human Resource

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The three Us as influencing factors on human resources

Human resources (including personnel management , personnel management, English Human Resource Management , abbreviation HRM , or Workforce Management ) refers to the area of business that deals with the production factor work and the staff apart sets. Human resources is an existing function in all organizations , the core tasks of which are the provision and target-oriented deployment of personnel. In personnel practice, many companies refer in addition to the management processes one of the staff and the interaction and emotion.

Modern personnel management aims - taking into account aspects of social and environmental compatibility - towards sustainable success. For this purpose, the knowledge, methods and instruments of quality management ( TQM , EFQM ) and corporate governance are applied. Human resource management is expected to make a contribution to maintaining and adding value in the long term. For this, the needs of all stakeholders must be taken into account. In order to achieve corporate goals, goal-oriented measures and resource planning in the personnel area and a suitable corporate culture are required .

The specific design of the individual areas in the individual company is also called personnel policy. As part of the corporate policy , the behavior and the course of action to achieve the operational goals are determined. In some cases, such provisions are laid down in a corporate mission statement or specified by means of work instructions.

While the English term workforce management represents a rather limited and instrumental view of human resources , i.e. regards the employee as an instrument for realizing corporate goals, the term human resource management implies a broader perspective that also includes aspects of personnel development , i.e. the employees understood as resources or important assets of the company.


Economic and social processes are causally related to one another. A high level of employee satisfaction leads to higher work productivity , more creative research and development , lower operating costs , a longer period of service , long-term retention of highly qualified employees ("talents") and increased interest in high-quality applicants, fewer sick days and absenteeism , lower personnel costs , higher performance, faster reaction to changes on the market. However, many experts agree that long-term job satisfaction is difficult to achieve, especially if there is a lack of varied demands and appreciation.

The goals of human resource management are to ensure efficiency and productivity and thus jobs, safeguarding ability and motivation to work, attracting and retaining suitable employees at reasonable costs, shaping and improving the working atmosphere and management culture, and bundling all forces towards the corporate goal .

Some requirements for human resources are mandatory: the fulfillment of the duty of care as an employer, job security (fire protection, emission protection, environmental protection), observance of employee participation .

In terms of personnel strategy, specific goals for managers, teams and employees can be derived from this.

Main functions

The fields of action of human resource management include: B. to distinguish between personnel planning, personnel requirement coverage, personnel management, personnel development, remuneration structure and personnel administration. These tasks are carried out by the HR department. The main functions of human resource management are:

Human Resources Management

Personnel management is the goal-oriented involvement of employees and managers in the company's tasks. It is part of the company's management . This includes corporate culture, leadership style and management models , leadership and motivation , leadership tools , individual and team leadership , suggestion system and idea management , salary structure and incentive systems and leadership span . Leadership psychology or leadership research deals with personnel management .

Personnel planning

Personnel planning determines and plans future personnel requirements . It is part of corporate planning and takes into account future corporate development and strategy on the one hand and population development and the expected change in the workforce on the other. A distinction must be made between:

  • Personnel planning for individual employees: It concerns career planning, career planning, succession planning, staffing planning.
  • Collective personnel planning: It includes the company groups, specialist departments or the entire company, e.g. B. Workforce planning, workforce requirements planning, collective workforce planning and personnel cost planning. Planning future (strategic) personnel costs is also part of personnel planning .

The aim of personnel planning is to determine the personnel capacities that are required to ensure the fulfillment of operational functions.

Basically, personnel planning should answer the following questions: When ( time dimension ) which department ( local dimension ) needs how many ( quantitative dimension ) employees with which skills or qualifications ( qualitative dimension ).

Personnel Development (PE)

Personnel development includes all measures to maintain and improve the qualifications of employees. This includes education , training , retraining , training , supervision and coaching . Personnel development promotes professional competence , social competence , leadership competence , key qualifications .

The prerequisite is a continuous assessment of the situation : Personnel assessment by assessment centers , 360-degree feedback, etc. and their recording in a qualification database. The employee survey is an irreplaceable tool. In addition to collecting data, the survey feedback already includes the analysis of the results and the implementation in improvement measures, without which surveys are pointless. At the end of an employment relationship is a work certificate issued.

Methods of PE are: training new employees , sponsorship and mentoring systems, coaching , advanced training , further education , job rotation , job enlargement , job enrichment , project collaboration and responsibility , team development , temporary leadership , internship and stay abroad, learning through teaching , Additional and postgraduate studies and many more.

Personnel development is a decisive competitive factor .

Personal communication

For internal corporate communication include information management , knowledge management , intranet , company magazine , bulletin board , staff meeting , corporate wiki , but also the design of pause meetings (meeting point) and the canteen.

External communication includes contacts to personnel consultants, employment agencies, recruiters, temporary employment agencies, universities, schools, chambers of crafts, associations.

On the other hand, public relations, press work and marketing usually belong directly to management or sales .

Cooperation with the works or staff council

The works council or staff council has a representative of the employees of central importance in the company and is an important partner for the management. Personnel administration is an important cooperation partner and is jointly responsible for shaping the cooperation.

HR management

Personnel administration handles administrative and comprehensive informational tasks in human resources. The establishment of personnel information systems , the creation of personnel files , accounting and information tasks, reports to employment agencies or professional associations, data protection and correspondence should be mentioned here.

Recruitment or personnel marketing

The recruitment is often called Personalmarketing referred. It includes all measures to provide the employees required for the company. A distinction is made in recruiting and personnel marketing:

Personnel deployment

The workforce than that period starting with the first day and ends with the expiry of the contract. As a human resources application phases personnel access phase (see apply staff introduction ), personnel main application phase and the attrition phase with the lay-off . The latter can result in warnings or terminations . But old-age pensions , retirement , partial retirement , early retirement , business closure / shutdown , short-time work / free shift or expatriate management can also be topics here.

Human resource control

The Human Resources Control (as part of the personnel controlling) as the monitoring and investigation of the events in human resources. Individual problems of personnel control are the reduction in personnel costs , fluctuation and absenteeism , and an increase in work productivity or work performance. The human resources control represents an essential part of the human resource management process and follows on from the personnel planning, recruiting or deployment phase, but also has a process-accompanying effect.

Personnel controlling

The personnel controlling as a performance-related coordination function that connects the process of planning, monitoring and controlling the supply of information. As an effective personnel controlling, it is parallel or superimposed on the personnel management process. As area controlling, it supports the HR manager in performing their tasks. The leadership Controlling aimed at managers.

Personnel organization

Personnel organization as the structuring of static, exponential and dynamic relationships in human resource management. It consists of:

Here, the personnel management uses organizational theoretical approaches from organizational sociology and psychology .

Fee management

The staff remuneration as a processing function for all monetary services of the company to the staff, which are directly related to their services. As a reward forms are time wages , piecework , premium wage and participation wage . The level of personnel wages is always the subject of many disputes between employers and employees. Topics related to remuneration are e.g. B. wages , wage costs , payroll , wages , sick pay , social security , social security contributions and payroll taxes .

Personnel care

The personnel management as a comprehensive service function with all the facilities, activities and services that send personnel on the agreed consideration also. Examples are social law , social affairs and social measures. The additional personnel costs of employers for employee contributions to social security, Christmas or vacation pay are sometimes considerable.

Personnel policy

The personnel policy encompasses both fundamental decisions regarding the alignment of human resource management and personnel work and on the other hand the political process legitimate and not legitimate actors to carry out their interests.

Employment Law

In a system that is standardized in terms of labor law, as in Germany, the human resources department has to deal in particular with labor law as the entirety of all legal rules that deal with dependent, dependent work . A distinction must be made between:

Research area

The economist Christian Scholz (2014) outlined three influential generations of human resource management research in German-speaking countries with different historical origins and approaches / orientations. In the meantime, a fourth generation, which cannot yet be fully represented schematically, has emerged, which initially oriented itself in theoretical discussions on economics . Since the late 1990s, she turned back to business administration.

  1. Erich Kosiol / Eberhard Witte (empirical), Franz Goossens (pragmatic), Herbert Hax (politically oriented), Guido Fischer / Wilhelm Hasenack (normative-ethical), August Marx (economic). Further origins were theoretical and behavioristic.
  2. Hans Jürgen Drumm , Jan S. Krulis-Randa , Wolfgang H. Staehle , Gerhard Reber , Eduard Gaugler . During this time, contents were worked out, theoretical approaches presented and empirical work carried out.
  3. Karl-Friedrich Ackermann / Christian Scholz / Jürgen Berthel (Management), Erich Potthoff / Rolf Wunderer (Management and Controlling), Dudo von Eckardstein / Wolfgang Weber (Development), Joachim Hentze / Michel Domsch (Information), Rainer Marr / Walter A. Oechsler (planning and administration). State of the art of the research area.

See also


  • Jürgen Berthel, Fred G. Becker: Personnel Management. Basics for conceptions of company personnel work. 9th edition. Schäffer-Poeschel, Stuttgart 2010, ISBN 978-3-7910-2909-2 .
  • Reiner Bröckermann: Human Resources. Text and exercise book for human resource management. 5th edition. Schäffer-Poeschel, Stuttgart 2009, ISBN 978-3-7910-2839-2 .
  • Rolf Bühner: Personnel Management. 3. Edition. Oldenbourg, Munich / Vienna 2005, ISBN 3-486-57664-X .
  • Hans Jürgen Drumm: Human Resources. 6th edition. Springer, Berlin / Heidelberg 2008, ISBN 978-3-540-77696-3 .
  • Rainer Marr (Hrsg.): Euro-strategic personnel management (= special volume of the journal for personnel research ). 2 volumes, Rainer Hampp Verlag, Munich [u. a.] 2001, ISBN 3-87988-013-1 .
  • Walter A. Oechsler: Personnel and Work. 9th edition. Oldenbourg, Munich 2011, ISBN 978-3-486-59670-0 .
  • Ruth Rosenberger: Human Capital Experts. The discovery of human resource management in the Federal Republic of Germany. Oldenbourg, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-486-58620-6 .
  • Ruth Stock-Homburg: Personnel Management: Theories - Concepts - Instruments. 2nd Edition. Gabler, Wiesbaden 2010, ISBN 978-3-8349-1986-1 .
  • Max Ringlstetter , Stephan Kaiser: Human Resource Management. Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-486-58415-8 .
  • Wilhelm Schmeisser, Maike Andresen, Stephan Kaiser: Personalmanagement , UVK Verlagsgesellschaft mbH / UTB, Munich 2012, ISBN 978-3-8252-3733-2 .
  • Christian Scholz: Basics of human resource management . 1st edition. Vahlen, 2011, ISBN 978-3-8006-3597-9 .
  • Andreas von Schubert: Human Resource Management Entrepreneurial task and social responsibility . 1st edition. Wayküll, 2013, ISBN 978-3-944499-00-0 .

Web links

Wiktionary: Human Resources  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. ^ E. Gaugler, WA Oechsler, W. Weber: Personalwesen. In: Concise dictionary of human resources. Edited by Gaugler / Oechsler / Weber, 3rd edition, Stuttgart 2004, Sp. 1653
  2. ^ Ron Friedman: The Best Place to Work: The Art and Science of Creating an Extraordinary Workplace. TarcherPerigee, Reprint 2015.
  3. J. Berthel, FG Becker, Personalmanagement, 9th edition, Stuttgart 2010, p. 211 ff
  4. R. Stock-Homburg, Personalmanagement, 2nd edition, Wiesbaden 2010, p. 99 ff.
  5. HJ Drumm: Personalwirtschaft, 6th edition, Berlin / Heidelberg 2008, pp. 195 ff.
  6. J. Hentze, A. Kammel: Personalwirtschaftslehre 1, 7th edition, Bern / Stuttgart / Vienna 2001, p. 189 ff.
  7. ^ R. Bühner: Personalmanagement, 3rd edition, Munich / Vienna 2005, p. 29
  8. ^ Rahn, HJ: Prozessorientierter Personalwesen, Hamburg 2012, p. 39
  9. Eckardstein, Dv: Personalpolitik, in: Handwortbuch des Personalwesens, ed. E. Gaugler, WA Oechsler, W. Weber, 3 ed., Stuttgart 2004, Sp. 1616–1630
  10. ^ Christian Scholz : Personnel Management. Information-oriented and behavioral basics (= Vahlens handbooks of economics and social sciences ). 6th edition, Vahlen, Munich 2014, ISBN 978-3-8006-3680-8 , p. 47 ff.