Knowledge representation

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Knowledge Representation ( English : knowledge representation ) is used in the context of knowledge modeling to knowledge in knowledge-based systems to map formal. Various formal languages and notations have been proposed for this purpose. A collection of knowledge represented in this way is called a knowledge base or knowledge base; Formalized knowledge is stored in a distributed manner in the Semantic Web . In contrast to knowledge representation, the focus in knowledge organization is more on the order of existing knowledge that is not represented by itself, but rather described by metadata .

The methods of knowledge representation are used, among other things, in the construction of expert systems , machine translation programs , systems for computer-aided maintenance and database query programs.

Knowledge Representation Techniques

There are different systems for the order and representation of knowledge. In roughly ascending order according to their thickness, these are:

  1. Catalog , glossary , taxonomy (simple controlled vocabularies ),
  2. Classification , thesaurus (limited number of relations usually without inheritance relation),
  3. Semantic network , ontology , frames , production rules ,
  4. Axiom system , predicate logic as well
  5. multilayer extended semantic networks ( MultiNet ).

The last-mentioned MultiNet paradigm serves as the basis for a semantics-oriented language technology that is also used commercially . If no formal representation is available or possible, other methods must be found to convey this, for example from the area of information visualization .

Criteria for the quality of representation

Important criteria for choosing a knowledge representation system are:

How are correct syntax and correct semantics ensured?
Adequacy / expressivity / power
Does the language represent the required ontology components clearly and flexibly enough?
How efficiently can you infer?
How steep is the learning curve for mapping and querying knowledge?
Can be translated into other syntax formats or languages

See also


  • R. J. Brachman, H. J. Levesque: Readings in Knowledge Representation . Morgan Kaufmann, Los Altos 1985.
  • John F. Sowa : Knowledge Representation. Logical, Philosophical, and Computational Foundations . Brooks Cole Publishing, 1999. ISBN 0-534-94965-7 .
  • R. J. Brachman, H. J. Levesque: Knowledge Representation and Reasoning . Morgan Kaufmann, 2004.
  • Hermann Helbig : Knowledge Representation and the Semantics of Natural Language . Springer, Berlin / Heidelberg / New York, 2006.
  • Wolfgang G. Stock , Mechtild Stock: Knowledge representation . Oldenbourg, Munich 2008. ISBN 978-3-486-58439-4 .

Web links

Commons : Knowledge representation  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. [1] GI website for the # KI50 campaign. Retrieved August 26, 2019.