The Pfyn culture, named after the place where it was found in Pfyn in the canton of Thurgau , is a early Neolithic culture of the Alpine foothills, approx. 3900 to 3500 BC. Copper was already used for jewelry as well as for tools (ax blades). Ötzi's ax differs only slightly from axes from the Pfyner culture.
The Pfyner culture arises on the southern edge of the late Michelsberg culture and follows the Hornstaader group in the Lake Constance region . It also spreads to the eastern Swiss plateau, where it z. B. replaces the Cortaillod culture on Lake Zurich . In Upper Swabia, the Pfyn-Altheimer Group forms the transition to the Altheimer Group in southern Bavaria. After 3500 BC Influences of the Boleráz phase of the Baden culture are recognizable. The research results of the discovery site Arbon-Bleiche 3 (3384–3370 BC) in Arbon - the number 3 refers to the third site on the bank of the now heavily silted bay - even suggest immigration from the area of Lower Austria / Slovakia / West Hungary Near. For example, the two halves of the village in Arbon show clear differences in economic methods, which can best be explained by the fact that immigrants lived in one half of the village. Some features of the subsequent Horgen culture can be explained by this eastern influence.
Pfyn is one of the wetland settlements cultures also known as stilt houses. Flat-bottomed, barely decorated vessels are typical of the Pfyn culture. One of the best-studied places is the Niederwil settlement in the Gachnang municipality . In Baden-Württemberg, the Reute-Schorrenried bog settlement is important for this culture . It is a wetland settlement from the 38th century BC. In the Bad Waldsee district of Reute . Reute-Schorrenried became famous for the discovery of a copper dagger.
In 2007, Swiss television took the Pfyner Kultur as an opportunity to transport ten people back to the Stone Age for one month in the form of a Living Science project. (see Pfyn pile dwellers )
- Annick de Capitani, Sabine Deschler-Erb, Urs Leuzinger, Elisabeth Marti-Grädel, Jörg Schibler: The Neolithic lakeside settlement Arbon, Bleiche 3. Finds (= Archeology in Thurgau. 11). Office for Archeology, Frauenfeld 2002, ISBN 3-905405-10-5 .
- Stefanie Jacomet, Urs Leuzinger, Jörg Schibler (eds.): The Neolithic lakeside settlement Arbon, Bleiche 3. Environment and economy (= archeology in Thurgau. 12). Office for Archeology, Frauenfeld 2004, ISBN 3-905405-12-1 .
- Urs Leuzinger: The Neolithic lakeside settlement Arbon, Bleiche 3. Findings (= Archeology in Thurgau. 9). Office for Archeology, Frauenfeld 2000, ISBN 3-905405-08-3 (also: Bern, University, dissertation, 1999).
- Urs Leuzinger: Pfyn-Breitenloo. The Neolithic pile dwelling settlement (= archeology in Thurgau. 14). Office for Archeology, Frauenfeld 2007, ISBN 978-3-905405-16-3 .
- Helmut Schlichtherle , Rolf Rottländer: Casting crucible of the Pfyner culture in southwest Germany. In: Find reports from Baden-Württemberg. 7, 1982, ISSN 0071-9897 , pp. 59-71. ( online ).
- Guntram Schönfeld : In the valley of the Lost Bach: Settlements from the Neolithic Age in the wet valley meadows of Bavaria. In: Helmut Schlichtherle (Hrsg.): Pfahlbauten around the Alps (= Archeology in Germany . Special issue. 1997). Theiss, Stuttgart 1997, ISBN 3-8062-1146-9 , pp. 81-87.
- Harm T. Waterbolk among others: Niederwil, a settlement of the Pfyner culture. Paul Haupt, Bern et al. 1978 ff.
- René Wyss: The Pfyner culture (= from the Swiss National Museum. 26, ZDB -ID 1190122-6 ). Paul Haupt, Bern 1970.
- Josef Winiger: Feldmeilen-Vorderfeld. The transition from the Pfyner to the Horgen culture (= Antiqua. 8, ZDB -ID 194744-8 ). Huber, Frauenfeld 1981.
- Josef Winiger: The finds from Thayngen-Weier in the context of the Pfyn culture (= monographs on the prehistory and early history of Switzerland. 18). Birkhäuser, Basel 1971, ISBN 3-7643-0579-7 (also: Zurich, University, dissertation, 1971).