|List of cities in Russia|
Oryol ( Russian Орёл [ ʌrʲoɫ ], literally "Eagle"; dt sometimes. Orel ) is a Russian town in Oryol Oblast in Central Russia . Oryol is located on the Oka , around 350 km southwest of Moscow . Today Orjol is the administrative center of the oblast of the same name and has 317,747 inhabitants (as of October 14, 2010).
The city was founded in 1566 as a fortress on what was then the southern border of the Moscow Empire . In 1611 it was devastated and rebuilt by the Poles during the Polish-Russian War . With the growth of the Russian Empire, the fortress lost its importance.
The city of Oryol, which lies in the middle of the fertile black earth region, changed with the loss of importance as a fortress to a center of grain cultivation . Railways and roads were built in the 19th century, and Oryol supplied Moscow with wheat and flour. The industrialization began only in the Soviet era one.
The Oryol Prison was built in the 1840th
During World War II , Orjol was occupied by the Germans from 1941 to 1943; see also: Citadel Company . In the city there were two POW camps 263 and 406 , Orel , for German POWs of the Second World War. On August 5, 1943, the city was retaken by the Red Army in the Oryol Operation . The city was completely destroyed when the German troops withdrew as part of the scorched earth tactic . A British reporter reported:
"The province of Oryol is just a smoking and exploding heap of rubble [...] Oryol [is] simply no longer there after the withdrawal."
In the years after 1945, other industrial companies such as a steel mill and precision engineering industries were founded.
Note: census data
In the 2012 presidential election in Russia , the Oryolians voted as follows:
|candidate||Zheleznodorozhny Rajon||Zavodskoi Raion||Sovetsky Raion|
The city is a location of the metal industry and mechanical engineering as well as the food industry. The region is characterized by cattle breeding and dairy farming. Agriculture is also important, as Oryol is located in the fertile black earth region.
Oryol is connected to the Russian capital Moscow via the M2 Krym highway . At the same time, the city is the starting point of junction R120 , which leads in a north-westerly direction via Brjansk and Smolensk to the Belarusian border . The R92 , which connects the city with Kaluga , and the R119 , which runs in central Russia via Lipetsk to Tambov , also begin here .
Further educational institutions
- State universities
- Oryol State University (Orlow Turgenev State University since 2014)
- Oryol State Technical University (merged with Orlov Turgenev State University in 2016)
- Oryol State Agricultural Academy
- Oryol State University of Economics and Commerce
- Other universities and institutes
- Faculty of the All-Russian Distance Institute of Finance and Economics
- Oryol Trade Institute
- Oryol Legal Institute of the Ministry of Interior of Russia
- Military Institute for Government Telecommunications
- Oryol Regional Academy of Civil Service
- State Institute of Art and Culture Oryol
- Nikolai Leskov (1831–1895), writer
sons and daughters of the town
- Sergei Alexejew (1924–2013), lawyer, constitutional lawyer and university professor
- Leonid Andrejew (1871-1919), writer
- Michail Bachtin (1895–1975), philosopher, literary scholar and art theorist
- Denis Boizow (* 1986), boxer
- Michail Bontsch-Brujewitsch (1888–1940), radio technician
- Nikolai Bordjuscha (* 1949), politician and diplomat
- Sacha Bourdo (* 1962), French actor
- Adolf Eichler (1869–1911), architect
- Iwan Fomin (1872–1936), architect
- Timofei Granowski (1813–1855), historian
- Sergei Kirjakow (* 1970), football player
- Tatjana Lewina (* 1977), sprinter
- Josef Lhévinne (1874–1944), Russian-American pianist
- Artur Loleit (1868–1933), civil engineer, architect and university lecturer
- Denis Menschow (* 1978), racing cyclist
- Alexander Mironow (* 1984), racing cyclist
- Alexei Nowikow (* 1931), non-conformist painter and sculptor
- Antoine Pevsner (1884–1962), painter and sculptor
- Olga Pilipenko (* 1966), mechanical engineer, university lecturer and politician
- Vladimir Russanow (1875–1913), polar explorer and geologist
- Andrei Sajontschkowski (1862–1926), military writer and infantry general in the First World War
- Pawel Sternberg (1865–1920), astronomer and communist revolutionary
- Boris Tschirikow (1928–2008), physicist
- Ivan Turgenew (1818–1883), writer and chess player
- Nadeschda Udalzowa (1886–1961), painter
Oryol lists the following twin cities :
- Nokia in Finland (since 1967)
- Rasgrad in Bulgaria (since 1968)
- Offenbach am Main in Germany (since 1988)
- Brest in Belarus (since 1997)
- Budweis in the Czech Republic (since 2012)
- Mary in Turkmenistan (since 2017)
- Itogi Vserossijskoj perepisi naselenija 2010 goda. Tom 1. Čislennostʹ i razmeščenie naselenija (Results of the All-Russian Census 2010. Volume 1. Number and distribution of the population). Tables 5 , pp. 12-209; 11 , pp. 312–979 (download from the website of the Federal Service for State Statistics of the Russian Federation)
- Maschke, Erich (ed.): On the history of the German prisoners of war of the Second World War. Verlag Ernst and Werner Gieseking, Bielefeld 1962–1977.
- MGFA (ed.): The German Reich and the Second World War . Stuttgart 1990, Volume 8, p. 258.
- The German Reich and the Second World War , Volume 8, p. 258.
- State Statistics Office of the Russian Federation , on www.gks.ru, accessed on October 8, 2018
- Central Electoral Commission of the Russian Federation , on www.cikrf.ru, accessed on October 8, 2018
- State University of Economics and Commerce. Retrieved April 10, 2018 (Russian).
- town twinning. From: offenbach.de, accessed on March 25, 2018.
- Пятым зарубежным побратимом Орла стал чешский город Ческе-Будеевице - Павел Арсеньев - Росасийаская Рос