Information management generally stands for the administration of information ; however, the term is defined differently in the specialist literature. The dynamic environment of information technology development and the various scientific disciplines (particularly business informatics, which deals with information and communication management) are the reason for this.
Strategic information management in the military context is defined by Carsten Bockstette as planning, designing, managing, coordinating, deploying and controlling information as a means of successfully fulfilling a mission.
In general, strategic information management is referred to by various authors as planning, designing, monitoring and controlling information and communication in organizations in order to achieve strategic goals.
Information management is the intersection of management tasks and the operational function known as the information function . The objective (task) is the creation of task-oriented information processing and communication as well as ensuring the information and communication ability of an organization through the development, maintenance and operation of the information infrastructure . The actual (core) information function is responsible for answering the question of who should do something to achieve the objective (organization, outsourcing, etc.). Within the framework of the information infrastructure, the question of what is answered at the management level and the information systems and information technology at the information resource levels.
In larger companies, the top executive in information management is often referred to as the chief information officer (CIO). Systematic procedures, more precise methods, techniques and tools for processing information management tasks are summarized under the name information engineering .
The boundaries between information management, communication management , knowledge management , documentation and information management as well as business informatics are blurred. The tasks in the areas mentioned often overlap.
The individual models represented in the literature can be categorized into four groups. They all describe the activity of the management of information systems from different perspectives:
- Architecture models ( ARIS )
- task-oriented approaches,
- Problem-oriented approaches (EWIM),
- process-oriented approaches ( ITIL , COBIT ).
Information management according to Stahlknecht, Hasenkamp
Stahlknecht and Hasenkamp understand the term information management to mean:
- primarily the task of obtaining the "third production factor" information for the company (after capital and labor) and making it available in a suitable information structure, and
based on this, the task of creating the necessary IT infrastructure, d. H. the IT and human resources for the provision of information
- planning ,
- procure and
- to use .
Information management according to Krcmar
According to Helmut Krcmar's framework model , information management includes everyone
"(...) management tasks, on the one hand on three levels (according to the objects treated)
- Information economy (subject: supply, demand and use of information) ,
- Information systems (subject: data, processes, application life cycle) ,
- ICT technology (subject: storage, processing, communication, technology bundle) ,
on the other hand across the levels as
- Management tasks in information management (subject: IT governance, strategy, IT processes, IT staff, IT controlling)
must be realized. "
Information management according to Mertens
- Long-term planning for the further development of IT ,
- IT as a means of strengthening the company's strategic position,
- Information as a corporate resource,
- Effective and economical supply of the company with the necessary information,
- Management of the technical and human resources used.
Information management according to Weber
The aim of information management is to use information as a success factor in competition efficiently and effectively. This requires management that perceives the importance of the information for the company.
Information management according to Heinrich
Information management is understood as "the management in the company in relation to information and communication" and includes "all management tasks that deal with information and communication ..." . The entirety of the tasks that deal with information and communication (information and communication tasks) is referred to as the information function. The model of Lutz J. Heinrich called circuit-centered approach to information management.
The aim of information management is to set up an information infrastructure and to design and use it in such a way that optimal support for the information function is enabled and an optimal contribution is made to the company's success.
For the implementation of the goals, information management tasks are defined on a strategic, administrative and operational level. The information infrastructure is planned, monitored and controlled at a strategic level; Planning, monitoring and control for the components of the information infrastructure take place at the administrative level. B. for application systems and employees. The operational level includes tasks related to the use of the information infrastructure (network services, maintenance, etc.).
At each task level, methods, techniques and tools are used to support task completion. The entirety of these methods, techniques and tools and their application for company-wide planning, analysis, design and implementation of information systems is information engineering .
Ubiquitous Information Management
The aim of ubiquitous information management is to build a suitable information infrastructure and to manage and use it in such a way that optimal support of any information function of the different technical and business IT solutions, at any place at any time, with different access media, is possible and optimal To contribute to the company's success. This definition expands the Heinrich definition by a comprehensive and omnipresent facet.
Information resource management
Information resource management deals with the use, planning and control of external and internal information resources within a company or other organization . Information is understood as a production factor. The management has the task of ensuring the availability of the production factors and providing suitable resources to meet the demand for information. This also includes the creation and maintenance of internal and external information supply facilities.
Personal information management
The point of consideration here is the handling of information at the (personal) workplace. The management supports individual information processing by performing operational and administrative tasks.
Process-oriented information management
With this approach, the company organization is strategically aligned with the business processes, consequently the information infrastructure is also designed to support the business processes. Management includes the integration of the functional areas into information processing.
Management-centered information management
The management acts in a leadership-oriented manner with regard to information and communication in the company. All management tasks that deal with information and communication in the company and in the corporate environment are included. This IM approach can be paraphrased with the requirement that every manager should consider in all decisions whether the company goals can be achieved better through the use of information and communication technologies than without it. If so, the use of technology must be brought about and promoted through management decisions.
This approach is represented by Lutz J. Heinrich .
Psychology-based information management
In this approach, which is particularly relevant for retail companies , all management decisions about the procurement of information from the partners and the transfer of information to the partners in the four markets of a retail company - sales, procurement, competitive and internal markets - are checked from a psychostrategic and tactical point of view. Psychology-based information management is at the center of modern retail psychology .
Management of information (s)
The task of management is to ensure the information economy balance in the company or organization. Information is understood as a production factor, so it can be produced. The area of responsibility includes:
- Recording of the information requirement: All information necessary for optimal task fulfillment must be identified and consolidated in detail. It is necessary here to specify the information content , the form of presentation, the time of the need and the context.
- Planning the information offer : All internal information stocks and sources of information must be recorded. The external information offered must also be analyzed. These steps result in the definition of an information source portfolio.
- Making the required information available : Access to internal information sources must be ensured from a technical and legal point of view, this also applies to external information sources. Information must be prepared appropriately (physically and logically).
- Organization of information supply : information must be assigned to the organizational units and regulated by suitable policies. The responsibility for maintaining the data stocks must be laid down. The use of information must take place with suitable mechanisms and procedures.
The above tasks are a rough description of the analysis tasks, strategic tasks, implementation tasks and operational tasks of information management.
Information systems management
The management of information systems deals with the use of information technology to fulfill and support operational information tasks (see section ´Management of Information´). The definition of the information system is still scientifically controversial, but in general the (application system) + (human) = (information system) is summarized here. The application system is understood to mean (hardware system) + (software system) = (application system). The scope of duties includes
- Generation of project ideas :
- (economic) We are looking for attractive areas of application in information technology and the business areas that are critical for the company's success are being identified. As a result, suggestions for improvement and organizational innovations are generated, which are linked with suitable information technology and technology.
- (Scientific) Attractive areas of application for information technology and technology are sought and new uses for information technology and technology are identified. After evaluating the usability of the different techniques and technologies, areas of application can be worked out.
- (application-oriented) We are looking for possible uses of information technology and technology that result in an improvement and / or expansion of the existing application systems. In doing so, gaps and weaknesses in existing systems are uncovered and suitable techniques and technologies are identified, which bring about an improvement or expansion in the respective application system.
- Compilation of the project portfolio : The projects are defined on the basis of their goals and content as well as determining the time and resource requirements. After analyzing project dependencies, the projects can be evaluated and selected according to suitable criteria (e.g. economic benefit).
- Realization of the application systems : The realization is the task of software technology or systems engineering .
- Introduction of the application systems: New systems have to be introduced both technically (e.g. installation and integration), organizationally (introduction of new or changed work processes) and in terms of personnel (notification, familiarization, acceptance).
Enterprise Architecture Frameworks (EAF) are used for the strategic management of information systems in a company. The aim is to fulfill the business performance process with the help of the information system. For example, the processes at the technical level are based on resources at the physical level. EAF help the information manager to grasp the complexity of the corporate architecture (e.g. by structuring according to an architecture reference model) and to ensure integrations, interoperability, etc. (e.g. by adding a process model ).
There are over fifty EAFs whose concepts also take into account special company characteristics and thus special information system structures (Virtual Enterprises, Extended Enterprises, etc.).
According to Lutz J. Heinrich, the strategic tasks of information management include :
- Acquisition of information , information acquisition for planning, monitoring and control for the effective creation, maintenance and use of the information infrastructure
- Strategy development, development of the IT strategy
- Strategic situation analysis , determination of the strategic role of the information function
- Strategic goal planning , definition of strategic IT goals
- Strategic planning of measures , planning of the measures to achieve the strategic IT goals according to the IT strategy
The strategic level of the information management tasks are based on the view of information as a strategic success factor. The strategic level creates the conditions for the design and use of the information infrastructure at the administrative level. The architecture of the information infrastructure is therefore determined.
Strategic situation analysis
The situation analysis precedes the target planning and includes the determination of the roles of the information function as well as the determination of the internal and external conditions for the implementation of the performance potential of the information function. There are four strategic roles for information functions:
- Breakthrough , the future performance potential is to be assessed as high, with currently low performance potential. The importance of information management is accelerated, which results in strategic and administrative tasks (building a high-performance information infrastructure)
- Factory , the importance of information management will be reduced in the future. There are administrative tasks to maintain and develop existing information systems, operational tasks remain
- Support , future and current performance potential is assessed as low. The importance of information management in the company is low, there are primarily operational tasks (operation of current information systems).
- Weapon , given the current importance of information management, this will be pushed further. Tasks from all sub-areas of information management arise (strategic, administrative, operational)
The strategic situation analysis can be divided into further sub-areas, for example into
- Analysis of the competitive situation
- Analysis of the information infrastructure
- Property analysis
- Component analysis
- Environmental analysis
The individual processes of the analyzes run analogously. First, the factors that characterize the matter are determined, then the actual state is ascertained and compared with the target state after this has been defined.
Strategic goal planning
Strategic target planning is a prerequisite for strategy development and strategic action planning. It is preceded by the situation analysis. The aim of strategic target planning is to define the technical and formal goals in the company (strategic goals). This can be done in a reacting, acting or interacting manner. The following points must be defined:
- Initial situation , see situation analysis
- Target content , subject of target planning, what is it about?
- Target standards , definition of the measured variables
- Extent of target achievement , claim for improvement, how much should be achieved?
- Timing , time specification, by when should it be achieved?
- Relationships between goals, are the goals complementary (goal 1 increases / decreases with goal 2), conflicting (goal 1 increases and goal 2 drops) or indifferent (goal 1 increases and goal 2 remains unchanged)?
Once the above points have been defined, you can move on to strategy development.
The strategy development defines the way (strategy) according to which the strategic measures are to be taken. It is therefore the prerequisite for strategic action planning. The components and properties of the information infrastructure as well as the formal goals of the company are included in the development. The result of the development should be a consistent strategy that incorporates the culture and characteristics of the company. You classify strategies
- Momentum strategy
depending on their characteristics.
Strategic action planning
The task of strategic IT planning is to develop the strategic IT plan for the company-wide, long-term design of the information infrastructure that has a positive impact on the competitive position. This is based on the result of the strategic situation analysis and that of the strategic target planning, taking into account the IT strategy. The measures to achieve the strategic IT goals as part of the IT strategy, i.e. the strategic measures to design the information infrastructure, are developed and the necessary budgets are planned. With the strategic planning of measures, the scope for action (the potential for success) is created for the plannable realization of success on the administrative and operational level of information management.
Administrative tasks are characterized by the fact that they deal with individual but essential components of the information infrastructure (e.g. projects, personnel, data system) or with individual but essential properties of the information infrastructure (e.g. protection and security).
The administrative tasks include:
- Crisis Intelligence
- Data management
- Business process management
- Disaster management
- Human resource management
- Project management
- Security management
- Contract management
- Knowledge management
In addition to strategic and administrative tasks, information management includes other tasks that are often classified as operational tasks and sometimes as analysis tasks or implementation tasks .
The operational tasks include:
education and study
Information management is now offered as an optional subject at many universities, often as a branch of business informatics . In contrast, the range of full-fledged courses is still manageable:
Studying at universities:
- TU Kaiserslautern : "Applied Computer Science - Information Management"
- University of Augsburg and TU Munich : "Finance and Information Management" (Master)
- University of Hildesheim : "International Information Management" and "Information Management and Information Technology"
- University of Koblenz-Landau : "Information Management" (Bachelor and Master).
- University of Lüneburg : "Management & Data Science" (Master)
- University of Oldenburg : "Business Informatics II" (Bachelor and Master)
Studies at universities of applied sciences:
- HAW Hamburg : "Library and Information Management" (Bachelor)
- Frankfurt University of Applied Sciences , Frankfurt am Main location: "Strategic Information Management" (Master)
- University of Applied Sciences Potsdam : "Information and Data Management" (Bachelor)
- University of Hanover : "Information Management"
- FH Joanneum in Graz, Austria: "Information Management" (Bachelor and Master)
- FH Kaiserslautern , Zweibrücken location: "Information Management" (Bachelor and Master)
- Anhalt University of Applied Sciences : "Information Management" (Master)
- Ludwigshafen University of Applied Sciences : "Business Informatics with a Focus on Information Management & Consulting"
- University of Applied Sciences Neu-Ulm (FH) : "Information Management and Corporate Communication", "Information Management in Health Care" and "Information Management Automotive"
- Osnabrück University of Applied Sciences : "Business Information Management"
- University of Trier : "Information Systems - Information Management"
- Provadis University , Frankfurt am Main: "Business Information Management" (Bachelor)
- Technical University of Brandenburg , Brandenburg an der Havel: "Information Management" (Bachelor)
- Technical University of Cologne : "IT Management (Computer Science)" (Bachelor)
Higher technical schools
- Higher technical college for technology Mittelland in Switzerland. Degree course "Business Information Technology" (technician)
- Enterprise Content Management (ECM), information management sub-area with a focus on weakly structured information
- Expert system
- Information broker
- IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL)
- Knowledge representation
- Dirk Matthes: Enterprise Architecture Frameworks Compendium. Over 50 frameworks for information management. 1st edition. Springer Science + Business Media , 2011, ISBN 978-3-642-12954-4 . Web link
- J. Biethahn, H. Mucksch, W. Ruf: Holistic information management . Volume 1: Basics, 6th edition. Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, ISBN 3-486-20020-8 .
- W. Gora, C. Schulz-Wolfgramm (Ed.): Information management: manual for practice . Springer Verlag, Berlin et al. 2003, ISBN 3-540-44056-9 .
- LJ Heinrich: Information management - planning, monitoring and controlling the information infrastructure . 1st to 3rd and 8th edition with co-authors, Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, Munich / Vienna
- LJ Heinrich, D. Stelzer: Information management - basics, tasks, methods . 9th and 10th edition. Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, Munich / Vienna 2009 and 2011 ( http://www.informationsmanagement-buch.org/ )
- LJ Heinrich, R. Riedl, D. Stelzer: Information management - basics, tasks, methods . 11th edition. Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, Munich / Vienna 2014, ISBN 978-3-11-034664-0 , e-ISBN (PDF) 978-3-11-035306-8, e-ISBN (EPUB) 978-3-11-039759-8 .
- K. Hildebrand: Information management: Competitive information processing with standard software and the Internet . 2nd Edition. Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, Munich / Vienna 2001, ISBN 3-486-25608-4 .
- T. Pietsch, L. Martiny, M. Klotz: Strategic information management - meaning, conception and implementation . 4th edition. Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin 2004, ISBN 3-503-06086-3 .
- H. Krcmar: Information Management . 5th edition. Springer, Berlin a. a, 2009, ISBN 978-3-642-04285-0 .
- H.-O. Schenk: Psychology in retail. 2nd Edition. Munich / Vienna 2007, ISBN 978-3-486-58379-3 .
- Ch. Schlögl: Inventory of information management . Deutscher Universitätsverlag, Wiesbaden, ISBN 3-8244-7349-6 .
- G. Schmidt: Information management - models, methods, techniques . 2nd Edition. Springer Verlag, Berlin et al. 1999, ISBN 3-540-66361-4 .
- J. Schwarze: Information management - planning, management, coordination and control of the information supply in the company . Verlag Neue Wirtschafts-Briefe, Herne 1998.
- S. Voß, K. Gutenschwager: Information Management . Springer Verlag, Berlin 2001, ISBN 3-540-67807-7 .
- R. Zarnekow, W. Brenner, H. Grohmann (Eds.): Information management . dpunkt.verlag, Heidelberg 2004, ISBN 3-89864-278-X . (Review and excerpts)
- R. Zarnekow, W. Brenner, U. Pilgram: Integrated information management - strategies and solutions for the management of IT services . Springer Verlag, Wiesbaden 2004, ISBN 3-540-23303-2 .
- Over fifty Enterprise Architecture Frameworks (EAF) to support information management within the framework map (PDF; 504 kB)
- Carsten Bockstette, Siegfried Quandt, Walter Jertz (ed.): Strategic information and communication management. Handbook of security communication and media work. Bernard & Graefe Verlag, 2006.
- Peter Stahlknecht, Ulrich Hasenkamp: Introduction to Business Information Systems. 11th edition. Springer, Berlin / Heidelberg / New York 2005, ISBN 3-540-01183-8 , p. 437.
- Helmut Krcmar: Information management . 2015, ISBN 978-3-662-45862-4 , doi : 10.1007 / 978-3-662-45863-1 ( springer.com [accessed May 11, 2018]).
- Peter Mertens, Freimut Bodendorf, Wolfgang König, Matthias Schumann, Thomas Hess: Fundamentals of business informatics . Ed .: Peter Mertens et al. 12th edition. Springer Gabler, 2017, p. 159 ff ., doi : 10.1007 / 978-3-662-53362-8 ( springer.com [accessed on May 11, 2018]).
- Weber, Kirstin: Information and data management . In: Ernst Tiemeyer (ed.): In IT management . 6th edition. No. 978-3-446-44347-1 . Hanser Verlag, Munich 2017, p. 187 ff .
- Lutz J. Heinrich: Information management. 8th edition. Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, Munich / Vienna 2005, ISBN 3-486-57772-7 .
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- Hans-Otto Schenk: Information management from the point of view of trade psychology. In: Volker Trommsdorff (Ed.): Handelsforschung 1996/97. Wiesbaden 1996, ISBN 3-409-13510-3 , pp. 445-461.
- Dirk Matthes: Enterprise Architecture Frameworks Compendium. Over 50 frameworks for IT management. Springer Verlag, 2011, ISBN 978-3-642-12954-4 , pp. 14-19.
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