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With staff of are employers employed workers referred to within an institutionally guaranteed order ( operating procedures ) a work performance against earnings yield.


In a scientifically more precise definition, the staff is called the workforce . As an operational production factor , the personnel is an object, but above all it has a subject character. Personnel is managed in larger organizational units by Human Resources or HR departments and is the subject of personnel measures such as recruitment , training , advanced training , in-house training , employee evaluation , promotion , demotion , transfer , retirement and dismissal . The staff development to the education and training and the additional training ahead of the employees. Be on the staff personnel files out.

Business and private personnel

A distinction is made between:

As staff within the meaning of the workforce that are the realization of business processes employed, paid employee of a company or an authority designated. In contrast, unpaid employees are considered volunteers and volunteers . The term personnel thus indicates supra-individual orders, in which people do not act arbitrarily, but provide services for the overarching goals of organizations. This service provision requires good staff motivation . The fact that there are personnel is the result of production based on the division of labor , which is controlled by an institutional order. This order is reflected in organizations that use structures to regulate relationships over a relatively long period in order to achieve organizational goals. As permanent staff is professionally experienced people who stuck in a designated organizational unit participate, unlike trainees , should be learners , jumpers or temporary workers .

Service staff (or private staff) refers to employees employed outside of the business area in private households (such as domestic staff ) or other areas attributable to private life (such as hunting helpers) for a fee. A large number of staff to support lavish private life is a regular feature of the upper-class lifestyle . The private staff triggers higher costs than the business staff insofar as the costs of the private staff cannot be deducted as business expenses, but are to be paid from the employer's taxed income.

Public administration staff

Employees and civil servants work in the administration . You work in the general administrative service , in the medical service , in the police enforcement service , in the fire-fighting service , in the correctional service , in the tax service , in the scientific service or in another specialization . In addition, lawyers , computer scientists , political scientists and social pedagogues work for public bodies. They are subject to the principles of careers . A change or a secondment can only take place within a career. For each position there is a job evaluation and a classification . A special type of staff is the overhang staff. These are people who are currently not employed, but who continue to be part of the public service. In the administration, all groups are represented by the main staff council. The legal basis for civil servants is derived from civil service law , for salaried employees from labor law .

Miscellaneous and delimitations

The English term “ personal computer ” (abbreviated: PC) has nothing to do with the term “personal” described here, but has to be translated as a personal calculating machine .

An "identity card" is only an identity card for members of the staff in Switzerland; in Germany and Austria it contains the personal details of a person and serves as an identity card as proof of identity.

See also


  • WA Oechsler: Personal und Arbeit , 8th edition, Munich / Vienna 2006
  • E. Gaugler, WA Oechsler, W. Weber: Personalwesen , in: Handwortbuch des Personalwesens , Ed. E. Gaugler, WA Oechsler, W. Weber, 3rd edition, Stuttgart 2004, Sp. 1653
  • K. Olfert: Personalwirtschaft , 14th edition, Herne 2010

Web links

Wiktionary: Personal  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Walter A. Oechsler, Personal und Arbeit , 2006, p. 1
  2. Klaus Olfert, Personalwirtschaft , 2010, p. 24
  3. Oswald Neuberger, Micropolitical Approaches of Personnel Management , in: Eduard Gaugler / Walter A. Oechsler / Wolfgang Weber (eds.), Handwortbuch des Personalwesens , 3rd edition, Stuttgart 2004, Sp. 1195
  4. ↑ Surplus staff - accessed May 28, 2019
  5. Erwin Schütz, Joachim Maiwald, Comment: Official law of the federal and state governments
  6. Fürst, online database for federal and state civil servant law, judge law and military law , 2014