A school association (also Primaner Verein , Schülerkorporation , Pennalie , Pennälerverbindungen , pennale association , graduate association , middle school association or high school association ) is an association of students and former students of a school, which is based on the student associations in the German-speaking area in terms of organization, customs and badges . There are currently around 475 student associations, the majority of them in Austria.
Student associations exist in Germany , Austria , Switzerland , Flanders , Italy , Hungary and Romania . The strongholds of the student association system in Germany are in Franconia and Baden , but there are also isolated student associations in Lower Saxony, for example in Oldenburg , Hanover , Wolfenbüttel and Bad Sachsa .
Typical proper names of student associations in Germany are Abituria or Absolvia . Abitur are high school connections, graduates were at least originally junior high school connections, but today mainly high school connections as well. Otherwise, student associations usually have Latinized proper names like student associations.
The allegedly oldest continuously existing German school association is the Absolvia Bayreuth from 1833 in the Franconian Absolven-Convent (FAC). The oldest student association in Germany, which still exists today, but was dissolved and re-established in the course of history, is the PV Markomannia 1824 zu Rastatt , whose founding year 1824 has only been passed on orally. It belongs to the Pennäler Kartell Baden (PKB).
In the Grand Duchy of Hesse , pennale offshoots of the Gießen Corps ( Teutonia , Hassia, Starkenburgia) at the grammar schools in Gießen, Darmstadt and Büdingen were created in the 1840s as a special form , which fought sharp gauges until the second half of the 19th century and were the most important field of recruitment of the University corps formed.
Up until the 20th century, school associations were subject to a strict ban by the ministries of education almost everywhere in the German-speaking area. In Prussia, for example, due to a decree of 1880, members of school associations could be expelled from the school. Many student associations were therefore disguised as Primaner Verein or bowling club, for example, some still have such names as type names. Because of the ban, beer names had an important place in student associations and are still part of the typical customs of student associations today.
National socialism "demanded Reich Youth Leader " Baldur von Schirach , the DC circuit of the Youth Leagues: Resolution, self-dissolution, conversion and acquisition of other youth organizations and "How the Nazi Party is now the only party, the HJ must be the only youth organization." By prohibiting, corporations , The Hitler Youth grew to almost four million members by 1935. The office of the Reich Youth Leader became a "Supreme Reich Authority", in which state youth policy and Hitler Youth leadership were united. Anyone who did not join the Hitler Youth was considered an outsider. Officials were required to send their children to the Hitler Youth. After the time of National Socialism, only a few student associations were re-established in Germany.
In general Pennäler Ring (APR) took place on 16./17. June 1990 in Eisenach fraternized student associations, mainly from northern and central Germany. It currently comprises 13 corporations. The national-liberal APR is committed to the goals and ideals of the original fraternity, whose principles are maintained and disseminated. The member corporations of the APR are colored and stand by the Lebensbund and Convent principles. With the Austrian Pennäler Ring (ÖPR) there has been a common association principle since 1992.
Further, more regionally shaped associations of student associations are the Franconian Graduate Convent (FAC) , founded in Erlangen on November 1, 1953, with eight member associations, and the Pennälerkartell Baden (PKB) , which came into being in June 1973 and today unites nine member associations.
In addition, the Passauer Seniors Convent (PSC), which was founded on August 21, 1921, brought together other student associations in a cartel.
In Austria, many student associations - such as university corporations - refer to themselves as student associations . Traditionally, the pupils of the higher education institutions were (and are) called students. This was due, among other things, to the fact that you usually had to leave your home town to attend a grammar school, as there were only a few central schools. Today there are around 240 active student associations in Austria.
The corporation federation with the largest number of members is located in Austria. It is an association of student associations: the Mittelschüler-Kartell-Verband (MKV) of the Catholic, colored student associations. The oldest corporation in the MKV is Teutonia Innsbruck , which was founded on November 22, 1876 despite the so-called ban on coalitions for middle school students. The MKV has around 163 corporations, which in turn have around 20,000 members (active and old men). In addition to the MKV, there is also the Association of Colored Girls VFM in Austria , which is the female counterpart to the MKV. In Austria, however, there are also numerous non-union student associations of both sexes, all of which are members of the EkV .
Striking student associations are mostly based on certain student university associations such as corps and fraternities and use their names, usually with the addition " Pennal " instead of the " academic " of the university associations. There are Pennale Corps (pC) or Pennale Fraternities (pB) . The oldest known student association at all was the Pennale fraternity Teutonia , which existed in Teschen (then Austrian Silesia) from 1817-1819 . Most of the Pennal connections are organized in the Austrian Pennälen Ring (ÖPR). It also includes the pcB Allemannia et Nibelungia , the oldest still existing student association in Austria , founded in Graz on October 24, 1860. The ÖPR has around 60 corporations.
In addition, there was the Seniors Convent pennaler Landsmannschaften (SCPL), a non-beating and Catholic-monarchist association that cooperated with the Bund KÖL (with the student counterpart Catholic Austrian Middle Schools Country Team (KÖML or K.Ö.ML)), as well as various non-union pennale semesters - and holiday connections .
In Switzerland there have been student associations since around 1830, some of which arose historically together with the university associations and some were even integrated into the university associations. The Helvetia University Association as well as the Zofingia had or still have their offshoots at grammar schools. These were temporarily banned, but were then allowed again in the 1950s.
The Swiss Student Association (StV) has approx. 23 active middle school connections (out of a total of 57 connections) and another approx. 10 high school connections (GV), which currently only exist as old men’s association (AHV). The GV of the StV are summarized in the Gymnasia. The StV was founded on August 31, 1841. The first four sections (connections) of the StV were created in 1843. These are (in chronological order) the sections Freiburg im Üechtland (today GV Zähringia ), Schwyz ( GV Suitia ), Lucerne ( AV Semper Fidelis ) (originally GV until 2006/07) and Freiburg im Breisgau (AV Helvetia Friburgensis).
Middle school connections can also be traditionally connected with a middle school (e.g. high school). Examples of this are the Scaphusia , the Thurgovia and the Vitodurania (Eastern Swiss Cartel) or the Wengia in Solothurn. Today there are still connections to secondary schools in Basel, Langenthal, Aarau, Olten, Frauenfeld, Schaffhausen, Solothurn , Burgdorf, Winterthur, St. Gallen, Stans, Schwyz and other cities. There are also connections to boarding schools such as Schiers, Engelberg, Einsiedeln etc. In recent years, connection-like student organizations have also emerged at schools other than grammar schools.
In Flanders there had been Catholic student associations since the end of the 19th century and during the interwar period. In 1903 they organized themselves in the Algemeen Katholiek Vlaams Student Union (AKVS), which defined itself as non-colored and politically and religiously active. Because of the Flemish activism before and during the Second World War , no re-establishment was possible after the war.
The Nationalistic Jong Student Association (NJSV) has existed since 1978 and currently has four sections. He is independent, but is close to the Flemish Nationalist Nationalist Student Union (NSV). In addition, the Katholiek Vlaams Scholierenverbond (KVSV) has existed since 2008 with currently five sections as the local association of the Katholiek Vlaams Hoogstudentenverbond (KVHV). Both associations are colored, politically active and accept men and women.
With year of foundation and number of connections
- General Pennäler Ring (APR), 1990
- Passauer Seniors Convent (PSC), 1921, 18
- Franconian Graduate Convention (FAC), 1953, 8
- Pennal Cartel Baden (PKB), 1973, 9
- Middle School Cartel Association (MKV), 1933, 160
- Austrian Pennäler Ring (ÖPR), 1950, 60
- Seniors convent pennaler Landsmannschaften (SCPL)
- Catholic Austrian Middle School Country Team (KÖML)
- Association of Colored Girls (VfM), 1988, 11
- Swiss Student Association (SchwStV), 1841, 23
- Algemeen Katholiek Vlaams Student Union (AKVS), 1903–1945
- Nationalistic Jong Student Association (NJSV), 1978, 4
- Katholiek Vlaams Scholierenverbond (KVSV), 2008, 5
- Martin Biastoch: The Concilium Germanicum at the Great School in Wolfenbüttel 1910–2010: A contribution to the educational history of Wolfenbüttel . Essen 2010, ISBN 978-3-939413-09-7 .
- Martin Biastoch: A North German student in the Swabian town of Tübingen. Letter from a freshman from 1886 . In: Einst und Jetzt 33, 1988, pp. 223-225.
- Edwin A. Biedermann: Logen, clubs and brotherhoods , 2nd edition, Droste-Verlag, Düsseldorf 2007, ISBN 3-7700-1184-8 , 420 pp.
- Rudolf Geser, Ferdinand Wenzel: The Catholic-German pennal connections of Bohemia and Moravia. Würzburg 1985 (= publications of the archive association of the Markomannia [Würzburg] eV, No. 26).
- Peter Krause : Studiosus Austriacus - Handbook of Austrian Corporations ; Volume 11 of the ÖVfStG series Tradition and Future , Vienna 2007.
- Michael Mittelstädt: Register on Heinrich Obermüller - "Forbidden and persecuted" and "Aufbruch und Untergang" , Vienna 2006.
- Heinrich Obermüller: Forbidden and persecuted . Catholic connections at middle and higher schools (Volume 1) in the German-speaking area - From the beginnings to 1918; Vienna 1991.
- Heinrich Obermüller: Awakening and Falling. Catholic connections in middle and high schools , 2 parts, Vienna 2000/03.
- Helmut Steigelmann: On the research of Pennälerkorporationen , in: Einst und Jetzt. Yearbook of the Association for Corps Student History Research . Vol. 6, 1961, pp. 86-98.
- Oskar Waas: The Pennalie. A contribution to their history (= history of European students, vol. 2), Aula-Verlag, Graz, 1967, XI, 486 p. (Standard work with a focus on Austria).
- Max Nath: Student associations and student associations. Experiences, studies and thoughts , Leipzig a. a. 1906.
- Robert Pilger: About the liaison system in North German high schools , 2nd edition, Weidmannsche Buchhandlung, Berlin 1880.
- Paul Ssymank : Student Associations? Pedagogical Archive, Vol. 48, 1906, pp. 155–162 (Valuable references).
- MKV - The umbrella organization of the Catholic non-beating middle school associations in Austria
- ÖPR - the umbrella organization of the obligatory Austrian middle school associations
- PSC - Passauer Seniors Convent (cartel of color-bearing associations)
- PKB - Pennälerkartel Baden
- FAC - Franconian Graduates Convent
- http://www.svfaq.de/svfaq/ - FAQ on student connections
- Pennalverbindung Honovere - Directory (almost) all students compounds
- Walter Hoffmann: About Pennal Corps in the Grand Duchy of Hesse , in: Einst und Jetzt 30 (1985), pp. 129–148
- Hilde Kammer, Elisabeth Bartsch (Ed.): Jugendlexikon Nationalozialismus , article Hitlerjugend , Rowohlt, Reinbek 1982, ISBN 3-499-16288-1 , p. 91
- Krause, Peter: Studiosus Austriacus - Handbook of Austrian Corporations ; Volume 11 of the ÖVfStG series Tradition and Future ; Vienna 2007 .
- Burschenschaftliche Geschichte on ÖPR.AT ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- General Pennäler Ring
- Mixed association with school and student associations
- Franconian graduate convention
- Pennälerkartel Baden"