DC voltage of 3 kV. They have replaced all previous railcar units that came from the Soviet era and gave Tallinn local transport (a kind of S-Bahn system) a new face. The identical diesel multiple units have replaced all previous passenger trains on the other domestic routes.

Because of their orange color, trains are popularly known in Estonia as "carrots".


Sm5 in Helsinki

For local rail transport in the Helsinki region , the Finnish leasing company for rail vehicles Pääkaupunkiseudun Junakalusto (JKOY), which is also supported by the Finnish State Railways VR , as a result of a tender that was decided on August 31, 2006, decided on the FLIRT-based S. -Bahn trains (designation Sm5 ) ordered from Stadler. The order is worth 190 million euros and includes the delivery of 32 four-part multiple units (25 kilovolts at 50 Hertz) from 2009, which will be built for the first time in a 1520 mm wide-gauge version. In March 2012, the twelve trains in operation were shut down for a week after corrosion on the main switch caused short circuits in three trains .

Great Britain

Class 745 on the Velim railway test ring .

In October 2016 , Abellio Greater Anglia ordered a total of 58 Flirt multiple units, divided into 20 electric and 38 dual-power units, to operate the “East Anglia” network in east and north-east London . The 20 twelve-part Flirt UK class 745 will be used on the InterCity route between London and Norwich and on the Stansted Express to Stansted Airport . For use on some important regional connections in the East Anglia region , which are only partially electrified, 14 three-part and 24 four-part Flirt UK class 755 with bimodal drive , which can run on 25 kV overhead line voltage or with diesel drive, were added.

The diesel engines with generators are housed in their own traction module (power pack). This module is equipped with a central aisle and is supported on both sides on a Jakobs bogie.

Three-part Flirt UK Class 755

The vehicles were delivered from 2019, whereby the start of operations of the bimodal Flirt was associated with significant operational disruptions. Stadler identified a regionally outdated infrastructure as the cause.


FLIRT of the Südtirol Bahn on a test drive in Switzerland

For regional traffic on the Venezia Mestre - Adria route, Stadler signed an order with Sistemi Territoriali on September 26, 2006 for the delivery of two electric FLIRTs in four-part design. These were delivered in 2010 and designated as ETR 340 (ETR: Elettrotreno). They run as part of the Sistema Ferroviario Metropolitano Regionale between Mira Buse and Venezia Santa Lucia on the newly electrified route. In addition, another tender for three three-part FLIRTs was won at Ferrovie del Gargano for the Apulia region . These multiple units are called ETR 330.

Based on a tender by Südtiroler Transportstruktur AG (STA) in March 2007, contracts for eight FLIRT vehicles and two suitable control vehicles with a total value of almost 60 million euros were signed on June 27, 2007. Any subsequent procurement will be kept open by means of an unspecified option agreement. The eight multiple units for regional traffic in the province of Bolzano have been in service since December 2008. They consist of four four-part (ETR 155-001 to 004, TSI numbers per box element 94 83 4 155 001-016) and four six-part (ETR 170-001 to 004, 94 83 4 170 001-024) FLIRTs with dual-voltage equipment for the Operation under 3 kilovolt direct and 15 kilovolt alternating voltage with 16.7 Hertz. Since December 2008, the multiple units have been in use as consolidations to the FS trains on the South Tyrolean route network Meran – Bozen , Bozen – Franzensfeste and Franzensfeste – Innichen ( Pustertalbahn ). With the approval for Austria, continuous journeys through the Pustertal to Lienz or via the Brenner Railway to Innsbruck are possible. Externally, the FLIRT correspond to the existing diesel GTW of the Vinschgerbahn (Merano – Mals). At the end of 2011, the option to purchase a further eight FLIRTs was drawn. In addition, the four four-part railcars that are already in service are to be extended by two extension modules each. The delivery and commissioning of this second order began in mid-2013, the first deployments to Innsbruck started with the timetable change in December 2013, to Lienz with the timetable change in December 2014

Since September 2009, five double wagons of the type FLIRT have been in service twice a day in Apulia, serving the Bari – Lecce and Bari – Barletta routes for the private company Ferrotramviaria . One million rail kilometers are to be covered annually in this way. The trains are named ETR340. In 2013, Bari Palese Airport was connected.

The first two- force flirting was ordered in May 2015 by the Aosta Valley region . Five three-part trains with a drive power of 2600 kilowatts (in catenary operation with 3 kilovolts) or 700 kilowatts (with diesel drive) will be delivered from 2018. In diesel mode, the maximum speed is 140 km / h. As an option, five more trains and an extension of the maintenance by three to eight years have been agreed.


Arriva RE 18 - Multi-system motor coach of the type Stadler flirtation 3 in Aachen central station according to Maastricht .

In April 2015, Stadler Rail received an order from Nederlandse Spoorwegen (NS), the former Dutch State Railways, for 58 Flirt trains, of which 33 are three-car and 24 four-car. The total contract value of this order is around 280 million euros. Deliveries began in 2016 and in September 2017 they all went into operation as Sprinter trains.

Arriva Nederland procured 38 multiple units of the Stadler Flirt 3 type for use in the province of Limburg , which went into operation from 2016. 15 two-part and 13 three-part vehicle compositions are used there . Another 8 three-part Flirt with multi-system equipment have been used by Arriva NL on the cross-border LIMAX line between Maastricht and Aachen since 2020 .

The NS-Flirts and the two-part ones from Arriva Nederland have been used as so-called Sprinter trains since the end of 2016 and are equipped with USB connections, sockets, a passenger information system and ERTMS train control.

In March 2016, Stadler Rail sold a further 16 Flirt trains to Keolis Nederland ( formerly known as Syntus ) in the Netherlands for a total of 125 million euros. The operating company has been serving the Zwolle - Kampen and Zwolle - Enschede routes with the 9 three-car and 7 four-car trains since the end of 2017 .



On August 19, 2008, Stadler received an order from Norges Statsbaner (NSB) for the delivery of 50 five-part multiple units with an option for 100 more units. The trains are to be used as a type 75 local train variant in the Oslo area as well as for medium-long routes throughout southern Norway. The vehicles are a further development of the FLIRT with a different head design, designed for the climatic conditions in Norway. The five-part train basically consists of a two-part (2'2'Bo ') and a three-part train (Bo'2'2'Bo'), so it has a third drive unit in the middle part of the train. The vehicle concept is designed for a speed of 200 km / h. The order volume is around 640 million Swiss francs.

For operation on the Norwegian ETCS pilot line Østfoldbanen , nine multiple units were equipped with ETCS Level 2 .


Flirt (ER75, 214) from Koleje Mazowieckie (KM)
Flirt 3 as the ED160 series from PKP Intercity

As a result of a tender in Poland, the contracts for 14 four-part FLIRTs for traffic in the regions of Mazovia (ten units) and Silesia (four units) in Poland were signed at the end of June 2006 . The order volume is around 100 million Swiss francs and also includes services and training for staff. The delivery of the vehicles is planned between autumn 2007 and the end of 2008.

With the winning of the tender, the Stadler Rail Group decided to set up another subsidiary in Poland for the final assembly of the trains. On the one hand, this is an attempt to establish itself on the Polish market and sell more vehicles, on the other hand, it is possible to lower costs compared to a complete production in Switzerland and Germany. From spring 2014, 20 two-part Flirt 3 will be delivered for traffic in the greater Łódź area (Łódzka Kolej Aglomeracyjna, ŁKA). These trains reach 160 km / h. The entertainment for 15 years is included in the 180 million franc order.

In August 2013, the manufacturer announced that it would deliver 20 trains (Flirt 3), each with eight cars, including a 15-year maintenance contract to PKP Intercity . Equipped with first and second class and a dining car, the trains are intended for long-distance transport in Poland. The assembly takes place in the factory in Siedlce and at Newag . Individual components such as bogies and drive components are manufactured in Switzerland.



The private rail company MTR Express , a subsidiary of the Hong Kong-based MTR Corporation , has been operating long-distance services on the Stockholm  - Gothenburg route since March 2015 in competition with the Swedish State Railways (SJ) . To this end, six five-part Flirt trains worth around CHF 85 million were ordered in November 2013. The trains are designed for a top speed of 200 km / h and are tailored to the Swedish winter conditions. The trains have been handed over since October 2014. The trains run in Sweden as the MTR X74 series have only one car class and offer internet access via WLAN at all seats.


Flirt for Železnice Srbije at Innotrans 2014

The Serbian Railways (ŽS) have ordered 21 four-part "Flirt 3" trains. Stadler prevailed against its competitors Alstom and Siemens and received the order worth around 100 million euros in March 2013. The units delivered in 2015 and 2016 will be used in regional transport. In each car body there is one door on each side, a four-part unit has 234 seats. The trains were delivered with the indusi punctiform train control system common in Serbia , with the option of upgrading to ETCS .

Czech Republic

In September 2010 the Leo Express company signed a contract for the delivery of five five-part Flirt multiple units (160 km / h, 2000 kW, 3 kV DC). These trains are used on the Prague - Ostrava route. Operations started in December 2012. Each train offers 237 seats in three car classes (6 Premium, 19 Business, 212 Economy) and a wheelchair-accessible area, meals are served at the seat. In contrast to the local transport variants, there are only four single-width entrance doors on each side.



MÁV 5341 in Szob

In 2006, Stadler Rail was awarded the contract for the delivery and maintenance of 30 four-car trains for MÁV-START's regional service around Budapest . The order included an option for 30 more trains and should originally have been carried out with the Hungarian partner Ganz Transelektro . Due to internal changes at Ganz, this project could not be implemented. Instead, the specially founded subsidiary Stadler Hungary took on the implementation of the order.

The option was exercised in 2007 and the last of the sixty multiple units were delivered in February 2010. This also made it possible to set up Stadler's Szolnok plant in Hungary, which went into operation in 2009 and completed the final assembly of the last seven multiple units.

In Hungary, the vehicles had the MÁV designation BVpmot-BDpx-Bpx-BVpmot (old designation scheme, only written on the sides) 5341 001-5341 060 (new designation scheme until 2014/2015). Since the renumbering in 2014/2015, the railcars have been listed as the 415 series (415 001 ff, ADCB parts: 1415 001, 4415 001, 3415 001, 2415 001). They are serviced at the Stadler plant in Pusztaszabolcs .


As a second customer in Hungary, the Hungarian-Austrian private railway GySEV ordered four Flirt multiple units in October 2012 . Two of these trains started running on the Sopron – Szentgotthárd railway on December 15, 2013 .


GySEV placed another order for six multiple units in February 2013 together with MÁV , which ordered 42 trains. Deliveries took place from autumn 2014 to late summer 2015. All 48 Flirt multiple units were equipped with the ETCS Level 2 train protection system. The factory in Szolnok was expanded in 2012 for the construction of the aluminum car bodies.


On June 23, 2015, MÁV ordered a further 21 multiple units. A total of 133 trains were sold to Hungary. The general maintenance of the GYSEV trains (numbering: 415 500 - 509) takes place in Sopron, their nickname is "Sport szelet" because of the similarity of the color scheme with the packaging of the chocolate bar. The newer trains (numbering: 415 061 - 123) of MÁV-START are based in the Istvántelek depot.


The GySEV ordered in September 2016 10 "Flirt 3" whose extradition was carried out from November 2017 to mid of 2019. The four-part units can also run in traction with the existing Flirt. In addition to the car bodies, the bogies were also manufactured in the newly expanded Stadler factory in Szolnok; final assembly took place at the Siedlce plant in Poland.

United States

In 2015, Stadler sold Flirt railcars to the USA for the first time. The Texan Forth Worth Transportation Authority has been using it on the newly built TEXRail route between Forth Worth and Dallas / Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) since January 2019 . Orders from other rail operators in Texas followed: CapMetro in Austin, Denton County Transportation Authority in Lewisville and, in 2019, from Dallas Area Rapid Transit (DART). The latter should go into passenger traffic on the “Silver Line” from the end of 2022. In order to comply with the value added regulations of the Buy America Act , Stadler opened a plant in Salt Lake City to finish these trains .

A hydrogen-powered multiple unit of the Stadler Flirt type is expected to be used on the San Bernardino – Redlands railway line from 2024 , on which passenger traffic is to be resumed in 2022 with three Stadler Flirt diesel multiple units.


Belarusian EPM-002 multiple unit (Stadler G)
Belarusian EPG-001 multiple unit

In 2010, Stadler won the tender for ten four-part multiple units (25 kV, 50 Hz) for Belaruskaja Tschyhunka (BC) in Belarus . At 1520 mm, the trains have the same gauge as the Finnish multiple units and also have a larger clearance profile. Six trains were equipped for the S-Bahn traffic of the capital Minsk , the other four trains were supplied with more comfortable equipment and used in interregional traffic between large cities. The delivery took place between 2010 and 2011.

In December 2012, BC ordered six five-part multiple units for long regional routes, with greater comfort than the S-Bahn trains and more storage space for luggage. The trains were delivered between 2013 and 2014.

In 2015 and 2016 two prototypes of a completely new model were made for the BC. These vehicles, known as Flirt G (original spelling: Flirt G ), are 3480 mm wide, wider than previous broad-gauge variants with 3200 mm, the first seven-part variant and reach a top speed of 200 km / h. The design of the front module has been revised.

On January 17, 2019, Stadler announced the order of 10 five-part Flirt. These will be based on the Flirt G with a wide car body, but are only designed for a top speed of 160 km / h. The installation of WiFi and cellular amplifiers, as well as vending machines are planned. Each 93 meter long unit will offer 16 first class seats and 244 second class seats (in 3 + 2 seating); Three toilets are planned, one of which is wheelchair accessible. Delivery is scheduled for 2020.

Variant overview

Following the example of the Swiss series designations, Stadler designates the different variants with an x ​​/ y, where x indicates the number of driven axles and y the total number of axles. As an articulated multiple unit, the FLIRT always has a bogie with two more axles than it consists of car units. A type 4/12 is a five-part model with four driven axles, a 3/8 is a three-part model with three driven axles.

The vehicles planned for the most recent orders (DB Regio, Nordbahn and Veolia) are referred to by Stadler as "Flirt 3". These differ from the original variant mainly in that the "Flirt 3" has a crash-optimized front designed in accordance with EN 15227. Since more components are to be used in other series from Stadler in the future, this is based more on the Stadler KISS and the "NSB-Flirt" than on the "Flirt France", the front of which is also crash-optimized. The drive module with the diesel engine, which is now offered in the diesel-electric and dual-power versions, sits on two Jakobs bogies.

The technical data of the individual series can differ from the technical information given here, depending on the vehicle equipment. The following information is based on the manufacturer's data sheets.

Vehicle data
two-part three-part four-part five-part six parts seven-part eight-part
designation 0426.1
Abellio: ET 22
ŁKA: 2140
Cantus: 427/827
Abellio: ET 23
eurobahn: ET 8.xx
BLB: ET 130 ff
HLB: 427
VIAS: 301 ff
Veolia: ET 351 ff

3 427

Abellio / VRR

Go ahead

SBB: RABe 521-524
SOB: RABe 526
TPF / TRN: RABe 527
MÁV: 5341
Cantus: 428/828
eurobahn: ET / EM 5.XX / 6.XX
VIAS: 401 ff
STA: ETR-155
JKOY : Sm5
KM : ER75
: EN75
ŽS: 413
DB: 1428/1828

SOB: Voralpen-Express (UAE)

DB: 429
eurobahn: ET / EM 7.xx / 9.xx
HLB: 429
Nordbahn: ET 5.01-07
Abellio: ET 25 22xx

eurobahn: ET 4.xx
Abellio: ET 25 23xx

Abellio / VRR

Veolia: ET 301 ff
SBB: RABe 524L
Nordbahn ET 6.01-08
NSB: Type 74
BC: Flirt G PKP IC : ED160

SOB: Voralpen-Express (UAE)

Construction year since 2006 from 2004 from 2004 from 2007 since 2008 2015-2016 since 2014
Wheel alignment Bo'2'2 '
ŁKA: Bo'2'Bo'
Bo'2'2'Bo '
HLB / VIAS / Veolia: Bo'2'2' (1A)
Bo'2'2'2'Bo ' Bo'2'2'2'2'Bo '
NSB: Bo'2'2' + Bo'2'2'Bo '
Bo'2'2'2'2'2'Bo ' Bo'2'2'2'Bo +
Bo'2'2'2'2 '+
SOB: Bo'2'2'2'Bo '+
Empty mass 76 t
ŁKA: 90 t
100 t 120 t
131 t
JKOY: 132 t
145 t (northern runway: 156 t) 170 t (north runway: 179 t) 270 t PKP: 257 t
length 42,066 mm
ŁKA: 45,700 mm
58,166 mm
58,600 mm (Flirt 3)
67,600 mm (Flirt 3XL)
74,266 mm
74 700 mm (Flirt 3)
JKOY: 75,200 mm
ŽS: 77,100 mm
90,378 mm
90 800 mm (Flirt 3)
106,200 mm (Flirt 3XL)
106,278 mm
106,900 mm (Flirt 3)
134,500 mm PKP: 152,900 mm (Flirt 3)
SOB: 150,200 mm (Flirt 3)
width 2880 mm
JKOY / NSB: 3200 mm
ŁKA / ŽS: 2820 mm

FLIRT3XL: 2882 mm

3480 mm 2820 mm
height 4185 mm
JKOY: 4400 mm
4600 mm 4120 mm
Floor height High floor: 1120 mm, low floor: see entry height 700/900/1240 mm 1180 mm
Entry height 580 mm or 780 mm
JKOY: 600 mm
600 mm 1180 mm

SOB: 780 mm

Number of seats circa 116 circa 181 circa 219 circa 274-300
DB 429/829: 274
circa 333 382 PKP: 354
SOB: 361
The number of seats can vary by ± 20 depending on the order
Top speed 140 km / h
ŁKA: 160 km / h
160 km / h 160 km / h
SNTF: 120 km / h
160 km / h
NSB: 200 km / h
160 km / h 200 km / h 160 km / h
Continuous power on the bike 1000 kW
ŁKA: 1400 kW
2000 kW
HLB / VIAS / Veolia: 1500 kW
2000 kW 2000 kW
NSB: 3000 kW
2000 kW 3000 kW 2000 kW
SOB: 4000 kW
Max. Power on the bike 1300 kW
ŁKA: 1800 kW
2600 kW
HLB / VIAS: 1950 kW

Abellio / VRR (Flirt3XL): 3000 kW

2600 kW 2600 kW
NSB: 4500 kW

Abellio / VRR (Flirt3XL): 3000 kW

2600 kW 3900 kW 3000 kW
SOB: 5200 kW
Starting acceleration 0.83 m / s²
ŁKA: 1.1 m / s²
1.19 m / s²
1.2 m / s²
HLB / VIAS: 1.01 m / s²
1.00 m / s²
1.2 m / s²
0.87 m / s² 0.80 m / s² 0.9 m / s² 0.6 m / s²

SOB: 1.1 m / s²


See also


  • "Flirt" for Stadtbahn Zug and S-Bahn Basel. In: Eisenbahn-Revue International . Issue 11/2002, ISSN  1421-2811 , pp. 506-509.
  • RABe 526 articulated multiple unit for Regionalverkehr Mittelland AG. In: Eisenbahn-Revue International. Issue 11/2003, ISSN  1421-2811 , pp. 498-503.
  • Sven Klein: The “nimble, light, innovative regional multiple unit” for SBB. In: Eisenbahn-Revue International. Issue 1/2005, ISSN  1421-2811 , pp. 18-26.
  • Michael Wiegleb, Kuno Schmid, Edgar Keller, Peter Daehler: Stadtler's multi-system multiple unit Flirt for TILO . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International . No. 10 , 2006, ISSN  1421-2811 , pp. 490-497 .
  • Karsten Wagner & Alois Starlinger Flirt 3 . Presentation by Stadler Rail AG, Graz Rail Vehicle Conference 2014 (PDF, 36 pages).

Web links

Commons : Stadler Flirt  - Collection of images

Individual evidence

  1. Thomas Griesser Kym: Stadler in numbers: From an SME to a global corporation with 8,000 employees. In: St. Galler Tagblatt (online) of December 7, 2018.
  2. a b Stadler Rail (2012): Data sheet of the Flirt 3 for the DB Regio AG Rhineland-Palatinate ( Memento from March 4, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 961 KiB).
  4. Stadler products: FLIRT 160
  5. Karsten Wagner & Alois Starlinger: Flirt 3 . Presentation by Stadler Rail AG, Graz Rail Vehicle Conference 2014 (PDF, 36 pages).
  6. Katrin Goullon: On the track of success - The third generation of flirtation. In: Railway technical review . 1 + 2/2015, pp. 46–52.
  7. a b Two-part flirt for Poland . In: Swiss Railway Review . No. 2 , 2013, p. 85 .
  8. S tart in the new training year in rail vehicle manufacturer Stadler Pankow. ( Memento of September 5, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) September 5, 2015; Stadler Pankow GmbH
  9. ^ A b Daniel Fankhauser, Urs Wieser: Be 4/8 Star low-floor articulated multiple units for Aare - Seeland mobil AG. In: Swiss Railway Review . No. 3/2010, pp. 147-153.
  10. ^ Matthias Rellstab: 14 trains for the BDWM. In: Swiss Railway Review . No. 8-9 / 2007, p. 370.
  11. ^ Walter von Andrian: Diamond presented for BDWM Transport AG. In: Swiss Railway Review . No. 2/2010, pp. 94-95.
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  13. Greetings from the new RhB generation of multiple units in Romansh. On: , December 19, 2008.
  14. Daniel Ritler, Jürg Schoening, Günter Terragnolo, Niclas Wiesent: "Allegra" - the new Zweistromtriebzug for the Rhaetian Railway. In: Swiss Railway Review. No. 6/2010, pp. 283-289.
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  17. From 2022, battery-powered electric trains will be rolling through the country. In: . October 14, 2019, accessed October 14, 2019 .
  18. Message Flirt also approved for double traction in Germany. In: Eisenbahn-Revue International. Issue 2/2006, ISSN  1421-2811 , p. 84.
  19. Online turntable: DB Flirts has now been redrawn
  20. Eurailpress: Angel Trains: 18 Flirt for Keolis
  21. Eurailpress: The 500th flirt for VIAS
  22. Award of the transport contract for the Main-Lahn-Sieg Railway to HLB  ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) RMV press release from June 25, 2008.@1@ 2Template: Dead Link /
  23. Stadler Rail reference list for Flirt trains ( memento from March 6, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 66 KiB, as of October 2, 2008)
  24. Stadler Rail: Information page on BLB FLIRT railcars ( Memento from March 8, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
  25. eisenbahn-magazin 4/2013, p. 16.
  26. ^ Railway Gazette, March 8, 2011: Flirts ordered for E-Netz Rosenheim
  27. EBA: Free travel for the "flirt". (No longer available online.) EBA, December 13, 2013, archived from the original on December 13, 2013 ; Retrieved December 13, 2013 (press release).
  28. Alpha Trains has bought 35 multiple units from Veolia Verkehr (Transdev Group) in a sale and lease back transaction. Alpha Trains, August 1, 2014, accessed March 10, 2015 (press release).
  29. Delivery order - 345872-2011 - TED Tenders Electronic Daily
  30. DB Regio NRW invests 215 million euros in new vehicles after winning tenders on
  31. DB Regio class 1428 finally in use as planned . In: railway magazine . No. 4 , 2015, ISSN  0342-1902 , p. 18 .
  32. Nordbahn runs routes between Hamburg, Itzehoe and Wrist  ( page no longer available , search in web archives )@1@ 2Template: Toter Link /
  33. Nordbahn takes over local traffic between Hamburg, Wrist and Itzehoe. Local traffic HAMBURG, April 10, 2012, accessed on March 2, 2017 (still with the old number of vehicles).
  34. FLIRT electric low-floor multiple unit for Alpha Trains ( Memento from May 1, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 608 KiB)
  35. ^ Railway Gazette International, February 8, 2013: Stadler trains ordered for WestfalenBahn services
  36. Press release Stadler: There will be FLIRTING in Holland too! ( Memento from July 16, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
  37. Datasheet electric low-floor multiple unit FLIRT for the Zweckverband Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Ruhr / Abellio Rail NRW GmbH ( Memento from March 4, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 2.1 MiB)
  38. VRR: Stadler Pankow wins suburban train tender. March 17, 2016, accessed March 19, 2016 .
  39. Stadler Pankow receives order for 45 FLIRT3 multiple units from Go Ahead Germany, press release. Stadler Rail Group, May 11, 2016, accessed May 11, 2016 .
  40. Stadler Flirt . In: Eisenbahn Magazin . No. 2 , 2019, ISSN  0342-1902 .
  41. Germany-Frankfurt am Main: Railway and tram locomotives and rolling stock and associated parts. In: July 14, 2020, accessed July 15, 2020 .
  42. J. Öttl, Ssykor: project description. (PDF) Award unit: Equipping the electric multiple units of the state of Baden-Württemberg (Flirt and Talent series) with ETCS and ATO GoA 2. DB Regio, July 9, 2020, pp. 3, 6, 7 , accessed on July 15, 2020 ( File 20FEF46639 project description ETCS ATO SFBW.pdf in ZIP archive).
  43. First Flirt 3 finished . In: railway magazine . No. 6 , 2017, ISSN  0342-1902 , p. 32 .
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  45. Franz Laczó: Flirt on the plain. In: Schweizer Eisenbahn-Revue 2/2006, Minirex, Lucerne, pp. 74–75.
  46. SBB order another Flirt. In: Swiss Railway Review. No. 11/2007, Minirex AG, Lucerne 2007, ISSN  1022-7113 , p. 518.
  47. "'Flirt' will flirt in French in future" by Martin Brodbeck in the Basler Zeitung on November 6, 2008.
  48. ^ Victor Weber: SBB: Flirting fiasco with the French. (No longer available online.) SonntagsZeitung , Switzerland, December 13, 2009, archived from the original on December 17, 2009 ; Retrieved November 21, 2013 .
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  50. Martin Gut: News in brief . In: Railway amateur . No. 10 . SVEA, 2017, ISSN  0013-2764 , p. 454 .
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  54. ^ Stephan Frei, Christian Ammann: News in brief . In: Railway amateur . No. 3 . SVEA, 2020, ISSN  0013-2764 , p. 110 .
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  57. SBB Mouette., accessed on May 30, 2020 .
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  61. ^ Walter von Andrian: throw away or revise . In: Swiss Railway Review . No. 7 , 2020, p. 333 .
  62. Stadler builds new trains for the Voralpen -Express. (PDF) Stadler Rail Group, June 27, 2016, accessed on May 7, 2017 .
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