|Residents||18,045 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density||501 inhabitants / km²|
|Patron saint||Gervasius and Protasius ( June 19 )|
Bird's eye view of Domodossola
Domodossola ( Lombard Dòm , Walser German Döm ; outdated German Duhm or Domo ) is a town in the province of Verbano-Cusio-Ossola in the Piedmont region . The city is the capital of the Ossola Valley ( Eschental , Val d ' Ossola ).
The town with Roman origins is located on the Toce in the center of the Val Ossolane (Ossola Valley) on the route from the Simplon Pass to Lake Maggiore , in a valley widening into which various side valleys flow, on a large alluvial fan , the Bogna, the right tributary of the Toce, heaped up here. In ancient times, Domodossola (after the Lepontians ) was called Oscella Lepontiorum , later Domus Ossulae . Due to its strategic location on the pass road, it was an important center early on.
Today Domodossola has 18,045 inhabitants (as of December 31, 2019). The municipality covers an area of 36.89 km². The fractions Mocogna, Castanedo, Badulerio, San Quirico, Calice, Borgata Casa Delle Rane, Calvario, Corte, Gabi Valle, Boschetto, Siberia and Nosere belong to Domodossola. The neighboring municipalities are Beura-Cardezza, Bognanco, Crevoladossola, Masera, Montescheno, Trontano and Villadossola.
As the largest Italian city whose name starts with "D", Domodossola is in Italian spelling alphabet used for this letter ( "D come Domodossola" ).
Domodossola is already mentioned by Ptolemy as Oksela Lepontiorum. In the Roman Empire, the place was the end point of a road from Milan to the upper reaches of the Toce, the Via Mediolanum-Verbannus, and the starting point for crossing the main Alpine ridge into Valais via the Simplon and Albrun passes . The city was fortified under Theodoric's rule . In the Middle Ages, finally in 1014, the bishops or bishop-counts of Novara gain territorial rule over Domodossola and the entire Ossola region. In the dispute between Ghibellines and Guelphs , the Ossolans come under the protection of the Dukes of Milan in 1381 ; H. the Visconti and later the Sforza . After Ludovico Sforza's defeat by France in 1500, the Ossola Valley fell to Spain, and in 1714 - as a result of the War of the Spanish Succession - to Austria. Napoleon conquered the region in 1796, at the Congress of Vienna it came back to Austria as part of the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia . After the Sardinian War , the Ossola Valley fell to Sardinia-Piedmont in 1859 and was subsequently merged into the new Italian state in 1861 .
The importance of the city as a traffic junction developed with the infrastructural innovations in the 19th and 20th centuries: the expansion of the Simplonstrasse under Napoleon and, above all, the construction of the Simplon tunnel for the railway (1905).
On September 10, 1944, Domodossola became the capital of the 44-day partisan state, Repubblica dell'Ossola . In the area between Domodossola, Cannobio and the Swiss border, the partisans had succeeded in driving out the fascist troops and proclaiming their own republic. From October 19, however , the Germans quickly advanced again from Cannobio and a few days later declared the Repubblica to be over.
- The Sacro Monte di Domodossola can be visited on a mountain on the outskirts . The Sacro Monte di Domodossola is part of the Sacri Monti . The Sacri Monti in Piedmont and Lombardy have been part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site in Northern Italy since 2003 .
- The Palazzo Silva in the historic center of Domodossola, which dates back to the 14th century, is a monument of national importance in Italy. Inside is a cultural and historical museum, the Civico Museo di Palazzo Silva .
- Palazzo di Città (City Hall) built in 1874 by the architect Giovanni Leoni.
- Mellerio Palace owes its name to Count Giacomo Mellerio ( 1777 - 1847 ), Grand Chancellor of the Kingdom of Lombardy-Veneto . As a great benefactor, in 1816 the architect Gian Luca della Somaglia entrusted the construction of the palace with the intention of turning it into a complex of high schools. On November 5, 1818, Mellerio founded the first classical grammar school in Ossola Valley in this building .
- Simplon Museum ( Museo sempioniano ): Objects, documents and models tell of the Simplon tunnel construction (1906). Other exhibits relate to the history of the pass before the tunnel was built and Geo Chávez's flight (1910).
- Palazzo San Francesco Municipal Natural Science Museum ( Civico Museo di Scienze Naturali ): Collection of botanical, paleontological, zoolitic, malacological, zoological, mineralogical and geological exhibits from the former G. G. Galletti Foundation.
- Mellerio Rosmini Natural Science Museum ( Museo di Scienze Naturali "Mellerio Rosmini" ): the collection includes animals, plants and minerals. Rock samples that were found during the construction of the Simplon tunnel are exhibited in the mineralogical department .
- Mattarella Castle (ruin)
- Monument to the aviation pioneer Geo Chavez
With the opening of Simplonstrasse by Napoleon in 1805, the city began to grow. The railway connection to Novara in 1888 and the construction of the railway through the Simplon Tunnel (1906) brought the city further growth. The Domodossola station located at the railway line Milano-Domodossola herein as Simplon route (Domodossola-Vallorbe) in the direction of Brig is continued and the railway line Ribellasca-Domodossola , this is the part of the Italian Centovalli web .
sons and daughters of the town
- Giovanni Battista Palletta (1748–1832), professor of anatomy and primary surgeon
- Francesco Mauro (1887–1952), engineer, entrepreneur, member of parliament and sports official
- Gianfranco Contini (1912–1990), Romanist, Italianist and literary scholar
- Alberto Fortis (* 1955), songwriter
- Alberto Polacchi (* 1973), skeleton pilot
- Lorenzo Squizzi (* 1974), football player
- Riccardo Lorenzone (* 1976), grass skier
- Massimiliano Blardone (* 1979), ski racer
- Maurizio Oioli (* 1981), skeleton pilot
- Ascanio Marso (* around 1500 Bologna, † around 1570 in Milan), Podestà von Pavia , Commissario von Domodossola, author
- Edgardo Ferrari: La repubblica dell'Ossola. Guida alla storia e ai luoghi . Editore Grossi, Domodossola 2001.
- Gianni Turba (text), Fausto Mirandoli (picture): Domodossola: Il nido dell'Aquila . Comitato Mamme, Domodossola 2011.
- Various authors: Piemonte (non compresa Torino). , Touring Club Italiano, Milano 1976, p. 667, Domodosola online (Italian)
- Various authors: Comuni della Provincia del Verbano-Cusio-Ossola. Consiglio Regionale del Piemonte, Chieri 2012, ISBN 9788896074503 .
- Various authors: Il Piemonte paese per paese. Bonechi Editore, Firenze 1996, ISBN 88-8029-156-4 .
- Entry in the list of Italian municipalities (Italian)
- Domodossola on gedenkorte-europa.eu, the homepage of Gedenkorte Europa 1939–1945
- Domodossola on the ETHorama platform
- Domo, with the surname d'Oscella. In: Johann Heinrich Zedler : Large complete universal lexicon of all sciences and arts . Volume 7, Leipzig 1734, column 1241 f.
- Enrico Rizzi: Domodossola. In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland . May 11, 2006 .
Notes, individual references
- Statistiche demografiche ISTAT. Monthly population statistics of the Istituto Nazionale di Statistica , as of December 31 of 2019.
- Meyer's new Konversations-Lexikon, 2nd edition, new print, Vol. 5, Hildburghausen 1871, p. 816
- as an abbreviation in railway still common
- Alessandro Mandolei, Domodossola, in Paesaggi archeologici del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta, Torino, Regione Piemonte, 2007, p. 270
- Domodossola in the Italian language Wikipedia; https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Via_Mediolanum-Verbannus
- Repubblica dell'Ossola in the Italian language Wikipedia
- alpi-ticinesi.ch Val Grande: Resistance and Republic of Ossola
- Jean-Claude Peyre: Geo Chavez. In: Aérostèles. September 9, 2009, accessed December 10, 2018 (French).
- Domodossola website - Il Comune in numeri , accessed on April 10, 2018
- Rudolf Bolzern: Ascanio Marso. In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland . February 4, 2008 , accessed February 25, 2020 .