4th millennium BC Chr.
The 4th millennium BC Chr. Describes the period from 4000 BC. Until 3000 BC It brought about great changes in human culture. It was there that the transition to the Bronze Age (in Palestine from 3300 BC ) and the introduction of writing took place . The city-states of Sumer and the Kingdom of Egypt arose , both of which were to have priority development. The agriculture spread over much of Eurasia from. The world population doubled from 7 to 14 million people over the course of the millennium.
Age / Epochs
- Atlantic (7270 to 3710 BC).
- Subboreal (3710-450 BC).
- Central Europe : archaeological cultures of the Early Neolithic (4400 to 3500 BC) and Late Neolithic (3500 to 2800 BC).
- Northern Europe : Northern Middle Neolithic (3300 to 2350 BC).
- Around 3300 BC Beginning of the Bronze Age in Palestine and generally in the area of the Fertile Crescent .
Calendar and time calculation
- January 1, 4000 BC Chr .: Beginning of the calendar of the Freemasons - year 0 AL ( Anno Lucis ).
- March 18, 3952 BC Chr .: day of creation according to the estimates of Beda Venerabilis '
- 3950 BC Chr .: year of creation according to the chronology of Joseph Justus Scaligers
- 3929 BC Chr .: year of creation according to the calculations of John Lightfoot .
- October 7, 3761 BC BC: Beginning of the Hebrew calendar from the 12th century .
- August 11 and 13, 3114 BC Chr .: Creation date according to the Maya calendar . Day 0 in the long count (18.104.22.168.0).
- Midnight, February 18, 3102 BC Chr .: According to calculations by the Indian mathematician Aryabhata from the 6th century , the Kali-Yuga begins with Krishna's nirvana . The events described in the Mahabharata thus took place around 3137 BC. Instead of.
Environment and climate
- The sea level has almost reached its present level (2 to 1 meter lower), 120 to 130 meters above the minimum of the Würm glacial period .
- 4000 to 3000 BC Chr .:
- The global annual average temperatures differed only slightly from the temperatures in the normal period from 1961 to 1990.
- The North Sea experiences a fall or standstill in sea level. The Littorina Sea is establishing itself in the Baltic Sea region .
- The composition of the mixed oak forest in western and central Europe is changing, elms and linden trees are gradually being replaced by beeches and hornbeams .
- Around 4000 BC Chr .: Lake Chad attains a temporary maximum of 1 million square kilometers (440 times its present surface), with depths greater than 65 meters. From that point on, however, an unstoppable decline begins.
- 3900 to 3780 BC Chr .: Piora fluctuation I or Rotmoos fluctuation I or Engl. 5.9 kiloyear event . Clear cooling in the southern hemisphere .
- Around 3650 BC Chr .: period of drought in the Aegean region and end of the African period of humidity.
- 35th century BC BC : end of the Neolithic subpluvial . The Sahara is gradually transforming into today's desert landscape .
- 3500 to 3110 BC Chr .: Piora fluctuation II or Rotmoos fluctuation II . Glacier high level in the Alps .
32nd century BC Chr . : The research by the glaciologist Lonnie G. Thompson of Ohio State University suggests a major global climate change, which was probably caused by decreased solar activity . This thesis is supported by the following points:
- Ice cores from Greenland and Antarctica are reaching their lowest methane content.
- Annual rings of trees from Ireland and England indicate a period of drought.
- Ice advance at the Quelccaya Ice Cap in the Andes of Peru . Plants become trapped in the ice .
- Drill cores from lakes in South America show drastic changes in the pollen composition.
- Around 3150 BC Chr .: Possible meteorite impact of the so-called Tollmann event .
- 3050 BC Chr .: The oldest living tree in the world, a long-lived pine ( Pinus longaeva ), begins to grow in the White Mountains of California .
- Spread of the funnel beaker culture (TBK) in northern Central Europe and southern Scandinavia.
- Diffusion of the Western European megalithic culture to Central Europe (e.g. Michelsberg culture , Walternienburg-Bernburg culture , Wartberg culture ) and finally union with the funnel cup culture .
- Spread of wet soil settlements on the banks of northern Alpine lakes (on northern Italian lakes as early as the 5th millennium BC )
- Austronesians crossed from mainland China to Taiwan during the millennium .
- 6500 to 3500 BC BC: Cave paintings of the Arte esquemático in the Roca dels Moros cave near Cogul in Catalonia .
- 4000 to 3000 BC Chr .: construction at the temple of Enki E-abb in Eridu - phases Eridu 11 to Eridu 2, layers XI to I.
- Around 4000 BC Chr .:
- In Plumstead , England , a suburb of London , the Belmarsh Trackway is being built to cross a marshland . This wooden plank path is the oldest known path construction.
- Beginning of the Iberian civilization . The Iberians probably immigrated from North Africa or the eastern Mediterranean.
- First settlement of Thera (Santorini), which probably took place from Crete .
- 3838 BC The Post Track is built in what is now the county of Somerset in England - a wooden boardwalk that leads through the moor of the Somerset Levels .
- 3807/3806 BC Chr .: The Post Track is largely replaced by the Sweet Track , which was discovered in 1970 and is almost 2000 meters long . Its construction time was dendrochronologically based on the annual rings of the tree trunks used.
- Around 3800/3500 BC Chr .:
- 3794 BC BC: The first American ceramic finds in Colombia near Puerto Hormiga ( Bolívar ). In Puerto Badel near Arjona , in the 31st century BC Chr. The first settlement.
- Around 3600 BC Chr .:
- 3600 to 3200 BC BC: In Malta, construction begins on the first temple of the Sun Temple of Mnajdra . Its stone benches and stone tables distinguish it from other European megalithic structures .
- 3600 to 3000 BC Chr .: On Malta construction of the temples of Ta 'Ħaġrat and Kordin III .
- Around 3500 BC Chr .:
- Beginning of the Indus culture with the first cast metal at Mohenjo-Daro . The Bronze Age begins in Harappa around 3300 BC. Chr.
- Domestication of the lama on the Puna and in the southern coastal plain of Peru . There also cultivation of cotton , creation of fishing nets and woven fabrics in twill weave .
- Around 3300 BC BC: emergence of urban centers and city-states with grand architecture, art and writing, the Sumerian Uruk as the first representative.
- 3300 to 2900 BC Chr .: Construction of the solar observatory or passage grave of Newgrange in Ireland .
- Around 3200 BC Chr .: First maize cultivation in South America .
- Around 3100 BC Chr .: Kiš is founded in Mesopotamia .
- Around 3085 BC BC: In predynastic Egypt , two kingdoms were formed, Lower Egypt in the Nile Delta and Upper Egypt in the Nile Valley. At the end of the 4th millennium, both kingdoms became around 3085 BC. United by Pharaoh Narmer / Menes , founding of Memphis as the capital. The Egyptian empire extends to Sinai . The rulers are buried in mastabas , the forerunners of the pyramids .
- Ötzi , the man from the Tisenjoch (around 3340 BC )
- Fu Xi ( Chinese 伏羲 , Pinyin Fú Xī ), mythical ancient emperor of China (born 3322 BC).
- Krishna (July 18, 3228 BC to February 17/18, 3102 BC)
- First rulers of ancient Egypt, some of which are not clearly documented:
- 00th Dynasty:
- 0th Dynasty:
- 1st dynasty:
- Lower Egyptian kings:
Inventions and discoveries
- Silver was already in the 4th millennium BC. Known as a by-product of lead extraction , as attested by cinderpiles in the Aegean region and in Asia Minor .
- Around 4000 BC Chr .:
- 38th century BC Chr . :
- 3700/3500 BC Chr .: Treasure find from Nachal Mischmar in Israel , first use of the lost wax technique .
- From 3500 BC BC: The metal tin became known, as demonstrated by bronze finds from the Kura-Araxes culture in the South Caucasus. In the Taurus Mountains in southern Turkey , where tin ore could also have been mined, the Kestel mine and the Göltepe processing facility were discovered and dated to around 3000 BC. Dated. It remains open for the time being whether this was the source of the great tin consumption in the Middle East.
- Around 3300 BC Chr .: The Sumerians introduce the sexagesimal system .
- From around 3200 BC Chr . :
- Around 3100 BC Chr .:
- Numerical script in Mesopotamia and a little later in Egypt (around 3000 BC)
- Nubia :
- Ghassulia culture (4500 to 3500 BC)
- Mesopotamia ( Sumer ):
- Iraq :
- Syria :
- Turkey :
- Iran :
Jiroft culture (4000 to 1000 BC).
- Tappe Sialk III ( 5th and beginning of the 4th millennium BC)
- Godin Tepe V (3500 to 3200 BC).
- Tappe Sialk IV (3500 to 3000 BC).
- Schahr-e Suchte I (3200 to 2800 BC).
- Proto-Elamites (3200-2700 BC).
- Indus Valley :
- Balochistan :
- Mundigak (3000 to 1000 BC).
- Dadiwan culture (5800-3000 BC), upper Yellow River .
- Yangshao culture (5000 to 2000 BC), with millet cultivation , silk production and ceramics in central and northern China.
- Hongshan Culture (4700-2900 BC), Northeast China.
- Daxi culture (4400 to 3300 BC), middle Yangtze River.
- Dawenkou culture (4100 to 2600 BC), with fine ceramics, agriculture, cattle breeding and fishing along the Yellow Sea .
- Beiyinyangying culture (4000 to 3000 BC) on the lower Yangtze River .
- Songze culture (3900-3200 BC), Lower Yangtze River.
- Miaozigou culture (3500 to 3000 BC), Inner Mongolia .
- Yingpu culture (3500 to 2000 BC) in Taiwan .
- Liangzhu culture (3400/3300 to 2200 BC) in southeast China.
- Nuomuhong culture (3300-2900 BC), Qaidam basin .
- Longshan culture (3200 to 1850 BC) with silk production and ceramics on the middle and lower Yellow River.
- Kharro culture (3200 to 2000 BC) in China and Tibet .
- Đa-Bút culture (4000 to 1700 BC).
- Early Jeulmun period (6000 to 3500 BC).
- Middle Jeulmun period (3500 to 2000 BC), with millet cultivation from 3100 BC Chr.
- Early Jōmon period (Jōmon III - 4000 to 3000/2500 BC), first larger settlements.
- Siberia :
- Kazakhstan and Eastern Europe ( Russia , Ukraine ):
- Russia, Ukraine:
- Romania , Moldova , Ukraine:
- Eastern Europe:
- Northeast Europe :
Southeast Europe :
- Danube civilization (5000 to 3500 BC).
- Boian culture in Romania and Bulgaria (4300 to 3500 BC) - Phase IV - Spanţov phase - 4000 to 3500 BC Chr.
Cucuteni culture (4800 to 3200 BC):
- Cucuteni, phase B or Tripolje, phase B2 / C1 (4000 to 3500 BC).
- Tripolje phase C2 (3500 to 3200 BC).
Gumelniţa culture (4700 to 3700 BC):
- Phase Gumelniţa A2 (4500 to 3950 BC).
- Phase Gumelniţa B1 and B2 (3950 to 3700 BC).
- Cernavodă culture (4000 to 3200 BC) in Romania, Moldova , Ukraine.
- Coţofeni culture (3500 to 2500 BC) in Romania.
- Greece - Cycladic culture (3200 to 1100 BC), early Cycladic phase.
- Crete - Early Minoan pre-palace period according to Warren and Hankey (1989) - FM I (3650/3500 to 3000 BC). According to Manning (1995), however, the beginning of FM I is much later, namely at 3100/3000 BC. Chr .; in the low and high dating it occurs at 3300 BC. Chr.
- Vučedol culture (3000 to 2200 BC) in Croatia , Bosnia , Slovenia , Serbia , Hungary and Austria .
Western Europe :
- Chassey-Lagozza-Cortaillod culture (4600 to 2400 BC).
- Culture of the Unstan Ware (3600/3500 to 3200 BC) in Scotland .
- Grooved Ware culture in Great Britain and Ireland (3400 to 2000 BC).
- Peterborough Ware (3400 to 2500 BC) in Great Britain.
Megalithic cultures :
- France (4700 to 2000 BC).
- Iberian Peninsula :
- Sardinia : Ozieri culture (4000 to 3200 BC).
- Malta :
- Almería culture in southern Spain (from 3500/3400 to 2400/2000 BC).
- England: In Stonehenge 1 the earth wall was built around 3100 BC. Excavated.
- Central Europe:
- Michelsberg culture (4400 to 3500 BC) in France and in southwest Germany .
- Gatersleben culture (4300 to 3900 BC).
Funnel beaker culture (northern central Europe) (4200 to 2800 BC).
- Wangels phase (4200 to 3900 BC).
- Siggenebben phase (3900 to 3700 BC).
- Satrup stage (3700-3500 BC).
- Fuchsberg Level (3500 to 3300 BC).
- Nordic Middle Neolithic MN AI to MN AV (3300 to 2800 BC) - megalithic.
- Pfyner culture (3900 to 3500 BC) in the Alpine foothills.
- Altheimer Group - Bavaria (3800 to 3400/3300 BC).
- Baalberg culture (3800 to 3400 BC).
- Mondsee culture - Salzkammergut (3770 to 3200 BC).
- Baden culture - Middle Danube region - earliest boleraz (3517 to 3373 BC).
- Horgen culture (3500 to 2800 BC) in Switzerland and southwest Germany.
- Cham culture - Bavaria, Czech Republic , Austria (3500 to 2700 BC).
- Wartberg culture in northern Hesse (3500 to 2800 BC).
- Salzmünder culture (3400 to 3000 BC) in Germany .
- Remedello culture (3400 to 2400 BC) in northern Italy .
- Vlaardingen culture (3350 to 1950 BC) in the Netherlands .
- Walternienburg-Bernburg culture (3200 to 2800 BC).
- Havelländische culture (3200 to 2800 BC) in East Germany .
- Gaudo culture (3150 to 2300 BC) in southern Italy.
- Globe amphora culture (3100 to 2700 BC) (reached as far as Ukraine).
- Seine-Oise-Marne culture (3100 to 20,000 BC) in northern France and Belgium .
- Northern Europe :
- North and Mesoamerica :
- South America :
- S. A. Marcott, JD Shakun, PU Clark, AC Mix: A Reconstruction of Regional and Global Temperature for the Past 11,300 Years . In: Science . tape 339 , no. 6124 , March 7, 2013, ISSN 0036-8075 , p. 1198–1201 , doi : 10.1126 / science.1228026 .
- Holzhauser, H .: On the wrong track to the history of the glacier . In: Haller's landscapes and glaciers. Contributions to the events of the Swiss Academies 2008 for the anniversary year “Haller 300” (Ed.): Reprint from the communications of the Natural Research Society in Bern. New episode . tape 66 , 2009, p. 173-208 .
- Thompson, LG et al. a .: Inaugural Article: Abrupt tropical climate change: Past and present . In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences . tape 103 (28): 10536. , 2006, doi : 10.1073 / pnas.0603900103 , bibcode : 2006PNAS..10310536T .
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