Taras Shevchenko Hryhorowytsch ( Ukrainian Тарас Григорович Шевченко , scientific. Transliteration Taras Shevchenko Hryhorovyč ; born February 25 . Jul / 9. March 1814 greg. In Moryntsi , Kiev Governorate , Russian Empire ; † February 26 jul. / 10. March 1861 greg . in Saint Petersburg ) was a painter and the most important Ukrainian poet .
The literary work of the Ukrainian national poet laid the foundation for the creation of modern Ukrainian literature, and his poetry greatly contributed to the development of the modern Ukrainian language and the awakening of Ukrainian national consciousness .
Childhood and youth
Shevchenko was in the village Moryntsi in Ujesd Zvenyhorodka of the government of Kiev, today Cherkasy Oblast , Ukraine , was born the third of six children of serfs Hryhorij Iwanowytsch Shevchenko (1781-1825) and Kateryna Shevchenko Jakymiwna Boyko (1783–1823) born. He had an older sister, Kateryna (1804-1848), and an older brother Mykyta (1811-1870), as well as two younger sisters and a younger brother. His family moved with him when he was about two years old to his father's birthplace in the nearby village of Kyrylivka ( Кирилівка ), today's Shevchenko , where he spent the next 12 years of his childhood.
Since his family was literate, Taras was able to introduce them to religion , culture and literature from an early age . His grandfather Ivan Shevchenko, who witnessed the Hajdamak movement, exercised a significant influence on Taras. On the one hand he worked as a shepherd boy, but on the other hand he was able to attend school and at the age of 13 read works by Hryhorij Skoworoda and Ivan Kotljarewskyj , the founders of Ukrainian literature and philosophy . A talent for drawing and painting was discovered early on.
In 1823 Tara's mother died and his father married a second time. At the age of eleven, Shevchenko became an orphan and at the age of 14, after his previous landlord Wassili Engelhardt had died in 1828 and the village of Kyryliwka and its residents had become the property of his son Pawel Engelhardt , he became the new master's valet. During his breaks he painted the lithographs in Engelhardt's house, which was indignant and the young Taras was flogged. However, Engelhardt finally attracted the prospect of owning a serf artist and from then on he began to promote Shevchenko. As a result, Shevchenko accompanied his landlord on many trips. From autumn 1829 he was with him in Vilnius, Lithuania, and studied painting with Jan Rustem . After the Lithuanian Governor General Alexander Rimsky-Korsakov was forced to resign in Vilnius due to the November uprising in Poland , Engelhardt traveled to Saint Petersburg as his adjutant , accompanied by Shevchenko .
First Saint Petersburg period
Arrived in St. Petersburg in March 1831, Engelhardt allowed him to do an apprenticeship with the Petersburg painter Vasily Grigorjewitsch Schirjajew ( Василий Григорьевич Ширяев ). Although he was officially still a serf, his teaching allowed him some personal freedom. During his apprenticeship he learned Russian, Polish and French, attended the local theaters as well as anatomical and physical lectures and was interested in art history and St. Petersburg architecture. In the summer garden of Saint Petersburg, where he sketched the statues in his spare time, he met his compatriot Ivan Soshenko in 1835 or 1836 , who taught him some basics of painting and introduced him to the artistic society of Saint Petersburg. Soshenko introduced him to Jewhen Hrebinka , Vasily Schukowski , Karl Brjullow and Alexei Wenezianow , among others .
By living in Petersburg, the center of Russian intellectual life, and through acquaintance with Soshenko, Shevchenko received a comprehensive education within a few years. He made his first attempts as a poet and found friends and recognition in literary circles. The mental conflict of still being a serf and the longing for freedom and self-determination burdened him; the latter would be found throughout his life like a red thread in his works.
After his new-found friends noticed how Shevchenko was suffering from his bondage, they decided to buy him out of serfdom. At first, Karl Brjullow spoke in vain to Pavel Engelhardt about Shevchenko's ransom, but the next day Alexei Venetianov was more successful, and Engelhardt named the price for Shevchenko: 2500 rubles. That was an outrageously high price, since a well-trained serf craftsman only paid 500 to 1000 rubles for his freedom. This sum was too high even for Shevchenko's patrons and so the idea arose of holding a lottery for this amount with a painting by Karl Brjullow. A year later the portrait, a portrait of Vasily Zhukovsky, which is now in the Tretyakov Gallery , was finished and the lottery took place on April 14, 1838 in the palace of Tsarskoye Selo . Shevchenko was able to buy himself out of his bondage on April 22, 1838, with financial support from the tsarist family, who contributed 1,000 rubles and influential friends, including the painter Apollon Mokrizki , the poet Vasily Zhukovsky and the art historian Vasily Grigorovich .
The next day he became a student at the Academy of Arts and financed his life in Petersburg through his work as a painter. Since 1838 Shevchenko concentrated more on his literary work. His first publications from 1840 onwards showed the peculiarity of his role as a poet : on the one hand a peasant voice born out of bondage and lack of freedom, on the other hand cultivated and highly educated, he processed these elements of his personality in a completely new way in his poetry. His first volume of poetry, Kobsar , was only published heavily censored, but it received a profound response from the Russian intelligentsia . He was credited with talent, but sharply criticized the fact that he had chosen the “peasant” Ukrainian language , supposedly a primitive dialect of Russian , for his poetry. The use of the Russian language in Ukraine was propagated by the state and Shevchenko was also influenced by it. Throughout his life he wrote his personal diary exclusively in Russian.
Travel to Ukraine
In the following years, influenced by numerous trips through his homeland, where Shevchenko encountered lack of freedom and poverty, but also the old evidence of Ukrainian culture, more and more works with undisguised rebellious undertones were created, which aroused stormy admiration for him from all walks of life. Shevchenko's style became the prototype of the Ukrainian romantic .
May 13th jul. / May 25, 1843 greg. Shevchenko left Saint Petersburg for the Ukraine and first made a stop at the estate of Hryhorij Tarnowskyj ( Григорій Степанович Тарновський ; 1788-1853) in Kachanivka in the governorate , from where he also made a detour to Baturyn , among others to Baturyn made. In June 1843 he stayed in Kiev , where he met the poets Mychajlo Maxymowytsch , Pantelejmon Kulisch and Jewhen Hrebinka. He and Hrebinka attended a splendid ball held twice a year in Mojssivka on June 29, 1843 , and there he met Jakow de Balmen and his admirer Varwara Repnina-Volkonskaya .
In July 1843 he paid in Kowaliwka the marshal of the province Poltava and son of Vasily Kapnist , Alexei Kapnist ( Алексей Васильевич Капнист ; 1796-1867) a visit. Together with Alexei Kapnist he drove to Jahotyn , where he, on behalf of Hryhorij Tarnowskyj, was to make a copy of a picture from the gallery of Nikolai Grigoryevich Repnin-Volkonsky , the father of Varvara Repnina-Volkonskaya. On September 20, Jul. / October 2, 1843 greg. Shevchenko visited his siblings in his home village Kyrylivka and then stayed again in Jahotyn from October to December 1843 to complete the commissioned paintings. On January 12, 1844, he attended the festival in Moysivka a second time. He stayed in Ukraine until February 1844 and then returned to Saint Petersburg for a year, where he published the first volume of Picturesque Ukraine , a planned series of books, at the end of 1844 , and the Academy of Arts with two silver medals on March 22, 1845 graduated, whereupon he was awarded the title of "free artist".
On March 31, Jul. / April 12, 1845 greg. He went from Petersburg first to Moscow , where he met with Mikhail Shchepkin and Ossip Bodjanski met before he Podolsk , Tula , Orel and Esman to Viktor Sabilas estate Kukurikowschtschina at Borzna traveled and arrived on April 22 in Kiev. There he became a member of the “Kiev Archaeological Commission” for the study of ancient documents at the University of Kiev and traveled to Ukraine to outline historical, architectural and folkloric traditions. So in the spring and autumn of 1845 in Marjanske near Myrhorod he was a guest of Oleksandr Lukjanowitsch ( Олександр Андрійович Лук'янович ; 1803–1879) and painted landscapes and portraits there. In July 1845 he paid a visit to the Trinity Monastery in Hustynja and in September of the same year he again visited his siblings in Kyrylivka and in neighboring Selena Dibrowa . He also met in the village of Potoky ( Потоки ) that year with Wassyl Tarnowskyj senior , whom he often visited the following year in his Kiev apartment on Saturday literary evenings with Nikolai Kostomarow , Wassyl Biloserskyj and Hryhorij Galagan . In January 1846 he last attended the aforementioned semi-annual ball in Mojssivka. From 1846 on, Shevchenko taught painting at the Art School of Kiev University and, together with the painter Mikhail Sashin , lived in a house near the Majdan in the center of Kiev, which is now the literary memorial house / museum of Taras Shevchenko. In October and November 1846 he was on behalf of the Kiev Governor General Dmitri G. Bibikow ( Дмитрий Гаврилович Бибиков ; 1792-1870) in the west of Ukraine and visited, among others, the cities of Zhytomyr and Kamyanets-Podilskyj . On January 22, 1847, he was the best man at the wedding of Pantelejmon Kulisch and Hanna Barwinok , the sister of Wassyl Biloserskyj. Both men were members of the idealistic-revolutionary " Kyrill-und-Method-Fraternity ", which Shevchenko had also joined a year earlier.
Arrest and exile
After the Brotherhood was betrayed by a student, he was arrested on April 5, 1847, immediately after returning from a trip to Kiev, and imprisoned for one night in a Kiev prison.
The following day, the members of the organization were taken prisoner to the Peter and Paul Fortress in Saint Petersburg , and the third department of the court chancellery ( Третье отделение ) took over the investigation. Shevchenko was particularly heavily incriminated, as one found poems that were classified as revolutionary and treated the Russian emperor and his wife in a satirical manner. The head of the secret police, Count Alexei Orlov, wrote, after reviewing Shevchenko's unprinted works, to Emperor Nicholas I:
"With the dissemination of his poems in Ukraine, ideas about the possibility of Ukraine as an independent state could take root."
Since his membership in the Brotherhood could not be proven, he was sentenced to life as a simple soldier on May 30, 1847 for writing the poems The Dream , The Caucasus and The Letter , which deplored the oppression of the Ukraine. He was banished and banned from returning to Ukraine for life. In addition, Emperor Nikolaus I personally added to the judgment that he should be placed under strict supervision and that he was prohibited from writing and painting.
Two days after the conviction, he was transferred to Orenburg , accompanied by a police officer , where he arrived on June 1, 1847 and was immediately transferred to the Orsk fortress . Arrived there on June 8, 1847, he spent the first time of his exile as a soldier. After a while, with the help of officers from his military unit, he was allowed to live in Orenburg and to wear civilian clothes. From October 1848 to May 1849, under the direction of Alexei Butakow , he took part in an expedition to explore the Aral Sea , during which he was given the task of sketching the explored landscapes for scientific purposes. By circumventing the painting ban, Shevchenko was able to produce 200 paintings and sketches. During the expedition, Alexei Butakov first described a bay in the Northern Aral Sea , which he called Paskevich Bay and which was renamed in 1961 . In Orenburg he met Edward Żeligowski and Bronisław Zaleski , who were also banished there, and with whom he remained on friendly terms for years. After being able to live in relative freedom for a few months, a lieutenant denounced him to wear civilian clothes and to write poetry and paint in secret, arrested again on April 27, 1850 and, after a one-week trial, to an even more remote outpost, the fortress Novopetrovsk, today's Fort Shevchenko on the Caspian Sea , banished. From there he took part as an artist in the Karatau expedition between May 28, 1851 and September 7, 1851 , where he again had the opportunity to draw. Despite the writing and painting ban, he created poems during this time that were published by friends under pseudonyms , as well as paintings that he was even able to sell.
Last years of life
After the death of Emperor Nicholas I in 1857, influential friends, including the Vice President of the Art Academy Fyodor Tolstoy , Shevchenko's pardon and the reassignment of the title of artist. On May 2, 1857, he was released from his exile in Novopetrovsk, but was initially not allowed to return to Saint Petersburg, but was ordered to settle in Nizhny Novgorod . So he traveled over the Caspian Sea to Astrakhan and on over the Volga to Nizhny Novgorod, where he arrived on September 20, 1857, devoted himself to painting and poetry, and met the writer Pavel Melnikov . After he received permission to move to Petersburg on March 1, 1858, he left Nizhny Novgorod on March 7, initially for Moscow , which he reached on March 10, 1858. He spent a few days there and met Sergei Aksakov on March 22 , before continuing to Petersburg, where he arrived on March 27. At first he lived with Oleksandr Lasarewskyj and then moved into his own workshop in the art academy. There he lived and worked under the secret supervision of the police and the strictest censorship , supported by wealthy friends and celebrated, but also feared by Russian society. On May 3, 1858, he met the engraver Fyodor Iordan , who advised him from that point on in creating his engravings. He also became friends with Pawel Jakuschkin and made himself acquainted with the writer Nikolai Tschernyshevsky , both of whom moved in Russian revolutionary circles , and also maintained close contact with Polish revolutionary democrats such as Zygmunt Sierakowski .
In May 1859, after long efforts, he received permission to travel to Ukraine. After arriving in Ukraine, he visited relatives in his home village and friends living in Ukraine. He was once again a guest at the estate in Kachanivka in the Chernigov governorate, where he visited Wassyl Tarnowskyj senior , whose son Wassyl Tarnowskyj junior later created one of the most extensive and important memorial collections on Shevchenko and took care of the preservation and expansion of his grave site. Shevchenko wanted to buy a piece of land and a house and settle near Kaniw , but he was denounced again, on July 15 near the village of Prokhorivka , where he visited his friend Mychajlo Maxymowytsch, arrested in Cherkassy and imprisoned on July 24, 1859 by steamship transported to Kiev. It was only through the personal benevolence of the Kiev Governor General Prince Illarion I. Vasilchikov that he was released in mid-August 1859 and sent back to Saint Petersburg, where he arrived on September 7, 1859. There he maintained contact with members of the opposition such as Andrei Krassowski and became briefly engaged on July 28, 1860 to the nineteen-year-old Lukerija Polusmak ( Лукерія Полусмак ; 1840-1917), a Ukrainian maid of Hanna Barwinok's sister, and became an academic on September 2, 1860 of the Russian Academy of Fine Arts.
Death and reburial
In 1861 he suffered from angina pectoris and died on March 10 at 5:30 a.m., the day after his 47th birthday and a week after the abolition of serfdom in Russia , surrounded by his friends in Saint Petersburg.
At his funeral in the Smolensk Cemetery in Petersburg on March 1st jul. / March 13, 1861 greg. Numerous people took part, including the Russian poets Fyodor Dostoyevsky , Nikolai Nekrasov , Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin , Nikolai Leskov and the literary historian Alexander Pypin . The funerary speeches were given by Pantelejmon Kulisch, Nikolai Kostomarow and Wassyl Biloserskyj.
Just 58 days after the burial, the coffin with the remains of Shevchenko was opened on April 26th . / May 8, 1861 greg. by train to Moscow's Nikolaibahnhof and then by horse and cart via Serpukhov , Tula , Oryol , Sevsk , Hluchiw , Krolewez , Baturyn , Nizhyn , Nossivka , Bobrovytsia and Brovary to the Ukraine. He crossed the Kiev Chain Bridge over the Dnepr and was first laid out in the Church of the Nativity of Christ in Kiev-Podil . Here the people of Kiev said goodbye to him and the idea, supported by the relatives of the poet, came up to bury Shevchenko in Kiev. However , as one of the initiators and organizers of Shevchenko's reburial , Hryhoriy Chestakhivskyi defended the plan for the burial in Kaniv. So the remains were turned up on May 8th . / May 20, 1861 greg. traveled with the steamship Kremenchuk on the Dnepr from Kiev to Kaniw and laid out there for a funeral service in the Assumption Cathedral. The entire overpass became a demonstration of the Ukrainian will to assert itself, as the Russian Empire had never seen before: tens of thousands of people lined the road to Kaniw.
On May 10th, Jul. / May 22, 1861 greg. He was buried on the banks of the Dnieper in the presence of Mykola Lyssenko , Viktor Sabila and Shevchenko's friend from early Petersburg days Ivan Soshenko , as Shevchenko had wished for in his poem Sapowit ( German legacy ). In his honor, a memorial has been erected there on the slope of the Taras mountain (named after him) .
Taras Shevchenko is revered in Ukraine as the most important historical and literary figure. Poems like Sapowit (“Legacy”) from his collection of poems Kobsar are deeply anchored in the consciousness of all generations and social classes. At the rallies of the Orange Revolution 2004 on the Majdan in Kiev and the Euromaidan 2013/2014 poems by Taras Shevchenko were recited again and again. Ukraine historian Andreas Kappeler pointed out in this context that the Russian poet Pushkin is known in the West , but hardly anyone knows Shevchenko as a Ukrainian national poet. According to the Ukrainian historian and philosopher Andrij Portnow , Taras Shevchenko's oeuvre is instrumentalized by various social groups today.
His portrait adorns the Ukrainian 100 hryvnia note and the Transnistrian 50 ruble note . In the Ukraine, 835 streets and squares and 352 places are named in his honor (see also Rajon Shevchenko , Shevchenkoe and Korsun-Shevchenkivskyi ).
Worldwide there are 1384 monuments and memorials in 35 countries, including 1256 in Ukraine, which are dedicated to Taras Shevchenko. His monuments can also be found in western capitals: a Taras Shevchenko monument has been in the American capital Washington, DC since 1964 , a monument in Argentina's capital Buenos Aires since 1971, and one in Italy's capital Rome since 1973 . The cruise ship Taras Shevchenko was also named after the Scientific Society Shevchenko , the high Shevchenko Peak in the Caucasus since 1939 and the Shevchenko Bay ( Kazakh Шевченко шығанағы ) of the Northern Aral Sea since 1961.
In Kiev there is, in addition to a Taras Shevchenko Boulevard and a Taras Shevchenko monument in Shevchenko Park, a Taras Shevchenko Opera House , the National Shevchenko Museum and the most famous Kiev University , which is named after him.
The Taras Shevchenko Prize , which is the Ukraine's highest award in culture and art , was named after him and is awarded annually to deserving artists. The mineral tarasovite, discovered by Yevhen Lasarenko in the Donets Basin in the 1960s, also bears his name . Ukrainian emigrants in Canada visit a Taras Shevchenko Museum in Toronto.
His life was the subject of many films, such as the Soviet film Taras Shevchenko (German title: Aufengte Fesseln ) from 1951 in which Sergei Bondarchuk played Shevchenko .
Shevchenko's themes were largely based on Ukrainian history, serfdom, and the fate of the common people. He wrote most of his work in the Ukrainian language, some poems, his drama "Nasar Stodolja" ( Назар Стодоля , 1843) and his prose he wrote in Russian. Shevchenko's lyric poetry, which is characterized by longing, is based on the varied melodies and moods of Ukrainian folk songs, which explains the musicality of his work. This explains why over 120 composers, including Peter Tchaikovsky , Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov and Sergei Rachmaninov , interpreted almost 1500 of his works musically. Mykola Lyssenko alone set 90 of his works to music.
It is believed that the poetry of Mykola Markewytsch , whom Shevchenko knew personally from Saint Petersburg, had a significant influence on his, especially on his early works such as "Perebendja" ( Перебендя ) and "Do Osnovyanenka" ( До Основ'яненка ) .
- Kateryna, 1838
- Kobsar (collection of poems) , 1840
- The Hajdamaks , 1841 (the poem was translated into Russian by Lev Alexandrowitsch Mei ; Modest Mussorgsky's composition Hopak is based on this translation .)
- Tschyhyryn, 1844
- Kawkas ("Caucasus"), 1845
- Cholodnyj Yar ("The Cold Gorge"), 1845
- Sapowit ("Legacy"), 1845
- Taras Shevchenko . Selected poems (1939)
- Taras Shevchenko . The artist (1939)
- Taras Shevchenko . The Haidamaken and Other Seals (1951)
- Taras Shevchenko . The kobzar . Moscow: Foreign Language Publishing House (1962)
- Taras Shevchenko . My songs, my dreams. Poems and Drawings (1987)
- Taras Shevchenko . Selected poems (1994)
- Taras Shevchenko . Katerina and selected poems (2009)
Most of Shevchenko's manuscripts, based on the collection of Vasyl Tarnowskyj junior , are in the Literature Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine . The Vernadskyi National Library of Ukraine houses a unique collection of over 15,000 articles, compiled by Yuri Meschenko . The National Taras Shevchenko Museum houses the largest collection of published editions of Shevchenko's works, as well as documents related to his life and work. In addition to the aforementioned institutions in Kiev, museums, archives and libraries in Saint Petersburg, Moscow, Krakow and Geneva as well as in the Ukraine have other manuscripts from him.
Shevchenko's more artificial estate is extremely extensive: about 850 of his works have been preserved, another 250 or so are missing and another 250 paintings and drawings were awarded to him by connoisseurs or from tradition. A large number of his pictures are in the National Museum Taras Shevchenko and in the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine in Kiev.
Alexander Church in Kiev; 1850s
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- The encyclopedia can be used online like many scientific papers published by the Ukrainian institutes; the volumes can be found on the website of the Institute for Literary Studies of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences .
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Shevchenko, Taras Hryhorowytsch (full name); Шевченко, Тарас Григорович (Ukrainian); Ševčenko, Taras Hryhorovyč (scientific transliteration)|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Ukrainian poet and painter|
|DATE OF BIRTH||March 9, 1814|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Morynzi , Kiev Governorate , Russian Empire|
|DATE OF DEATH||March 10, 1861|
|Place of death||Saint Petersburg , Russian Empire|