Consumer good

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Consumer goods are goods that the private overall or consumption are produced and traded. In contrast to capital goods or raw materials , consumables and supplies that are intended for the production process, consumer goods are primarily used for private consumption . However, it is only when a good is actually used that it becomes clear whether it will finally be consumed or whether it will be used as a tool in a production process . This applies to high-quality goods, e.g. B. vehicles, machines, real estate, as well as for everyday consumer goods.

Consumer can consumables be (z. B. fuel , food and medicines ), but also durable consumer goods , which are not consumed as such, but by the repeated use of a wear ( wear ) subject.


Depending on the needs of consumers and the forms of distribution in retail, consumer goods can be assigned to four major groups:

Types of goods according to purpose and duration
Production good Consumer good
durable good
(commodity i. w. S. )
Capital goods
(e.g. production machines, office buildings)
Consumer goods
(e.g. residential buildings, furnishings)
short-lived good
(consumer goods in the broader sense)
Intermediate goods
(e.g. lubricating oil, paints, electric motors)
(e.g. food)

Everyday goods (convenience goods)

These are goods that are bought frequently and without intensive planning or preparation. Normally, these are goods with a comparatively low price that are sold with the help of a mass market strategy of the manufacturer. These goods can be purchased in many places, for example: bread, newspaper, toilet paper, gasoline, etc. a.

Search and comparison purchase goods (shopping goods)

These goods are bought less often and have a higher price than goods for everyday use. A higher level of planning is required when purchasing. During the purchase decision process, comparisons are made in order to select the best possible alternative. The goods are advertised by both the manufacturer and the dealer and are usually sold in specialist shops, for example: perfume, branded furniture, branded clothing, automobiles, etc.

Specialty goods

These are mostly luxury goods for which there are only very limited alternative brands on the market. The sensitivity regarding the price is very low. Therefore, a very high price can be charged for these luxury goods. Such goods are advertised with the help of an exclusive marketing strategy geared towards the target group and are only sold by specially selected brand dealers, for example: luxury watches, expensive china, crystal goods, wines.

Goods of externally initiated purchase with low demand (unsought goods)

There is only very little demand for these goods, as consumers either do not know that these goods exist at all or they are products that are emotionally rejected. The consumer refuses to deal with these goods, as this is perceived as a nuisance. The sale of such products is supported by aggressive advertising and also promoted by direct sales, for example insurance benefits.

Significance in the context of economics

In macroeconomics , the demand for consumer goods is a component of overall economic demand . In the context of economic policy , influencing consumer goods demand is an important point of contention between the schools of thought of supply and demand policy .

Individual evidence

  1. Klaus Herdzina: Introduction to Microeconomics , Munich 2005, pp 8-9.
  2. consumer on .

See also