Puppet government

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A puppet government (or puppet state ) is a government that was set up by a foreign superpower and is supported and controlled by it.


The term refers to a puppet called dummy form , the movements of a player with the help of threads controlled. This term is derogatory and is therefore used only by critics of such governments. Similar terms are vassal or satellite states . A head of government in a puppet government is sometimes referred to as a quisling .

The influence on the seizure of power and the degree of control by the foreign power varies. It is often difficult to make a clear distinction as to whether a regime is a puppet government or just maintains “good relationships” with the hegemonic power .

In the course of history, great powers have repeatedly installed puppet governments when it appeared politically opportune, often after an occupation or partial occupation of a country. Examples are the Egyptian rule over Nubia (until approx. 1000 BC), the Roman tetrachia in Judea and the Batavian Republic , which was dependent on the First French Republic.

Further examples

France 1792-1815 and 1852-1870

France created satellite states during the coalition wars, of which the democratically governed are referred to as daughter republics .

France and its satellite states around 1812
Countries under the direct control of Napoleon and Napoleon III.
Satellite states on the territory of the former Holy Roman Empire
Satellite states in Italy
Remaining satellite states

First World War

The German Empire successfully pushed the army of the Russian Tsarist Empire far back to the East during World War I and created numerous puppet governments in Eastern Europe:

Used by the Axis powers (World War II)

Many puppet regimes were set up by the Axis powers during World War II , including:

Used by the Allies (World War II)

Cold War

Used after the Cold War

  • After the successful conquest of Kuwait, Iraq's dictator Saddam Hussein established the Republic of Kuwait , which he dissolved after less than a month in order to annex Kuwait.
  • The internationally unrecognized Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus is viewed by Western political commentators as a puppet state of Turkey
  • South Ossetia and Abkhazia split off from Georgia and are not internationally recognized. The states are heavily dependent on Russia economically and militarily.
  • Transnistria splits off from Moldova and is not recognized internationally. The state is economically and militarily heavily dependent on Russia.
  • Donetsk People's Republic and Lugansk People's Republic split off from Ukraine and are not internationally recognized. The states are heavily dependent on Russia economically and militarily.
  • Artsakh Republic splits off from Azerbaijan and is not internationally recognized. The state is economically and militarily heavily dependent on Armenia.

See also

Individual evidence

  1. ^ [Block, Maxine, ed. (1940). Current Biography Yearbook. New York, United States: HW Wilson. (engl.)]
  2. James, A. Sovereign statehood: The basis of international society. P. 142 [1] . Taylor and Francis, 1986, 288 pages. ISBN 0-04-320191-1 .
  3. ^ Kurtulus, E. State sovereignty: concept, phenomenon and ramifications. P. 136 [2] . Macmillan, 2005, 232 pages. ISBN 1-4039-6988-4 .
  4. ^ Kaczorowska, A. Public International Law. P. 190 [3] . Taylor and Francis, 2010, 944 pages. ISBN 0-415-56685-1 .
  5. ^ Times Online (Sep 11, 2008). Retrieved Dec 21, 2008.
  6. ^ Dylan C. Robertson: Is Transnistria the ghost of Crimea's future? . In: The Christian Science Monitor , March 5, 2014. Retrieved October 25, 2015. 
  7. ^ Jones, Sam: Ukraine fighting points to Russia designs for puppet state . In: Financial Times , January 27, 2015. Retrieved October 25, 2015. 
  8. Russia marches on uninhibited in eastern Ukraine . In: The Washington Post , February 18, 2015. Retrieved October 25, 2015. 
  9. Chiragov and Others v. Armenia . ECHR. Retrieved December 21, 2016.