Frames (knowledge representation)

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Frames ( engl. For: frame ) are constructs for knowledge representation which is complementary to the knowledge representation by means of logic (for example, predicate logic are). Marvin Minsky is considered to be the inventor of the frames . They can essentially be thought of as objects with no methods ; H. Frames are embedded in a natural and hierarchical inheritance structure and have attributes , so-called slots (for example: drawers). Superordinate frames can pass on their current slot values, the so-called fillers , to subordinate frames. Semantic networks are closely related to the non-logic-based frames .

In humans, stereotypes and prototypes / archetypes can be regarded as cognitive equivalent to frames . For most facts , events , objects, etc., humans have certain ideas “how they have to be”. For example, when entering a phone booth, we expect to be able to pay by coin or phone card. If instead only the collection of 50 euro bills were offered, this would cause some astonishment. The payment option can be understood as a slot within a frame, which can assume certain value ranges that are acceptable for a frame of the type to be represented. One possibility to insert coins would be a filler in the example given. As a rule, facts, events, objects, etc. are represented by a large number of slots.

The realization that typifications of this kind are the basis of our everyday actions and thinking to a large extent, led to the development of the frames. They are used in particular in connection with methods of artificial intelligence .

Frame-based languages ​​and systems

Ocelot, Ontolingua , EcoCyc , RiboWeb, Protégé ( ontology editor ), OntoBroker, OntoStudio (ontology editor)


F-Logic , a formalism that allows inferences to be made on object or frame-based data, was introduced in 1989. F-Logic can therefore be seen as an extension of frames.

See also

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Semantic Infrastructure OntoBroker , at, accessed on December 26, 2018
  2. Semantic Infrastructure OntoStudio , from, accessed on December 26, 2018