Qualification (human resources)
Under qualification ( labor qualifications ; Latin qualis facere , "Texture produce") is generally understood in the industry and especially in human resources resulting from technical competence , social skills and key skill composing suitability of a person for a profession or a particular task .
Professional qualifications are not only the prerequisite for an individual's economic and social status in society , but the national economy also benefits from the qualifications of its workforce . Already the economist Adam Smith pointed out in his book, published in March 1776 The Wealth of Nations out that in a working hour of hard work more job performance might be stuck than two hours of light work. However, it was not until the work on human capital, particularly by Jacob Mincer (1974), Gary Becker (1975) or Theodore W. Schultz (1981), that qualification developed into a central theoretical component.
In Germany in particular, formal school and professional qualifications represent a central element in placing on the job market ; Having no qualifications is associated with the risk of social exclusion . The existing qualifications therefore play a decisive role when choosing a career and when applying for a job, and it ensures access to the job market. Qualifications are required here in order to cope with economic, technological and work-organization tasks. This means that the qualification is primarily based on the demand for work and not on the subjective interests of the job seeker . On the basis of his qualifications he can get a job from an employer if he can meet the employer's qualification requirements. These requirements of the employer arise in turn from the job description of an unoccupied position . Agreeing this with the proven skills of the candidate's agreement, it can cause the setting come. If there is no match ( English mismatch ), it is either under- or over-qualification. While the under-education of a worker to their excessive demands leads to over-education causes a lower demand , both stress cause.
The qualification consists of technical competence, social competence and key qualification.
- The professional competence consists of general education , specialist knowledge and skills ( "skilled workers" ) that are acquired through school education and vocational training and must be evidenced by school reports , school diplomas , professional qualifications , certificates of competence , aptitude tests and job references.
- Among the social skills are usually cooperative and team skills , communication skills , problem solving , assertiveness , goal orientation and willingness to accept responsibility and are only rarely detectable by instruments ( performance appraisal ).
- Key qualifications enable the competent handling of specialist knowledge . Like social skills, key qualifications are cross-professional and form the instrument for acquiring and applying new specialist knowledge.
Professional competence means that the applicant is able to apply the relevant specialist knowledge and skills in relevant cases. Social skills can be used at any time in social interactions . In addition, reflexive qualifications that enable critical and self-confident thinking play an increasingly important role .
Most of the qualification requirements for professions are described in job descriptions. According to Abs. 1 BBiG and HWO certain training occupations are state recognized. According to Abs. 1 BBiG or Abs. 1 Hwo, a training regulation must define the professional skills, knowledge and abilities that are at least the subject of the professional training ( apprenticeship profile). The qualification requirements for each apprenticeship occupation are comprehensively described with a job description.
Exceptionally control laws qualification requirements and stipulate professional qualifications. DRiG , for example, stipulates that only a German is qualified for judicial office who guarantees that he will always stand up for the free democratic basic order within the meaning of the Basic Law and that he is qualified to hold judicial office and has the necessary social skills . In DRiG, a four-year study of law with the first examination and a subsequent preparatory service with the second state examination is required. In the case of civil servants , this is regulated in a similar way in (1) BBG , but foreigners whose home countries have granted a corresponding right to recognition of professional qualifications and who have acquired the necessary qualifications through life and work experience may also acquire civil servant status. According to WpHG, financial analysts had to prove “expertise, care and conscientiousness”.
The Soldiers Act (SG) stipulates that a soldier can be dismissed for a limited period in the first four years of his service if he no longer fulfills the requirements that must be placed on him in his career ( (4) SG) . A cadet who does not for an officer , a medical officer candidate who is not the medical officer , a military music officer candidate who is not military music officer, a sergeant candidate who is not the sergeant , and a sergeant candidate who is not the sergeant are will be released .
Improvement of qualifications
Acquired professional qualifications do not remain constant, but can be improved through experience or operational measures of personnel development such as training on the job , training near the job , professional training or adult and advanced training . Completely different qualifications than the existing ones can be acquired as part of retraining . These instruments serve to further develop the qualifications of employees . This further development of professional qualifications opens up career opportunities because a higher qualification can usually be associated with professional (financial) advancement. This can ideally in a rise of a performing activities with implementing powers to a management role as manager with leadership skills exist.
The application documents with their qualification details are the subject of asymmetrical information , because the applicant could try to give the employer higher qualifications than are actually available before concluding the employment contract , while the employer would like to prevent a wrong judgment and find out the true qualification. This asymmetry is called hidden information ( English hidden information ). A higher qualification usually promises a higher wage , which the employer does not want to pay for a lower qualification. The only way to prevent this situation is through recruitment tests. They are intended to give the employer the opportunity to check the specified qualifications, in particular the applicant's social skills.
Qualification in the job market
The importance of qualifications on the labor market has changed fundamentally, is now of central importance for the future prospects of employees and the decisive individual competitive factor on the labor market. A distinction is made between low, medium and high qualifications on the labor market. The group of low qualifications includes people who have neither completed secondary school nor a professional qualification . Low qualifications are always associated with or without a secondary school certificate. Persons medium qualifications have average maturity or high school or a vocational qualification, persons with high qualifications have a college or university degree . Adolescents can influence their classification into low, medium and high qualifications through higher school qualifications. Working adults can vocational qualifications, references and acquiring hierarchy titles ( power of attorney , power of attorney , Director , Executive ) improve their qualifications. Increased qualification requirements on the part of employers mean that at least a medium level of qualification tends to be required for vacancies , so that only a few vacancies are available for unskilled workers. The risk of unemployment therefore particularly affects low-skilled workers, especially when there is high underemployment in the labor market .
Unskilled workers are people with no professional training, of which unskilled and semi-skilled workers have no vocational training, semiskilled workers a limited education have (from three months to less than two years), while unskilled neither professional training nor a Anlernberuf can prove. As a rule, these workers do not have to meet any special qualification requirements.
Highly qualified foreigners from non- EU member states can receive an EU Blue Card in accordance with Residence Act (AufenthG) if they have a recognized German or foreign university degree or a qualification comparable to at least five years of professional experience. According to Residence Act, scientists with special technical knowledge or teachers in a prominent position or academic staff in a prominent position are considered to be highly qualified .
The recognition of a professional qualification within the EU is regulated in Directive 2005/36 / EC of the European Parliament . In the case of regulated professions , a corresponding qualification is required by law to carry out the work. In Germany, the law to improve the determination and recognition of professional qualifications acquired abroad provides for the possibility of establishing the equivalence of foreign professional qualifications. In Austria, the Recognition and Assessment Act (AuBG) has been regulating the recognition of qualifications acquired abroad, including the transfer of educational certificates , since July 2016 .
The BAMF study "entitled to asylum and recognized refugees in Germany" 1/2016 with a survey from the year 2014, according to 16.4% of all refugees were illiterate and have no vocational training / study to 61.7%. The Syrian refugees have the worst labor market positioning of the three groups examined in this brief analysis (Afghanistan, Iraq, Syria).
- Kerstin Steinhäuser: Modular post-qualification under the sign of modern educational economy , 2003, p. 28.
- Adam Smith: An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations , 1831, p. 14.
- Roland Anhorn / Frank Bettinger (eds.): Social exclusion and social work , 2005, p. 351.
- Christiane Schiersmann: Vocational Training , 2007, p. 46.
- Horst Philipp Bauer / Inga Enderle: Career through technical schools for business administration , 2015, p. 33 f.
- Vanessa Kubek: Humanity of professional participation under the sign of inclusion , 2012, p. 128.
- Werner Eichhorst / Stefan Profit / Eric Thode: Benchmarking Germany , 2001, p. 365.
- New Recognition and Assessment Act. (No longer available online.) In: Austrian Integration Fund. Archived from the original on October 2, 2017 ; accessed on May 24, 2017 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Effective immediately: Recognition Act for qualifications acquired abroad. Federal Ministry for Europe, Integration and Foreign Affairs (BMEIA), July 13, 2016, accessed on May 24, 2017 .
- Susanne Worbs / Eva Bund: BAMF short analysis , “Asylum seekers and recognized refugees in Germany. Qualification structure, labor market participation and future orientations ” , 1/2016, p. 4 f. accessed on November 15, 2016.