|State :||Sri Lanka|
|Province :||Eastern Province|
Trincomalee ( Tamil : திருகோணமலை Tirukōṇamalai [ t̪iɾɯˌkoːɳəmalɛi̯ ] Sinhala : ත්රිකුණාමලය Trikuṇāmalaya, often short Trinco ) is a city in Sri Lanka . It is the capital of the Eastern Province and is located on the east coast of the island. It has one of the largest natural deep water harbors in the world.
Trincomalee has a very eventful history. The legendary Temple of a Thousand Columns is said to have stood on the site of today's temple . In 1622 it was destroyed by the Portuguese. They dumped him over a cliff into the sea.
In 1617 the Danes tried unsuccessfully to conquer Trincomalee on behalf of the Dutch. At the time, Portugal was a colonial power in Trincomalee and maintained a fort . In the course of the 17th century several changes of power between the Dutch, French, Portuguese and British followed, until Trincomalee finally fell into the hands of the British in 1782 until Sri Lanka's independence. From August 25th – 3rd September 1782 the Battle of Trincomalee took place. This is a naval battle between the British and the French as part of the American War of Independence , which the French won. In the Second World War , Trincomalee gained great military importance for the British due to the port after Singapore fell to the Japanese army . Trincomalee was the only city in Sri Lanka to be targeted by a Japanese air raid on April 9, 1942 . This was part of the Japanese attack in the Indian Ocean .
The port city is located in the part of the country that is mostly inhabited by Tamils . In the past, tensions have repeatedly arisen between the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) and Sinhalese , the largest ethnic group living in Sri Lanka .
Today the port no longer has any economic importance.
Trincomalee was badly affected by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake . Large parts of the port area were destroyed.
A few kilometers west of Trincomalee are the Hot Wells , several springs that have different temperatures despite their proximity. There is a small market next to these springs, where you can buy refreshments, among other things.
About 12 km north of Trincomalee near Nilaveli is the small bathing island Pigeon Island with a coral beach . The island can only be reached by boat. Nilaveli has a bathing beach , some of which is privately owned by the hotel.
Trincomalee and the Tamil National Question
The Tamil liberation movement sees Trincomalee as the capital of the future state " Tamil Eelam " in the event of state independence . Originally Tamils ruled over this area and built the large " Tirukoneswaram " Shiva temple of the "Thousand Pillars" in the city . Tamil rule ended with the Portuguese occupation of the city. Trincomalee would be important for an independent Tamil state because of the strategically important port and its potential economic importance.
The climate in Trincomalee is tropical and humid and extremely hot, especially in the summer months. Due to the relatively small seasonal temperature fluctuations, a distinction is only made between rainy and dry seasons. The rainy season lasts from September to March, then the northeast monsoon prevails, which brings humid air masses to the east coast of Sri Lanka. The dry season lasts from April to August. Temperatures in the rainy season are around 28 to 30 degrees Celsius, and at night they drop to around 24 degrees. The humidity is very high during this time (over 80%), so that there is sometimes an oppressive humidity. In the dry season, the daytime temperatures are around 34 - 35 degrees Celsius, although they can rise to over 38 degrees. Even in the nights it is hardly cooler, the temperatures are between 26 and 30 degrees. The humidity is not that high (50%) during this time, but that's enough to make the temperatures sometimes unbearable.
Monthly average temperatures and rainfall for Trincomalee
Sons and daughters
- George Thomas Beatson (1848–1933), British physician
- Christian Noel Emmanuel (* 1960), Catholic clergyman, Bishop of Trincomalee.
- Aruna Dharshana (* 1999), sprinter
The English frigate HMS Trincomalee , built in Bombay in 1817, was named after the naval battle of 1781 . She is now the UK's oldest floating ship.