The Kiev Governorate ( Russian Киевская губерния / Kiewskaja gubernija ) was an administrative unit in the Russian Empire , on the territory of today's Ukraine . It belonged to the General Government of Kiev and bordered the following governorates (clockwise from the north): Minsk , Chernigov , Poltava , Cherson , Podolia , Volhynia .
It covered 50,999.5 km², the capital was Kiev .
The governorate is one of the eight original governorates founded by Peter the Great . In the first phase it reached far into eastern Ukraine and southern Russia, while the western areas still belonged to Poland-Lithuania at that time . Reduced in 1781 and converted into a governorship , it got its later form after the Third Partition of Poland in 1796 when it was divided into areas and restricted to the west bank of the Dnieper . It was dissolved in 1925 as part of the territorial reforms following the establishment of the Ukrainian Soviet Republic .
Around 1900 the governorate was divided into twelve Ujesdy (districts):
- Berdychev (Ukrainian Berdychiv )
- Kanew (Ukrainian Kaniw )
- Lipowez (Ukrainian Lypowets )
- Skwira ( Ukrainian Skwyra )
- Zvenigorodka (Ukrainian Zvenyhorodka )
- Tschigirin (Ukrainian Tschyhyryn )
- Wassilkow (Ukrainian Wassylkiw )
At the 1897 census, the governorate had 3,559,229 inhabitants. Of these, 2,819,145 were Minor Russians (Ukrainians), 430,489 Jews, 209,427 Russians, 68,791 Poles and 14,707 Germans. There were also smaller groups of Belarusians, Tatars and Czechs .
The 1902 harvest yielded 759,000 tons of wheat, 747,000 tons of rye, 403,000 tons of oats, 185,000 tons of millet, 148,000 tons of barley and 82,000 tons of buckwheat. However, hemp and flax , vegetables, fruit, tobacco and especially sugar beet were also grown. In this agriculture , the Kiev Governorate was the leader in all of Russia. In 1902, 2,270 million kg of beets were harvested. The livestock was considerable; In 1902 there were 612,160 head of cattle, 911,000 coarse wool and 6000 fine wool sheep, 425,400 pigs and 21,700 goats. In 1901, horse breeding was carried out in 88 stud farms, which mainly produced good riding horses. There were 420,600 horses in the entire governorate. The industry was well developed. In 1895 there were 654 industrial establishments with over 40,000 workers and a production value of 80 million rubles. The sugar industry, by far the most important branch of industry, accounted for over half of this. There were also numerous mills, distilleries and tobacco factories, and machine factories in the city of Kiev. The main export items of the governorate were grain and sugar.