Peter Herde (born February 5, 1933 in Ratibor , Upper Silesia ) is a German historian . His research activities range from fundamental work on papal diplomacy in the Middle Ages to national history and the Second World War .
Peter Herde was born in 1933 in Ratibor, Upper Silesia. He was the son of Vice Rector Reinhard Herde and Hildegard Herde. He spent his childhood and early youth in Racibórz. From autumn 1943 he attended the Realgymnasium Ratibor. The family fled the Red Army at the end of January 1945 and found their new home in Arnsberg, Westphalia . In 1953 he passed his Abitur in Neheim-Hüsten . In the summer semester of 1953 he began studying physics and mathematics at the University of Heidelberg . Fritz Ernst aroused Herde's interest in history through his lectures. In 1954, Herde went to the University of Munich to study history, German and English. Through Friedrich Baethgen , Herde turned to the papal and imperial history of the late Middle Ages . Bernhard Bischoff brought him closer to palaeography , the history of Middle Latin literature and manuscript studies . Through Peter Acht he began to deal with the papal documents of the 13th century. In Munich he was in 1958 under the supervision of Peter eight with the work contributions to the papal chancery and official documents in the 13th century to the Dr. phil. PhD. The dissertation became the standard work of papal chancellery history and diplomacy. The work was published in a second, considerably expanded edition in 1967. One year after completing his doctorate, Herde's first academic essay, The Design and Crisis of Christian-Jewish Relationships, was published in Regensburg at the end of the Middle Ages . The essay was a result of his work on the issue of the documents and files on the history of the Jews in Regensburg.
From 1960 to 1962 he worked at the German Historical Institute in Rome . The director there, Walther Holtzmann , had a great influence on him. In Rome he established friendly relations with Hermann Goldbrunner , Dieter Girgensohn , Norbert Kamp , Arnold Esch , Rudolf Hiestand and Rupert Hacker . His habilitation dealt with the form of audientie litterarum contradictarum . After his habilitation in 1965 - also with Peter Acht - he worked as a lecturer in Munich. As early as 1968, at the age of 35, he was appointed full professor for Middle and Modern History at the University of Frankfurt . He took up the position the following year. From June 4, 1976 he taught as a full professor for history, in particular middle history, regional history and historical auxiliary sciences, at the University of Würzburg . In 2001 he retired. On June 16, 2001, he held his farewell lecture at a symposium in the Lorsch Museum Center , in which he viewed the latest developments in German higher education with a critical eye .
Herde married in 1965. His hobbies are photography, flying and sports. Until 2007 he was able to win the Bavarian Sports Badge in Gold eight times and the German Sports Badge in Gold 42 times .
Herde works in the field of medieval and modern history, especially the history of the empire and papacy of the later Middle Ages, the social and intellectual history of Italian humanism, and the intellectual history of the Risorgimento . His further research interests concern the historical auxiliary sciences , the Bavarian state history and the history of the Second World War . His dissertation in Munich, published for the first time in 1961, also received great international attention. The work was published in 1967 in the second improved and expanded edition and became a standard work of papal document diplomacy in the 13th century. With the edition and examination of the formula books of the “Audientia litterarum contradictarum”, he published a two-volume Munich habilitation thesis comprising almost 1,400 pages. The work was methodologically innovative, as Herde linked questions from document science and canonical studies.
Herde researched the late medieval papal document system, the history of Italy , especially Florence in the Renaissance and the history of Sicily . Herde published an extensive article on Charles I of Anjou in the Dizionario biografico degli Italiani . From this study of the first Angevinen on the Sicilian throne, a biography emerged in 1979. In Würzburg, Herde dealt intensively with Franconian history and the history of the empire and the pope in the 13th century. Herde also devoted himself to problems of the 19th century. Among other things, he examined the relationship between Bavaria and the Holy See at the time of the beginning of the Kulturkampf . In 1981, Herde presented a standard work with his biography on Pope Cölestin V. The work was published in Italian in 2004 and was supplemented in 2008 by its MGH edition of the oldest vitae of "papa angelicus". With his work published in 1986, Herde first presented the history of medieval Guelfism in a coherent manner. Together with his student Thomas Frenz , he published the 1246 letter and memorial book of Passau cathedral dean Albert Behaim in 2000 . Herde was already working on a biography of Boniface VII in the 1980s. He published numerous individual studies about him. After decades of research, the first volume of the biography with the three chapters “Youth and Church Consecration”, “On the Way to the Papal Throne” and “Election to the Pope, Consecration and Coronation” was published in 2015 in the series “Popes and Papacy”. The main challenge was to prepare the time appropriately historiographically. Numerous details about his early life are not witnessed at the time, but were only criticized in the later Bonifaz trial.
Since the 1990s, the born Oberschlesier Herd has also dedicated himself to Silesian history. The 2001 edition of the Italian files on the referendum in Upper Silesia in 1921 resulted from this occupation. At the end of the late century, herde dealt more intensively with the history of historical science. This resulted in numerous studies on Würzburg historians such as Anton Chroust (1998/2012), Max Buchner (2002) or Michael Seidlmayer (2007/2012). Herde examined the background to the failed appointments of Franz Schnabel to Heidelberg and Hermann Heimpels to Munich. Herde evaluated the files of the American military government in detail. Together with the Israeli historian Benjamin Z. Kedar , he presented a study on the historian Karl Bosl in 2011 , which led to a discussion and reassessment of Bosl's Nazi past. The German translation in a significantly expanded version appeared in 2016. In doing so, they observed Bosl “a precarious coexistence of rejection and concessions” towards the system. According to her research, Bosl behaved in line with the system to a high degree during National Socialism and falsely presented himself as a resistance fighter. Some historians have criticized the representation of the kedar and herd and pointed to inconsistencies. Dirk Walter criticized the lack of a comparison between Bosl's career during the Nazi era with that of other specialist colleagues such as Theodor Schieder .
Herde presented numerous papers on the history of the Second World War, including two monographs on the secret flight connection between the Axis Powers and Japan ( Der Japanflug , 2000) and on Japanese occupation policy in Southeast Asia during World War II and its consequences ( Greater East Asian Prosperity Sphere , 2002). However, he only dealt with Indonesia and the Philippines and did not use Japanese sources for his presentation. Herde stated in his study that “despite all controls and despite the censorship [...] the Japanese rule [...] in the Philippines was not a totalitarianism of the Soviet or National Socialist type”. For a decade, Herd researched the months of August and September in the National Archives in Washington, where millions of pages of wiretapping material are stored. This resulted in a study published in 2018 on the triangular relations between the European Axis powers , Japan and the USSR in World War II. Half of the investigation consists of documentation. The sources contained therein are telegrams that have been sent between the State Department in Tokyo and its diplomatic or consular representations abroad and have been intercepted and decrypted by US agencies since 1942.
Honors and memberships
Herde was awarded numerous scientific honors and memberships for his research. He is an elected member of many scientific societies, academies and commissions, including the Scientific Society at the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University in Frankfurt am Main (as an honorary member since 2010), the Society for Franconian History , the Historical Commission for Silesia , the Medieval Academy of America , the Royal Historical Society in London and the Commission internationale de diplomatique (since 1970). The birthplace of Cölestin, Sant'Angelo Limosano , made him an honorary citizen for his work on this Pope and saint . He was visiting professor from 1966 to 1967 at the University of California, Berkeley . Here were Robert Helmholtz , Milo Kearney and John McCullough to his academic students. Further visiting professorships took Herde to the University of Washington in 1971 , to the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton in 1971/72 and 1984 , to the University of Chicago in 1973 and to Dumbarton Oaks in 1979 . In 1998 he was honored with an extensive commemorative publication on his 65th birthday. On the occasion of his 70th birthday in 2003, Herde was honored by a scientific colloquium in Lorsch an der Bergstrasse and in 2008 by another colloquium. Herde turned down calls to the University of California in Los Angeles as the successor to Gerhart Ladner and to the Ludwig Maximilians University in Munich as the successor to Peter Acht.
- Contributions to the papal chancellery and documentary system in the thirteenth century (= Munich historical studies, Department of Historical Auxiliary Science. Volume 1). Lassleben, Kallmünz / Opf. 1961, 2nd edition 1967; also dissertation, Munich 1962.
- Audientia litterarum contradictarum. Investigations into the papal judicial letters and the papal delegation jurisdiction from the 13th to the beginning of the 16th century (= library of the German Historical Institute in Rome. Vol. 31 and 32). 2 volumes, Niemeyer, Tübingen 1970, ISBN 3-484-80030-5 , also habilitation thesis, Munich 1965.
- Dante as a Florentine politician (= Frankfurt historical lectures. Issue 3). Steiner, Wiesbaden 1976, ISBN 3-515-02506-5 .
- Karl I. von Anjou (= Urban pocket books. Volume 305). Kohlhammer, Stuttgart et al. 1979, ISBN 3-17-005420-1 .
- Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941. The outbreak of the war between Japan and the United States and the expansion of the European war into World War II (= Impulses for Research. Volume 33). Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 1980, ISBN 3-534-07555-2 .
- Cölestin V. (= Popes and Papacy. Volume 16). Hiersemann, Stuttgart 1981, ISBN 3-7772-8102-6 .
- Italy, Germany and the way to the war in the Pacific 1941 (= meeting reports of the Scientific Society at the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University in Frankfurt am Main. Volume 20, No. 1). Steiner, Wiesbaden 1983, ISBN 3-515-04001-3 .
- Guelphs and Neoguelfs. On the history of a national ideology from the Middle Ages to the Risorgimento (= meeting reports of the Scientific Society at the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University in Frankfurt am Main. Volume 22, No. 2). Steiner-Verlag-Wiesbaden-GmbH, Stuttgart 1986, ISBN 3-515-04596-1 .
- The catastrophe off Rome in August 1167. A historical-epidemiological study of the fourth Italian move by Frederick I Barbarossa (= meeting reports of the Scientific Society at the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University in Frankfurt am Main. Volume 27, No. 4). Steiner, Stuttgart 1991, ISBN 3-515-05878-8 .
- Treatises on Franconian and Bavarian church history and on Christian-Jewish relations (= sources and research on the history of the diocese and bishopric of Würzburg. Volume 46). Schöningh, Würzburg 1996, ISBN 3-87717-049-8 .
- The Japan flight. Planning and implementation of a flight connection between the Axis powers and Japan 1942–1945 (= meeting reports of the Scientific Society at the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University in Frankfurt am Main. Volume 38, No. 3). Steiner, Stuttgart 2000, ISBN 3-515-07587-9 .
- Greater East Asian Prosperity Sphere. The Japanese occupation policy in the Philippines and Indonesia in the Second World War and its consequences (= meeting reports of the Scientific Society at the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University in Frankfurt am Main. Volume 39, No. 4). Steiner, Stuttgart 2002, ISBN 3-515-08033-3 .
- Continuities and discontinuities in the transition from National Socialism to a new democratic beginning. The failed appointments of Hermann Heimpel to Munich (1944–1946) and Franz Schnabel to Heidelberg (1946–1947) (= booklets on Bavarian regional history. Booklet 5). Commission for Bavarian State History, Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-7696-6532-1 .
- with Benjamin Z. Kedar: A Bavarian historian reinvents himself. Karl Bosl and the Third Reich. Hebrew University Magnes Press, Jerusalem 2011, ISBN 978-965-493-564-7 .
- with Benjamin Z. Kedar: Karl Bosl in the “Third Reich”. De Gruyter Oldenbourg et al., Berlin et al. 2016, ISBN 978-3-11-041256-7 (German translation and significantly expanded version)
- with Anton Schindling : Contributions to the history of education. Dedicated to Peter Baumgart on the occasion of his 65th birthday (= sources and research on the history of the diocese and bishopric of Würzburg. Volume 53). Schöningh, Würzburg 1998, ISBN 3-87717-057-9 .
- Italy and Upper Silesia 1919–1922. Italian diplomacy and occupation forces in the context of the referendum in Upper Silesia and the division of the country. Volume 1: Documents on Italian politics in the Upper Silesian question 1919–1921 (= Silesian research. Volume 8). Königshausen and Neumann, Würzburg 2001, ISBN 3-8260-2035-9 .
- with Hermann Jakobs : Papal document and European document system. Studies on their formal and legal coherence from the 11th to the 15th century (= archive for diplomats, written history, seal and coat of arms. Supplement 7). Böhlau, Cologne et al. 1999, ISBN 3-412-10298-9 .
- with Thomas Frenz: The letter and memorial book of Albert Behaim (= Monumenta Germaniae Historica . Epistolae. 2a, letters of the later Middle Ages. Volume 1). Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Munich 2000, ISBN 3-88612-091-0 .
- The oldest lives of Pope Cölestin V (Peters vom Morrone) (= Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores rerum Germanicarum, nova series. Volume 23). Hahn, Hanover 2008, ISBN 978-3-7752-0223-7 .
Collections of articles
Collected treatises and essays. Hiersemann, Stuttgart, ISBN 978-3-7772-9713-2 .
- Volume 1: From Dante to the Risorgimento. Studies on the intellectual and social history of Italy. 1997, ISBN 3-7772-9714-3 .
- Volume 2: Studies on papal and imperial history, the history of the Mediterranean region and canon law in the Middle Ages. 2 half volumes, 2002 and 2005, ISBN 3-7772-0214-2 , ISBN 3-7772-0514-1 .
- Volume 3: Diplomatics, Canon Studies, Paleography. Studies in the basic historical sciences. 2008, ISBN 978-3-7772-0810-7 .
- Karl Borchardt, Enno Bünz : Peter Herde on his eightieth birthday. In: Archiv für Diplomatik 60 (2014), pp. 11–34.
- Karl Borchardt and Enno Bünz (eds.): Research on the history of the empire, the pope and the country. Peter Herde on the 65th birthday of friends, students and colleagues. Hiersemann, Stuttgart 1998, ISBN 3-7772-9803-4 (complete work), ISBN 3-7772-9805-0 (volume 1), ISBN 3-7772-9806-9 (volume 2) (with bibliography).
- Karl Borchardt and Enno Bünz (eds.): Research on Bavarian and Franconian history. Peter Herde on the 65th birthday of friends, students and colleagues (= sources and research on the history of the diocese and bishopric of Würzburg. Volume 52). Schöningh, Würzburg 1998, ISBN 3-87717-056-0 .
- Ralph Hübner (Ed.): Who is Who in the Federal Republic of Germany. 13th edition, Verlag für Personalenzyklopädien AG, Zug 2007, ISBN 978-3-7290-0064-3 , p. 2014.
- Who is who? The German Who's Who. 47th edition 2008/09, Schmidt-Römhild, Lübeck 2008, ISBN 978-3-7950-2046-0 , p. 508.
- Kürschner's German Scholars Calendar. 22nd Edition, Volume II: H – L. Saur, Munich 2009, ISBN 978-3-598-23629-7 (4 volumes), ISSN 1616-8399 , p. 1575.
- Literature by and about Peter Herde in the catalog of the German National Library
- Publications by Peter Herde in the Opac of the Regesta Imperii
- ↑ Karl Borchardt, Enno Bünz: Peter Herde for his eightieth birthday. In: Archiv für Diplomatik 60 (2014), pp. 11–34, here: p. 12 (accessed via De Gruyter Online)
- ↑ Karl Borchardt, Enno Bünz: Peter Herde for his eightieth birthday. In: Archiv für Diplomatik 60 (2014), pp. 11–34, here: p. 13 (accessed via De Gruyter Online)
- ^ Peter Herde: Contributions to the papal chancellery and document system in the 13th century. 2nd, improved and enlarged edition. Kallmünz 1967.
- ↑ Peter Herde: Shaping and Crisis of the Christian-Jewish Relationship in Regensburg at the End of the Middle Ages. In: Journal for Bavarian State History 22 (1959) pp. 359–395 ( digitized version ).
- ↑ Peter Herde: The historical science at German and American universities. A comparison. In: Würzburger medical history reports 21 (2002), pp. 446–463.
- ↑ See the reviews of CR Cheney in: English Historical Review 79 (1964), pp. 64–67; Georges Tessier in: Bibliothèque de l'École des chartes 120 (1962), pp. 207-211; Hans Martin Schaller in: Archivalische Zeitschrift 59 (1963), p. 214.
- ↑ See the reviews of Matthias Thiel in Archivalische Zeitschrift 67 (1971), pp. 210–211; Peter Herde in: German Archive for Research into the Middle Ages. 24: 531-532 (1968) ( online ).
- ↑ See the review by Knut Wolfgang Nörr in: Zeitschrift der Savigny-Stiftung für Rechtsgeschichte: Kanonistische Department 58 (1972), pp. 403–407.
- ↑ Karl Borchardt, Enno Bünz: Peter Herde for his eightieth birthday. In: Archiv für Diplomatik 60 (2014), pp. 11–34, here: p. 14 (accessed via De Gruyter Online)
- ↑ Peter Herde: Karl I of Anjou. Stuttgart et al. 1979.
- ↑ Peter Herde: The Holy See and Bavaria between the Customs Parliament and the founding of an empire (1867 / 68–1871). In: Journal for Bavarian State History 45 (1982), pp. 589-662 ( digitized version ).
- ↑ See Max Seckler: "A well-considered decision". Benedict XVI. on the way to resignation. In: Jan-Heiner Tück (Ed.): The Theologian Pope. A critical appreciation of Benedict XVI. Freiburg im Breisgau et al. 2013, pp. 529–549, here: p. 531; Walter Koller in: German Archive for Research into the Middle Ages 40 (1984), pp. 693–694 ( digitized version )
- ↑ Celestino V (Pietro del Morrone) 1294. Il papa angelico , a cura di Quirino Salomone, traduzione di Anna Maria Voci, L'Aquila 2004.
- ↑ Peter Herde: The oldest lives of Pope Cölestins V (Peters vom Morrone). Hanover 2008.
- ↑ Peter Herde: Guelphs and Neoguelfs. On the history of a national ideology from the Middle Ages to the Risorgimento. Stuttgart 1986.
- ↑ Peter Herde: Boniface VIII. (1294-1303). First half volume: Benedikt Caetani. Stuttgart 2015. See the reviews of Werner Maleczek in: Deutsches Archiv für Erforschung des Mittelalters 74 (2018), pp. 843–845; Claudia Alraum in: Archive for Cultural History 101 (2019), pp. 477–478; Klaus Herbers in: Journal of History. 64 (2016), pp. 285-286; Andreas Fischer in: sehepunkte 16 (2016), No. 4 [15. April 2016], ( online ); Lucia Dell'Asta in: The Catholic Historical Review 103 (2017), pp. 124-125.
- ↑ See for example Peter Herde: Medieval Research in the Federal Republic of Germany 1945–1970. In: Maria Stuiber, Michele Spadaccini (ed.): Building blocks for German and Italian history. Festschrift for the 70th birthday of Horst Enzensberger. Bamberg 2014, pp. 175-218 ( online ).
- ↑ Peter Herde: The Abbess Cuthsuuith, Anton Chroust and the fall of the Bavarian Minister of Education Robert von Landmann (1901/02). In: Peter Herde, Anton Schindling (ed.): University of Würzburg and science in the early modern period. Contributions to the history of education in honor of Peter Baumgart on the occasion of his 65th birthday. Würzburg 1998, pp. 231-270. Peter Herd: Anton Chroust (1864–1945). A controversial historian from Austria in Franconia. In: Karl Hruza (ed.): Austrian historians. CVs and careers 1900–1945. Vol. 2. Weimar 2012, pp. 85–127.
- ↑ Peter Herde: Max Buchner (1881–1941) and the political position of historical studies at the University of Würzburg 1925–1945. In: Peter Baumgart (Ed.): The University of Würzburg in the crises of the first half of the 20th century. Biographical-systematic studies on their history between the First World War and the new beginning in 1945. Würzburg 2002, pp. 183–251.
- ↑ Peter Herde: Michael Seidlmayer (1902–1961) and the New Beginning of Würzburg Medieval Studies after 1945. In: Würzburger Diözesan-Geschichtsblätter 69 (2007), pp. 205–260. Peter Herde: Michael Seidlmayer (1902–1961). In: Fränkische Lebensbilder , Vol. 23, 2012, pp. 211–226.
- ↑ Peter Herde: Continuities and discontinuities in the transition from National Socialism to a new democratic beginning. The failed appointments of Hermann Heimpel to Munich (1944–1946) and Franz Schnabel to Heidelberg (1946–1947). Munich 2007; Peter Herde: Hermann Heimpel's failed appointment to Munich (1944–1946). In: Sabine Arend, Daniel Berger, Carola Brückner et al. (Ed.): Diversity and topicality of the Middle Ages. Festschrift for Wolfgang Petke on his 65th birthday. Bielefeld 2006, pp. 695-737.
- ↑ Peter Herde, Benjamin Z. Kedar: A Bavarian historian reinvents himself. Karl Bosl and the Third Reich. Jerusalem 2011. See the review by Frank-Rutger Hausmann in: H-Soz-Kult , November 21, 2012, ( online ).
- ^ Benjamin Z. Kedar, Peter Herde: Karl Bosl in the "Third Reich". Berlin et al. 2016. See the reviews of Bernhard Unckel in: Hessisches Jahrbuch für Landesgeschichte 66 (2018), pp. 253–254 ( online ); Dirk Walter in: sehepunkte 16 (2016), No. 4 [15. April 2016], online ; Clemens Vollnhals in: Bohemia 57 (2017), pp. 483-485 ( online ); Stefan Jordan in: Historische Zeitschrift 305 (2017), pp. 258–260.
- ^ Benjamin Z. Kedar, Peter Herde: Karl Bosl in the "Third Reich". Berlin et al. 2016, p. 18.
- ↑ Ernst Schütz: The Causa Bosl. More questions than clarity. In: Das Gymnasium in Bayern , No. 10, 2012, pp. 34–37. Dirk Walter: Karl Bosl. Approaching a personality. Performances - Misconduct. With a contribution by Willi Eisele. Munich 2013.
- ↑ Dirk Walter: Karl Bosl. Approaching a personality. Performances - Misconduct. With a contribution by Willi Eisele, Munich 2013, pp. 15–18, 36.
- ↑ See the discussion by Konrad Fuchs in: Nassauische Annalen 116 (2005), pp. 691–692.
- ↑ Takuma Melber: Between Collaboration and Resistance. The Japanese occupation in Malaya and Singapore 1942–1945. Frankfurt am Main 2017, p. 21.
- ↑ Peter Herde: Greater East Asian Prosperity Sphere. Japanese occupation policy in the Philippines and Indonesia during World War II and its consequences. Stuttgart 2002, p. 162.
- ↑ Peter Herde: The Axis Powers, Japan and the Soviet Union. Japanese sources on World War II (1941–1945). With a comprehensive document section in English. Berlin 2018. See the reviews of Gerhard Krebs in: Militärgeschichtliche Zeitschrift 78 (2019), pp. 292–296; Michael Thöndl in: Historische Zeitschrift 309 (2019), pp. 829–830.
- ↑ Membership directory ( Memento of the original from August 28, 2018 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ^ Karl Borchardt and Enno Bünz (eds.): Research on the history of the empire, the pope and the country. Peter Herde on the 65th birthday of friends, students and colleagues. 2 volumes, Stuttgart 1998; Karl Borchardt and Enno Bünz (eds.): Research on Bavarian and Franconian history. Peter Herde on the 65th birthday of friends, students and colleagues. Wuerzburg 1998.
- ↑ Karl Borchardt, Enno Bünz: Peter Herde for his eightieth birthday. In: Archiv für Diplomatik 60 (2014), pp. 11–34, here: p. 17 (accessed via De Gruyter Online)
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||German historian|
|DATE OF BIRTH||February 5, 1933|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Ratibor , Upper Silesia|