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Haab cycle of 18 + 1 months

The Haab ("solar year") is a part of the Mayan calendar that the Maya used for civil purposes (the other part is the Tzolkin ). He divides the year into 18 “months” with 20 days each ( Kin ), which corresponds to 360 days. In order to approximate the solar year with about 365¼ days, a 19th “month” with only 5 days ( Uayeb “nameless”) is added. Since these 5 days are added every year, they are epagomens and not leap days , which, in contrast, are only inserted in leap years. Without a switching control , there is an always constant year length of 365 days, which is why the "year" in the Haab is similar to the solar year, but the Haab is still not a solar calendar (like our Gregorian calendar ). Theoretically, due to the fixed year length and the approximately 6 missing hours per year, there should have been a shift between the calendar year and the solar year (→ change year ).

A date in the Haab calendar is e.g. B. 11 Yax .

Day counting

In the daily count of the Haab calendar, the numbers run continuously from 0 to 19 and the 18 months in the order: Pop , Uo , Zip , Zotz , Zec , Xul , Yaxkin , Mol , Chen , Yax , Zac , Ceh , Mac , Kankin , Muan , Pax , Kayab , Cumku . In addition, there is the month of Uayeb / Wayeb ("unlucky days"; leap month with only 5 days).

In the Haab the days are therefore designated as follows:

0 pop, 1 pop, 2 pop, 3 pop, ..., 19 pop,
0 Uo, 1 Uo, 2 Uo, 3 Uo, ..., 19 Uo,
0 cumku, 1 cumku, 2 cumku, 3 cumku, ..., 19 Cumku,
0 Uayeb, 1 uayeb, 2 uayeb, 3 Uayeb, 4 uayeb.

The Haab and Tzolkin calendars are aligned so that after each calendar round (every 52 Haab years) the date 8 Cumku (Haab) indicates the same day as the date 4 Ahau (Tzolkin).

Around the time of the conquest by Spain , the Maya began to number the days from 1, so that the Haab year began with 1 Pop and ended with 5 Uayeb .

See also

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