Otto Glöckel (born February 8, 1874 in Pottendorf ( Lower Austria ), † July 23, 1935 in Vienna ) was a social democratic politician and school reformer of the First Republic in Austria .
As the initiator of the reform pedagogy of the interwar period - the Vienna school reform - Glöckel was an advocate of the comprehensive school and opponent of educational privileges as well as a fighter against the ecclesiastical supremacy in the public schools.
Otto Glöckel was born in the Pottendorf schoolhouse as the son of the junior teacher Friedrich and his wife Fanni. After the elementary and community school he studied at the state teacher training college in Wiener Neustadt , where he graduated with the Matura in 1892. He then became a temporary sub-teacher on the Schmelz , where he initially taught in elementary schools in the 14th district.
In 1894 he became a member of the Austrian Social Democratic Workers' Party and, together with Karl Seitz and Paul Speiser, founded the Viennese teachers' movement "Die Junge", a social democratic teachers' association. Since 1897 he was married to Leopoldine Glöckel , née von Pfaffinger, who was also politically active and supported his reform policy. In the same year he was dismissed from school by Mayor Karl Lueger because of his social democratic convictions .
From 1907 Glöckel was a member of the Reichsrat and from April 1919 to October 1920 first Minister of Education ( Undersecretary of State for Education ) of the First Austrian Republic . From 1918 to 1920 he was a member of the Provisional or Constituent National Assembly and from 1920 to 1934 a member of the National Council .
After the end of the red-black coalition (1918–1920) Glöckel had to resign as Minister of Education. He moved to Vienna in 1920 to continue the reforms in a limited space as deputy chairman of the district school council and from 1922 to 1934 as president of the Vienna city school council . The Vienna school reform was carried out under his leadership .
In 1934, as a result of the February revolt on February 12, 1934, in which Glöckel was not involved, under the corporate state regime, he was arrested in his office in Palais Epstein and taken to the detention camp in Wöllersdorf . Glöckel only survived imprisonment for a short time. He died in his house in the Gaudenzdorf district .
As early as 1911, Glöckel demanded a strict separation of church and school. He was against the compulsion to do religious exercises, which cemented the influence of the clergy on the school system. He made the responsible minister and later Prime Minister Count Stürgkh responsible for this. In 1917 he gave his programmatic speech in the Reichsrat on the importance of education in the future; this speech could only be published censored in the Habsburg monarchy.
The Vienna school reform initiated by him aimed at a comprehensive school : internal instead of external differentiation of the school system, common school for 10-14 year olds. Richard Meister was an influential opponent . In addition, he introduced the possibility of deregistering from religious instruction, the class representatives and school representatives, stipulated the teaching freedom of teachers and promoted a democratization of the school sector.
His secular so-called Glöckel decree , in which the mandatory participation of students in religious education and daily school prayers were abolished, is also of particular importance . His goal was, among other things, the democratization of the school through organizational and content-related co-determination of teachers, parents and students and a departure from the pure learning school ("drill school"). He founded the federal educational institutions . In his decree of April 22, 1919, he gave women free access to universities . He promoted the Schönbrunn Educational School and appointed the educational reformer Wilhelm Jerusalem in 1919 as associate professor and in 1923 as full professor of philosophy at the University of Vienna .
- Otto Glöckel received an honorary grave in the Meidlinger Friedhof (Dept. B, Group 1, Number G 54)
- Memorial plaque on the former city school council building with the bronze relief by Erich Pieler. During the renovation of Palais Epstein in 2005, the memorial plaque was removed and only re-attached after public protests. In the period from 1954 to 1958 the board shown was provisionally at the house at Türkenstrasse 3 in Vienna- Alsergrund .
- Memorial plaque on his home in Vienna- Meidling , Gaudenzdorfer Gürtel 47.
- Awarded the Otto Glöckel Medal by the City of Vienna, which was donated on the occasion of his 100th birthday in 1974.
- The multifunctional hall in the BG & BRG Wien III Boerhaavegasse was renamed "Otto-Glöckel-Saal" after its founder in 2019 on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of this school.
The following were named after him:
- Schools : In Lower Austria in St. Pölten , Groß-Enzersdorf and Wiener Neustadt , in Upper Austria the Otto-Glöckel-Schule Linz and in Vienna- Hietzing .
- Public traffic areas : In his birthplace Pottendorf and in the 22nd district of Vienna Donaustadt as well as in Grödig , Leoben , Luftenberg , Mattersburg , Neunkirchen , Traiskirchen , Steyr and St.Pölten.
- School and clericalism . Verlag der Wiener Volksbuchhandlung, Vienna 1911.
- The gate of the future . Publishing house of the Free School Association, Vienna 1919.
- November 12th - School reform and popular education in the republic . Verlag der Wiener Volksbuchhandlung, Vienna 1919.
- The Austrian school reform. Some statements in the fight against the spoilers . Verlag Wiener Volksbuchhandlung, Vienna 1923.
- The development of the Viennese school system since 1919 . German publisher, Vienna 1927.
- Drill school, learning school, work school . Publishing house of the Social Democratic Party, Vienna 1928.
- Autobiography . Cooperative printing company, Zurich 1938.
- Oskar Achs / Albert Krassnigg: Drill school, learning school, work school - Ollto Glöckel and the Austrian school reform in the First Republic , Vienna / Munich 1974
- Josef Luitpold Stern : Ten Years of the Republic . Verlag der Wiener Volksbuchhandlung, Vienna 1929.
- Hans Fischl: The nature and development of school reform in Austria . Verlag Jugend und Volk, Vienna / Leipzig 1929.
- Hans Fischl: School reform, democracy and Austria 1918–1950 . Jungbrunnen-Verlag, Vienna 1950.
- Erik Adam: Austromarxism and school reform. In: Erik Adam u. a .: The school and education policy of the Austrian social democracy in the First Republic. Österreichischer Bundesverlag, Vienna 1983, pp. 271–314.
- Grete Anzengruber (Ed.): Otto Glöckel - Myth and Reality. School reforms . Verlag Jugend & Volk, Vienna 1985, ISBN 3-224-19383-2 .
- Gerald Mackenthun : Otto Glöckel - organizer of the Vienna school reform . In: Alfred Lévy, Gerald Mackenthun (Hrsg.): Gestalten around Alfred Adler - pioneers of individual psychology . Verlag Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 2002, ISBN 3-8260-2156-8 , pp. 99-117.
- Willi Urbanek (Ed.): On the search for traces of Otto Glöckel. On Otto Glöckel's educational revolution: historical - content - human . Federal Education Academy, Vienna 2006, ISBN 3-9501954-9-1 ( table of contents ; PDF; 28 kB).
- Bell Otto. In: Austrian Biographical Lexicon 1815–1950 (ÖBL). Volume 2, Publishing House of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna 1959, p. 8 f. (Direct links on p. 8 , p. 9 ).
- Richard Meister : Glöckel, Otto. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 6, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1964, ISBN 3-428-00187-7 , p. 461 f. ( Digitized version ).
- Felix Czeike (Ed.): Historisches Lexikon Wien . Volume 2, Kremayr & Scheriau, Vienna 1993, ISBN 3-218-00544-2 , p. 554 f.
- Literature by and about Otto Glöckel in the catalog of the German National Library
- Otto Glöckel. In: dasrotewien.at - Web dictionary of the Viennese social democracy. SPÖ Vienna (Ed.)
- Equal educational opportunities for everyone: the school reformer Otto Glöckel
- Otto Glöckel Medal of the City of Vienna
- Otto Glöckel - Election speech for the National Council election on November 9, 1930, recorded with a previous announcement October 1930.
- Otto Glöckel on the website of the Austrian Parliament
- ^ City of Vienna, History Wiki: Otto Glöckel
- ^ Lutz Wittenberg: History of the individual psychological experimental school in Vienna. A synthesis of reform pedagogy and individual psychology. (= Dissertations of the University of Vienna, [NF], 87) WUV, Vienna 2002, ISBN 3-85114-739-1 .
- ↑ Equal educational opportunities for everyone: the school reformer Otto Glöckel. Parliamentary Correspondence No. 358 of May 14, 2007.
- ↑ A new plea for comprehensive school is linked to these two opponents, by Karl Josef Westritschnig: Educational policy opponents: Otto Glöckel and Richard Meister . Munich 2012.
- ↑ 100th anniversary of the Boerhaavegasse school on the school's website in 2019.
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Social democratic politician, member of the National Council and school reformer of the First Republic in Austria|
|DATE OF BIRTH||February 8, 1874|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Pottendorf (Lower Austria)|
|DATE OF DEATH||July 23, 1935|
|Place of death||Vienna|