Supporters can be church organizations, social services, associations , partnerships or private individuals. In contrast to municipal school bodies, the independent sponsors are responsible for the teaching staff and for the conceptual design. Private schools are - at least in Europe - under state supervision and generally have a public law status.
Reasons for the formation of private schools are the parents' interest in the respective character, the concern to realize alternative educational concepts , a religious / ideological character or the preservation of a school offer close to home.
An analysis of the 2006 PISA results (natural sciences) shows that in most countries private schools are superior to public schools, but that this is partly due to a different composition of the student body . After taking into account the effects of the family and socio-economic background of the student body , in most of the OECD countries examined (including Germany), public schools prove to be superior to private schools, in some they prove to be equivalent, and in only one OECD country (Canada) Even then, the private schools prove to be superior. For Germany, a study carried out in 2017 by the SPD- affiliated Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung showed that “there are mostly only minor differences between the average competencies achieved in private and public schools”.
Depending on the country, the proportion of pupils attending a privately owned school varies greatly. The OECD average in 2006 was 14%. In Austria it was lower at 10%, in Switzerland at 5%, in Great Britain at 7% and in Germany at 6%. In the 2016/2017 school year, however, every 11th student attended a private school. In 2006, European countries where private schools are relatively widespread were the Netherlands (67% pupil share, but all Dutch private schools are financially dependent on the state), Ireland (58%), Spain (35%) and Denmark (24%).
The private school is a marginal phenomenon in Germany. By contrast, they are quite common in Ireland , Denmark , the Netherlands and the USA . In France and Spain , too , a considerable proportion of primary and secondary school students attend private schools, which are almost exclusively church-run.
In the Middle Ages the private school was common, mostly there were no other schools, so the children of wealthy parents were sent to monastery schools.
As a result of the so-called pill kink and a general public opinion against private schools, many private schools had to close in the 1980s. However, it became clear that the long-established and renowned private schools in particular, with their many years of experience in educational work, emerged stronger from the crisis. Since the 1990s, new private schools have also emerged in the new federal states. These are often smaller schools founded as parents' associations , which implement their own alternatives out of criticism of the public school system.
Situation in individual states
Germany: Independent school
Instead of “private school”, the term “independent school” (also colloquially: “free school”) is preferred in official language.
The right to set up independent schools is expressly guaranteed by Basic Law (GG). The high rank of the guarantee ( Basic Law is one of the basic and human rights) results from the experience of National Socialism . A DC circuit to prevent the formation, the existing legal guarantees of independent schools. This guarantee obliges the state to support the founding of these schools in order not to neglect the right to found “independent schools”.Paragraph 4 of the
The Basic Law explicitly demands that “a separation of the pupils according to the ownership structure of the parents is not promoted” ( ( ) Separation prohibition ), and makes this a prerequisite for the granting of recognition or approval. Michael Wrase and Marcel Helbig from the Berlin Social Science Center , however, come to the conclusion in their study: “The social mix of private schools intended by the Basic Law is not taking place”.
Since the supervision of the school system in Germany is the sovereignty of the federal states , each state decides independently on the approval, recognition and operating conditions for independent schools. The federal states - directly or indirectly through municipal institutions, operators of public schools - thus also supervise their private competition. Newly founded, privately owned schools are not financially supported in the first few years (usually three to four years). Only a few countries pay these withheld funds, at least in part, to the independent schools.
Public funding for teachers in independent schools is part of the salaries of teachers in public schools (usually between 70% and 90%). The difference must be provided by the institution itself, e.g. B. by collecting school fees.
In the 2009/10 school year there were 5200 private schools in Germany. Around three fifths (3,196) of these were primary and secondary schools, special schools or grammar schools, and around two fifths (2,004) vocational schools. In relation to the total number of schools in Germany (43,577), this corresponds to a share of 11.9%. However, the share in general education schools is significantly lower (9.2%) than in vocational schools (22.4%). Of the approximately 11.7 million students, around 945,000 attended private schools. This corresponds to a share of around 8% of the total student population. The proportion in the individual federal states differs greatly: while in Saxony around 13.4% of students study in private schools, in Schleswig-Holstein it is only 3.4%. There are relatively high proportions of around 10% in Bavaria and around 9% in Thuringia.
In 2013 there were 3,370 general and 2,040 private vocational schools. 9% of all students attended private schools. It is estimated that around 50 private schools have been founded by companies.
In the 2016/2017 school year, 9.0% of all students in Germany attended a private school (western Germany without Berlin: 8.8%, eastern Germany with Berlin: 9.9%). One of the characteristics of private schools is a comparatively low proportion of pupils with a migration background: in private primary schools, the percentage of pupils with a migration background was 28.3% in 2016 (in public primary schools: 38.1%); at non-grammar schools it was 19.2% in 2015 (at corresponding public schools: 30.3%) and at grammar schools 17.7% (at public grammar schools: 24.2%).
A distinction is made between substitute schools, which, according to their overall purpose, lead to the same school qualifications as the corresponding public schools and at which one can meet compulsory schooling, and supplementary schools, which complement the existing educational offer at will. According toParagraphs 4 and 5 of the Basic Law, only substitute schools require state approval.
If private schools want to award recognized qualifications (e.g. high school diploma, secondary school diploma, business school diploma) or if their attendance is intended to fulfill compulsory schooling , these are substitute schools whose attendance replaces attending a corresponding public school. Substitute schools require their own state approval or approval and are subject to state supervision.
Such private schools receive state refinancing depending on state law. The obligation to promote private schools results from Basic Law. For a long time, around 90% of the personnel costs that the school received as a public school were common.
With reasons for savings, or in order to maintain or expand one's own creative leeway in school network planning , there are sometimes government efforts to cut subsidies for privately owned schools.
For reasons of comparability of the financial statements, state control should apply everywhere, but it is not equally strong everywhere. In the past, teachers at substitute schools were only granted a teaching permit if their training corresponded to the training of comparable teachers at public schools. Due to a shortage of teachers, teachers without appropriate training have been used for some years now, provided that this is also done in public schools. State-recognized substitute schools conduct the final exams on their own like public schools according to the specifications of the respective ministry of education, as they have been granted state sovereign rights with the recognition. Approved substitute schools, supplementary schools recognized in North Rhine-Westphalia, do not have these sovereign rights, so their students must take so-called external exams or non- student exams in order to receive a corresponding state certificate. Sometimes an external examination board chairman, e.g. B. the school board responsible for the school determined. The individual countries make precise regulations .
Supplementary schools are independent schools that are not substitute schools. Pupils attending a supplementary school usually do not meet the extensive requirements of compulsory schooling . In some Länder, pupils attending a supplementary school can be exempted from compulsory education. The supplementary school can be run as a registered private school after notifying the authorities. In a second step, the indicated school can be granted state recognition as a supplementary school under certain conditions.
Complementary schools can also develop and offer new courses. In the area of vocational education in particular, there are many supplementary schools for which there are no equivalent in public schools, e.g. B. the one-year higher vocational schools, language schools, drama schools or interpreting schools.
Free teaching facilities
Financing and tax considerations
Private schools finance themselves for the most part from a financial equalization for the substitute schools , which varies depending on the state. In Hamburg, Schleswig-Holstein and Hesse, private schools providing general education receive financial aid amounting to 85% of the student costs of public schools; “If you include building costs and provisions, according to the 'Arbeitsgemeinschaft Free Schools Hamburg', it is only 65 percent.” The financial aid for private alternative schools is 90% to 100% of the student costs of public schools. In Baden-Württemberg, the financial aid was increased to at least 80% of the student costs of public schools on August 1, 2017, so that the remaining cost gaps that can be covered with school fees have been further reduced. At primary schools the difference is only € 86. In North Rhine-Westphalia, where financial aid amounts to 94% (for special needs schools 98%) and in Rhineland-Palatinate, financial aid depends on the fact that school attendance is free. However, even this is not controlled by the authorities, as WDR research in NRW has shown. According to the Federal Administrative Court, other personal contributions that have to follow private commitment in addition to school fees include donations to school development associations , grants from financially strong people who stand behind the school authorities and support the school in a broader sense, but also taking out loans.
Insofar as the parents' contributions serve to cover the running costs of normal school operations, these are performance fees and not donations. This also applies if the payments flow to the school association through a support association.
Up to 2008, 30% of the costs for private schools in Germany could be claimed as special expenses without any limitation. From 2009, 30% of the costs can still be claimed, but no more than 5000 euros per year and child. The tax deductibility of care costs remains unaffected by the change.
According to the Federal Statistical Office, around 6.2 billion euros were spent on schoolchildren in independent schools in 2009. A large part of the expenditure was related to the remuneration of the staff. The expenditures per pupil at general education schools in private sponsorship amounted to 7,000 euros, in vocational schools in private sponsorship to 5400 euros in 2009. Around 15% of the funds came from private sources (parents' contributions, sponsorships, development associations, etc.). The share of public funding was 84% (general education schools), of which 78% were provided by the federal states, 4% by the municipalities and 2% by the federal government.
The differences between the school-type-specific funding amounts per pupil provided by the public sector compared to the expenditure of the pupils in a corresponding public school are different. The difference between the two items, averaged across all school types, was between 493 euros per student in Brandenburg and 2949 euros per student in Baden-Württemberg in 2011. By promoting private schools with high financial aid, the state can relieve itself of its obligation to take care of the public school system. In 2011, the federal states relieved themselves of around 1.2 billion euros.
Most recently, the subsidies in Baden-Württemberg have increased to 80%.
In principle, according to the case law of the Federal Constitutional Court , the state is only obliged to secure the subsistence level of the substitute school.
The Association of German Private School Associations (VDP) represents by his own admission "free educational institutions of general and vocational education, the labor market services sector, adult education and tertiary education." Together with the two denominational private school associations, the Federation of Waldorf schools and boarding schools association formed by the VDP the Working Group of Free Schools (AGFS). Since schools in Germany are a matter for the federal states, they operate primarily at the state level.
“As a result of this, around 3,160 schools with around 771,000 pupils are organized in the AGFS. Including at Catholic schools: 368,000 pupils, at Protestant schools: 148,000, at schools in the VDP Verband Deutscher Privatschulverbände e. V .: 168,000, at Waldorf schools: 81,000, at rural education centers: 6,000. Via the VDP, the working group of independent schools also includes the 45 schools of the Federal Association of Independent Alternative Schools. The Working Group of Independent Schools thus represents almost all independent general education schools in Germany as well as a large part of the independent vocational schools and educational institutions. "
According to the VDP, one twelfth of a good 11 million students in Germany attend a free school. Education professionals disagree on whether private schools have more advantages or more disadvantages for society. Proponents say they better serve the needs of students and parents and give the education system a positive boost. Critics say they divide society.
Private School Act
Private schools in Austria are regulated by the Private Schools Act (PrivSchG). The basic rules go back to the Provisional Law on Private Lessons of June 27, 1850.
"Private schools are schools that are established and maintained by other than the statutory school owners."
The school provider must be recognizable from the name of the school ; this must not lead to confusion with the school type of a public school. The use of a legally regulated school type designation is only permitted with the approval of the responsible school authority and is bound to certain requirements regarding curriculum, equipment, school books and teaching qualifications.
Private schools are of one of the following types:
- The private school without public rights requires an external exam to receive a recognized certificate.
- The private school with public rights , which can be granted if
- it corresponds in type and success to a public school,
- it complies with an organizational statute issued or approved by the Minister of Education ( statutory school with public rights ) and has proven itself in terms of its teaching success. This includes, for example, some Waldorf schools , Montessori schools and international schools .
Private schools can be subsidized by the public purse, private schools by legally recognized churches and religious in general always ( ), which does not contradict the Concordat with regard to religious instruction, other types of schools, among other things, provided that they meet the needs of the population in the district, i.e. they do not reduce the move-in of a public school ( ).
In the school year 2010/11 around 10% of the students attended a private school. The highest proportion of 31.8% was found in vocational middle schools, at AHS it was 15.8%, in higher vocational schools 12.2% and in the compulsory school sector (elementary, secondary, special and polytechnic schools) 10, 1 %. By far the most important independent school provider is the Roman Catholic Church in Austria , whose facilities are attended by 53.2% of all private students. This also includes, for example, foreign school forms for diplomatic children that are not established in Austria.
Schools within the meaning of this law are "facilities in which a majority of students are taught together according to a fixed curriculum" (Section 2, line 1). Private schools that do not meet this profile do not fall under the Private School Act, so they are not “schools” in the sense of the legislator. Since there is no compulsory schooling in Austria, but only compulsory instruction , the recognition of the place of education as a school is not a mandatory requirement: These forms of education fall under home schooling . Only proof of the teaching itself and the fulfillment of the basic general teaching content has to be provided.
In addition, there are private non-school educational institutions that comply with School Organization Act and have been able to be certified by the Ministry of the Interior since 2006 according to the Settlement and Residence Act, which helps their students from third countries to obtain residence status . These institutions are obliged to report persons when the training has been completed or the continuation of the training is not expected. The certified educational institutions are published on the Internet. These include institutions such as the Austrian Study Center for Peace and Conflict Resolution , the Vienna State Opera Ballet School and the Aviation Academy Austria of Österreichische Luftfahrttraining GmbH.(1) of the
7% of UK school children attend public schools , the cost of which can be higher than the average annual salary. The name public school goes back to scholarships that a high percentage of students receive and which, unlike in the past, predominantly recognize academic achievement. In general, this is what counts most today; In the 18th and 19th centuries, aristocrats sent their children to public schools on the premise that they should never have to earn anything themselves. For example, in the 19th century, the Eton College curriculum included ancient languages (Latin and Greek), mathematics, and new languages at a ratio of 15: 3: 1.
In principle, anyone in Switzerland can open a private school. There are no quality standards or other regulations as long as the school does not receive any government funding and does not teach children during the compulsory schooling period. The interests of Swiss private schools, some of which rely on an international clientele, are safeguarded by their association, VSP . Practically all known Swiss private schools are members of the VSP.
Early American elite boarding schools were puritanical and anti-English oriented. These included the so-called academies, namely Andover , Exeter , Deerfield and Milton , which had already been founded in the 18th century.
Renowned boys' schools in New England from the mid to late 19th century are grouped together within the Independent School League . Mostly leaning towards the Episcopal Church of the United States of America , the students came mainly from wealthy families. The schools are based on the example of well-known English public schools such as Eton College or Harrow School .
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