Written proof of achievement in school

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Written proof of achievement at school includes class work, course work and other learning success checks that are included in the certificates as part of the performance assessment . This does not include tests such as those carried out for evaluation , for example in the context of school performance comparisons . Written performance certificates at a university are called exams .

Student at a written exam

Written performance records are subject to detailed legal regulations. In Germany, these regulations fall under the competence of the federal states as part of school law or university law .

Difficulty scheme

The teachers are required to combine questions with different levels of difficulty ( taxonomy of learning objectives ) in the examination paper in order to be able to classify the general intelligence of the pupil beyond a pure query of knowledge . The degree of difficulty in Bavaria (and other federal states) is determined by the degree of the student's ability to abstract . There are four different abstraction types for questions - from easy to difficult, which, depending on their weighting, should have a different share (in percent) of the totality of all questions. Here using the example for Bavaria:

Reproduction (20%)
Replay learned knowledge. In history e.g. B. name a year of an event.
Reorganization (40%)
Reproduce knowledge that has been learned, but with changed parameters. In history e.g. For example, from the knowledge of the European colonies in Africa, a ranking of the European influence in Africa can be created.
Transfer (30%)
Apply a learned method in a new area (and know which method will lead to the solution). In history e.g. For example, assess why the 1848 revolution in Germany was unsuccessful, using knowledge of the reasons that led to the French Revolution.
New area (10%)
Find a solution in a new area and only from the facts given in the exam. What has been learned is not queried here, but general intelligence and inspiration are required.

The types of difficulty are also directly correlated with the extreme grades : “Reproduction” is considered the “six brake” (if you only study hard you never get a six), “new area” is the “ one barrier” (alone Applying what has been learned is only enough for two; whoever wants to achieve a one has to demonstrate individual thinking ability).


In Hesse , the ordinance on structuring the school relationship in §§ 26-36 and Appendix 2 prescribes the following:

Types, frequency, scope and weighting of assessments:

  • Class and course work in lower secondary level in the main subjects German, mathematics and foreign languages: depending on the year and subject, between four and six papers per year; together make up half of the basis of the performance appraisal;
  • Assessment tests in the other subjects: one per semester; can be replaced by practical work; make up about a third of the basis of the performance appraisal;
  • Exercises and written exercises that are not assessed in grades / points and are not included in the performance assessment.

Evaluated works

  • should be distributed evenly over the school year (no accumulation before the holidays, only one per day, a maximum of three per week);
  • must be announced at least five days in advance;
  • are to be rated as sufficient if around half of the expected requirements have been met;
  • must be repeated if more than half of the work delivered by deficient or inadequate has been evaluated;
  • are to be repeated once if more than a third of the submitted written work has been assessed as deficient or unsatisfactory , unless the school principal decides after consulting the subject teacher that the work should be assessed;
  • must be rewritten by pupils who have excusedly missed the work at the request of the teacher, if otherwise a proper performance assessment is not possible.

The basis for the written performance assessment in the upper level of the Gymnasium is provided by § 9 and Annex 9a – f of the Upper Level and Abitur Ordinance (OAVO). According to this, the following table is to be used for the conversion of percentages of the work performed into grade points when assigning grades :

percent under 20 from 20 from 27 from 34 from 41 from 46 from 51 from 56 from 61 from 66 from 71 from 76 from 81 from 86 from 91 from 96
Grade points 0 1 2 3 4th 5 6th 7th 8th 9 10 11 12 13 14th 15th

See also