Viticulture in Austria
Viticulture in Austria is carried out on an area of 48,721 ha. 65.7% of it is planted with white, 34.3% with red grape varieties . Of just under 20,200 companies (in 1999 there were over 32,000) only 6,500 bottle themselves. An annual average of 2.3 million hectoliters of wine are produced, the majority of which is consumed in Germany. The production of table grapes only plays a very subordinate role in Austria .
The oldest grape seed finds were made on the Hundssteig in Krems an der Donau . These seeds from Vitis sylvestris (wild grapevine) date from 3000 BC. BC, most likely they were collected in the floodplain forests. The same applies to the vines found in Nussdorf ob der Traisen from the time 2000 BC. Come from BC. But there is no evidence that wine was made during this period. This also applies to those Rebkerne of Vitis vinifera ( Kulturrebe ), which in Stillfried - a cadastral of Angern an der March - have been found. They date from the time 900 BC. BC and are therefore the oldest Vitis vinifera vines found in Central Europe and Austria . They probably come from imported dried berries from the Balkans. It is possible that these vines were propagated and spread locally. The same applies to the vines from a hill grave near Zagersdorf in Burgenland . They date from around 700 BC. Chr., References, objects and facilities for wine production are missing. Rather, in the Hallstatt and Latène times, vines were used as grave goods, which suggests their appreciation of the people living at the time.
Most of what is now Austria was founded around 15 BC. Incorporated into the Roman Empire . During his reign (41–54 AD), the Roman Emperor Claudius set up the Roman province of Noricum , its borders in the north to the Danube, in the northeast to the Vienna Woods , in the east roughly along today's eastern Styrian border and in the southeast and south beyond Eisack and Drau . With the Romans, viticulture quickly spread in the provinces of Noricum and Pannonia . Cassius Dio , Roman senator , consul , writer and historian , was, among other things, governor of Pannonia and Dalmatia and described the quality of Pannonian viticulture as poor.
Despite the short reign of the Roman emperor Probus (276–282), in some regions he is now one of the Roman emperors known to laypeople. This comes from a message in the Probus biography of the Historia Augusta , where it says in chapter 18.8: “ Gallis omnibus et Hispanis ac Brittannis hinc permisit, ut vites haberent vinumque conficerent. "(" He allowed all Gauls, Spaniards and British to own vines and produce wine. ") Therefore, Probus is considered to be the one who introduced viticulture there in numerous wine-growing areas north of the Alps (such as in Austria and on the Moselle in Germany) . What is certain is that wine production in these regions gained significantly in importance after the middle of the 3rd century.
In 470, according to the Vita Sancti Severini written by 511 , the biography of Severin von Noricum by Eugippius, vineyards near Mautern were mentioned. The discovery of a vintner's knife in Lauriacum , a Roman settlement in the area of Lorch , a district of today's Enns in Upper Austria, is also considered evidence of early viticulture at the time of the Romans.
The migration of peoples sealed the decline of Roman power, and in 476 the Western Roman Empire finally collapsed. Numerous raids on the Pannonian Plain negatively influenced the further development of viticulture.
The Babenberg Heinrich II "Jasomirgott" raised Vienna to his residence in 1145 and thus strengthened viticulture in Vienna . The cultivation was not limited to the Nussberg and the Bisamberg . Today's 3rd and 4th district, Landstrasse and Wieden consisted mainly of vineyards. A city map from 1547 still shows the viticulture around the Vienna Minorite Church .
The nobility and the bourgeoisie tried early on to soften the wine monopoly of the rulers and the church. The first documented purchase of three vineyards by the Viennese citizen Reingerus dates back to 1170.
The major monasteries of the Austrian and Bavarian Alps space built from the 11th to the 13th century many agricultural depots as Göttweig , Stift Klosterneuburg , Zwettl , Stift Melk , Lilienfeld and Heiligenkreuz . In 1250, under the name Thal Wachau, a lordship and a district administration with the current cadastral communities of Joching, St. Michael, Wösendorf in the Wachau and Weißenkirchen in the Wachau were founded. In the meantime, the cadastral communities have been combined to form the market town of Weißenkirchen in the Wachau .
On March 21, 1359, Duke Rudolf IV , "the founder", introduced a beverage tax, known as Ungeld , throughout the Duchy . Later came the mountain decade the mining law stripping the landlord and various customs and tolls for transit of cities and regions.
Wine production and wine consumption reached an absolute climax during the Medieval Warm Period , as in the entire Holy Roman Empire . In Central Europe, the temperature was around 1 ° C warmer than during the penultimate CLINO period (1961–1990). The cultivation borders in the low mountain ranges north of the Alps reached about 200 m higher than at present, so that the cultural landscape experienced its greatest expansion in the High Middle Ages . The vineyards were then about ten times as extensive as they are today. There were also significant vineyards in Salzburg , Upper Austria , North Tyrol and Carinthia .
On February 3rd, 1447 the Hauerinnung Krems-Stein was founded. It is the oldest still active tusk guild in German-speaking countries.
Around 1580 Johann Rasch (* in or around 1540 in Pöchlarn ; † 1612 in Vienna ) wrote the first “wine book”. It is the oldest book on viticulture. It contains rules and practical suggestions for winemakers, tusks, landlords and house fathers and legal regulations against slipping and the like. a.
Viticulture was given a new boost through a circular ordinance issued by Emperor Joseph II in 1784, which confirmed the right to serve wine taverns . The phylloxera disaster from 1867 and fungal diseases devastated large parts of the country's vineyards. As in all of Europe, the crisis was only overcome through the use of American rootstock . The Klosterneuburg Viticulture School , founded in 1860, was one of the first in the world. The Krems viticulture school was founded 15 years later. In the first decades of the 20th century, the grape varieties Zweigelt , Blauburger , Goldburger and the Jubilee vine were bred at the Klosterneuburg Wine School .
In 1985, the glycol wine scandal shook the entire wine world when it became known that some Austrian winemakers were illegally adding diethylene glycol to their wine to give simple wines more body. However, this scandal became a "catalyst" for the development of quality Austrian viticulture. A wine law, the strictest in the European wine world at the time, was passed.
Sturm, Dusty, Heuriger
Grape juice that is still fermenting is referred to as a storm . Unlike the sweet cider , which is mostly very popular depending on the region , this is already a more or less strongly alcoholic drink. Sturm only comes onto the market for a short time and in open bottles that are mostly loosely closed with a film. If the fermentation slowly ends, the resulting unfiltered wine is called "dusty".
The young wine is traditionally “baptized” with Martini (on November 11th ) and thus with the “Heuriger”, which by law can still be called this until December 31st of the following year; after that he becomes compulsorily “old”. In Styria , the word Junker is also used for such young wine and is protected as the name Steirischer Junker .
In Austria, heuriger refers notonly to the aforementioned wine but also to the Buschenschank that sells it. This meaning of the word, which originally expressed the self-marketing of the young wine by the winemaker , is not protected by law, so that every restaurant can call itself a “Heuriger”.
Quality levels according to the Austrian Wine Law
Classification of wines according to quality levels according to the Austrian Wine Law 2009
Wine without designation of origin
The term table wine was replaced by the term wine in the new 2009 wine market regulation .
Wine without a PDO or PGI can have grape varieties or vintage information under certain conditions.
Alcohol increase / fortification wines without geographical origin
Wines with a protected geographical indication (PGI)
Alcohol increase / fortification
Wine with a protected designation of origin (PDO)
An increase in alcohol / fortification or sweetening of quality wines is not permitted
Information on the bottle:
In Austria, the production volume of wine of the quality level quality and predicate wines is well above the other levels.
Districtus Austriae Controllatus
Since 2003 there have also been region-specific quality wines in Austria, the DAC wines. A DAC ( Districtus Austriae Controllatus ) is a quality wine that is particularly typical of the region from a specific growing area. So-called interprofessional or regional wine committees decide which varieties are permitted and which specific quality requirements are placed on the DAC.
So far, the following 15 DAC areas have been defined in Austria by ministry ordinance (chronological order after their introduction):
- Weinviertel DAC (from 2002 vintage, reserve: from 2009 vintage)
- Mittelburgenland DAC (born 2005 or later )
- Traisental DAC (born 2006 or later )
- Kremstal DAC (born 2007 or later )
- Kamptal DAC (from year 2008)
- Leithaberg DAC (white: born in 2009 or later , red: born in 2008 or later)
- Eisenberg DAC (from year 2009, reserve: from year 2008)
- Neusiedlersee DAC (classic: from year 2011, reserve: from year 2010)
- Vienna Mixed Set DAC (born 2013 or later )
- Rosalia DAC (born 2017 or later )
- Vulkanland Steiermark DAC (born 2018 or later)
- Südsteiermark DAC (born 2018 or later)
- Weststeiermark DAC (born 2018 or later)
- Carnuntum DAC (born 2019 or later)
- Wachau DAC (born in 2020 or later)
In addition, there are some local names that are not regulated by law:
- Heuriger (wine of the last harvest, may be offered until December 31 of the following year)
- Steinfeder (quality wine from the Wachau, max. 11.5% by volume, dry, must weight 15–17 ° KMW / 75–83 ° Oe)
- Federspiel (cabinet wine from the Wachau, 11.5 to 12.5% by volume, dry, must weight at least 17 ° KMW / 83 ° Oe)
- Smaragd (quality wine from the Wachau, min. 12.5% by volume, dry, must weight at least 18.5 ° KMW / 92 ° Oe)
Grape variety mirror
The following table lists all 22 white and 13 red grape varieties that are permitted in Austria for the production of quality and predicate wines. All percentages are based on the white or red vine area.
White wine varieties (2015)
|White wine variety||Vineyards ha||%|
|Grüner Veltliner (Weißgipfler)||14,375.8||47.1|
|Riesling (White Riesling, Rhine Riesling)||2,015.8||6.6|
|Pinot Blanc (Pinot Blanc, Klevner)||1,916.2||6.3|
|Yellow Muscat and Red Muscat||823.3||2.2|
|Mixed sentence white||657.0||1.8|
|Early red Veltliner (Malvasia)||368.6||1.2|
|Scheurebe (seedling 88)||350.9||1.2|
|Gewürztraminer (Roter Traminer, Gelber Traminer)||288.1||0.9|
|Gris (Pinot gris, Ruländer)||224.1||0.7|
|Other types of white wine||103.3||0.3|
|Zierfandler (late red)||82.4||0.3|
|Silvaner (Green Silvaner)||38.5||0.2|
|White wine acreage 2015||30,501.6||100.0|
Red wine varieties (2015)
|Red wine variety||Vineyards ha||%|
|Zweigelt (Blauer Zweigelt, Rotburger)||6,311.2||42.3|
|Blauburgunder (Blauer Burgunder, Blauer Spätburgunder, Pinot noir)||613.8||4.1|
|Mixed sentence red||284.5||1.9|
|Other types of red wine||33.1||0.2|
|Red wine acreage 2015||14,937.2||100.0|
Wine-growing regions in Austria
The wine-growing areas are divided into three wine-growing regions :
- the wine country with the federal states of Burgenland , Lower Austria and Vienna
- the Steirerland with the federal state of Styria as well
- the mountainous region with the federal states of Carinthia , Upper Austria , Salzburg , Tyrol and Vorarlberg .
The individual wine-growing regions consist of the following 17 wine-growing areas :
- Thermal region
- Lake Neusiedl
- Central Burgenland
- Vulkanland Styria
- Southern Styria
- West Styria
Wine- growing region Weinland
This wine-growing region comprises the wine-growing areas of the federal states of Lower Austria (29,014 ha), Burgenland (13,834 ha) and Vienna (627 ha). Together they represent 14 of the 17 wine-growing regions. In the wine-growing region Weinland there are still 28 hectares in the federal state of Lower Austria that are not assigned to any wine-growing area. The wine-growing areas in Burgenland, the Weinviertel and the other wine-growing areas in Lower Austria together each make up about a third of the wine-growing area of the Weinland wine-growing region .
- Location: sunny slopes in the Wachau section of the Danube . The wine-growing region comprises 33 kilometers of river between Melk and Krems only 15 km west of Krems and the directly adjacent side valleys, the so-called Wachau trenches. Viticulture is on the slopes up to about , or 250 m above the Danube.
- Soil: Mostly weathered primary rock soils on the steep slopes mix with loess in lower elevations . In the valley there are partly sandy soils. The stone terraces delimited by dry stone walls are typical of the Wachau .
- Climate: The foothills of the warm Pannonian climate come from the east to the Wachau. From the west come the foothills of the temperate, Atlantic air. In addition to these two, there are the cool, often more humid air masses from the north, which slide through the Wachau trenches into the Danube valley. One of the larger trenches is the Spitzer Graben . The interaction of these three climatic influences ensures constant air circulation, which significantly influences the formation of the bouquet .
- White wine varieties: Grüner Veltliner 51%, Riesling 13%, Müller-Thurgau 9%, Neuburger 6%, Chardonnay 5%
- Red wine varieties: Zweigelt 5%
- Most famous vineyards: Dürnstein : Kellerberg, Höhereck, Hollerin; Loiben : Loibenberg, Schütt, Steinertal, Kreutles; Spitz : Thousandsimerberg, Singerriedel, Axpoint, Setzberg; Weißenkirchen : Achleiten, Klaus, Mautern women's gardens : Strudelweg
- Cultivation area: 1344 ha divided into 502 wine-growing businesses.
- Location: Kremstal north of the Danube
- Soil: Primeval rock soils in the west, loess and clay in the east and south
- Climate: Edge of the Pannonian climatic area. During the ripening period, cool, oxygen-rich air flows into the valley from the plateau of the surrounding Waldviertel, causing great fluctuations between day and night temperatures. The temperature fluctuations, the high humidity and the autumn mist favor the spiciness and finesse of the wines.
- the entire wine-growing region is a DAC , only DAC wines are allowed to use the "Kremstal" designation of origin.
- Main types of wine: Grüner Veltliner (53%), Riesling (over 9%), Roter Veltliner
- Cultivation area: 2368 ha, 747 holdings
- Location: Kamptal in northern Lower Austria , Langenlois , Schönberg , Zöbing
- Soil: loess and clay soils, some primary rock
- Climate: partly Pannonian
- the entire wine-growing region is a DAC , only DAC wines are allowed to carry the designation of origin "Kamptal".
- Main types of wine: Grüner Veltliner (49%), Riesling (over 8%)
- Cultivation area: 3,906 ha, 823 holdings
- Location: North of St. Pölten to the Danube along the Traisen
- Soil: sandy loess soils, conglomerates
- Climate: sunny and warm
- the entire wine-growing region is a DAC , only DAC wines are allowed to use the “Traisental” designation of origin.
- predominant types of wine: Grüner Veltliner , Riesling
- Cultivation area: 814 ha, 451 holdings
In 2007 it was renamed from “Donauland” to “ Wagram ”.
- Location: on the Danube between Krems and Klosterneuburg , along the Wagram
- Soil: loess-rich but calcareous soils
- Climate: Pannonian climate (in the western Wagram near Krems there is still a slight Atlantic influence)
- Main types of wine: Grüner Veltliner , Pinot Blanc , Roter Veltliner , Zweigelt
- Cultivation area: 2720 ha, 926 holdings
- Location: northeastern part of Lower Austria
- Soil: sandy loess soils, partly clay and primary rock
- Climate: hot, dry
- the entire wine-growing region is a DAC , only DAC wines are allowed to use the designation of origin "Weinviertel".
- Main types of wine: Grüner Veltliner (over 50%), Welschriesling (9%), Zweigelt
- Cultivation area: 13,857 ha, 3791 farms
- Location: southeast of Vienna
- The Carnuntum DAC wine-growing region consists of the administrative district of Bruck an der Leitha .
- Soil: clay, sand and gravel soils
- Climate: already influenced by Lake Neusiedl , therefore very mild
- Main types of wine: Zweigelt , Grüner Veltliner , Blaufränkisch
- Cultivation area: 906 ha, 282 holdings
- Location: South of Vienna , Gumpoldskirchen to Weikersdorf am Steinfelde
- Soil: stony limestone soils, crossed by a volcanic fault line
- Climate: mild, Pannonian
- Main types of wine: Pinot Blanc , Neuburger , Zierfandler , Rotgipfler , St. Laurent , Blauer Portugieser
- Cultivation area: 2181 ha, 693 holdings
- Location: north and east of Lake Neusiedl
- Soil: sandy, gravel, some clay in the south
- Climate: Pannonian
- The entire wine-growing region is a DAC, only DAC wines are allowed to use the "Neusiedlersee" designation of origin
- Main types of wine: Zweigelt , St. Laurent , Blaufränkisch , Grüner Veltliner, Muscat-Ottonel, Neuburgunder, Bouvier; Traminer, Welschriesling , Blauer Burgunder
- Cultivation area: 7098 ha, 1339 farms
- Location: Area along the Leithagebirge
- Soil: shell limestone, slate, loess, sand, black earth, partly stony
- Climate: Pannonian
- The entire wine-growing region is a DAC, only DAC wines are allowed to use the designation of origin "Leithaberg"
- Main types of wine: Blaufränkisch Pinot Blanc , Chardonnay , Welschriesling
- Cultivation area: 3097 ha
- Well-known vineyards: Eisner, Felsenstein, Gloria, Goldberg, Himmelreich, Kreideberg, Point, Tatschler, Thenau
- Location: Area of the political district Mattersburg
- Soil: brown earth, loess
- Climate: Pannonian
- The entire wine-growing region is a DAC, only DAC wines are allowed to use the designation of origin "Rosalia"
- predominant types of wine: Blaufränkisch , Zweigelt
- Cultivation area: 297 ha
- Location: hill country around Oberpullendorf
- Soil: heavy clay soils
- Climate: Pannonian
- the entire wine-growing region is a DAC , only DAC wines are allowed to use the designation of origin "Mittelburgenland".
- predominant types of wine: Blaufränkisch . See also Blaufränkischland
- Cultivation area: 1896 ha, 358 holdings
- Well-known vineyards: Bodigraben, Himmelsthron, Sonnensteig, Kohlenberg, Spiegelberg, Dürrau, Hochäcker, Kirchholz, Siglos, Fabian
- Location: southeast of Pinkafeld to Jennersdorf
- Soil: sandy and clayey loam soils, containing iron
- Climate: Pannonian, mild
- The entire wine-growing region is a DAC, only DAC wines are allowed to use the "Eisenberg" designation of origin
- predominant types of wine: Blaufränkisch , Zweigelt , Welschriesling , Uhudler
- Cultivation area: 515 ha, 708 holdings
- Well-known vineyards: Weinberg, Ratschen, Bründlgfangen, Saybritz, Szapary, Reihburg
The Vienna wine-growing region lies within the city limits. The cultivation area of a good 557 ha corresponds to 1.2% of the total vineyard area and makes Vienna the only capital in the world with significant wine production, with the city of Vienna itself also maintaining a winery. The mixed set is a regional specialty , in contrast to the cuvée , different grape varieties are processed together into wine after the harvest .
- Location: within the city limits, mainly in the north and west of Vienna (see list of vineyards in Vienna )
- Soil: slate, gravel and loess soil
- Climate: Pannonian climate
- Main types of wine: Grüner Veltliner , Pinot Blanc
- Cultivation area: 581 ha, 276 holdings
Wine- growing region Steirerland
With a vineyard area of 5096 hectares, the Steirerland is the second largest wine-growing region in Austria after the wine country . This corresponds to approx. 10.5% of the total area under vines in Austria. In the Steirerland wine-growing region, a distinction is made between three other wine-growing regions. In addition, there are 0.28 ha that are not assigned to any wine-growing region.
The vineyards are usually located on steep slopes at an altitude of up to The weather is slightly continental, warm in summer and moderately cold in winter. On average, there is about 1000 mm of precipitation per year. This climate makes Styria a white wine country. About 2400 hectares of vineyards are planted with white vines. The most important grape varieties are the Welschriesling (670 ha) and the Pinot Blanc (570 ha). The red grape varieties are dominated by the Blaue Wildbacher (Schilcher grape ) and the Zweigelt . A specialty of Styria is the Steirischer Junker , a dry young wine that comes onto the market in the year of harvest. The term "Steirischer Junker" is a protected wine brand.
Name until 2015: Süd-Oststeiermark
- Location: Eastern Styrian hill country between Hartberg , Fürstenfeld and Bad Radkersburg , Klöch
- Soil: clay, volcanic weathered rock
- Climate: transition between dry Pannonian and humid Mediterranean climate
- Main types of wine: Welschriesling , Pinot Blanc , Sauvignon Blanc (often also called Muscat-Silvaner), Chardonnay (often called Morillon here), Zweigelt , Traminer , Schilcher
- Cultivation area: 1623 ha, 1199 farms
- Location: Styrian - Slovenian border region, Sausal wine region , Leibnitz
- Soil: slate, sand, marl, primary rock and limestone, the collective term for this is opok
- Climate: southern European
- Main types of wine: Welschriesling , Sauvignon Blanc (often called Muscat-Silvaner here), Pinot Blanc , Muscatel , Chardonnay (often called Morillon here). The Laska grape variety is considered a local rarity .
- Cultivation area: 2161 ha, 623 holdings
- Location: West Styrian hill country between Deutschlandsberg and Ligist
- Soil: Gneiss, slate and layers of sedimentary rocks (mainly marl) under the collective term Opok
- Climate: Illyrian climate
- Main types of wine: Schilcher , Blauer Wildbacher , Pinot Blanc , Welschriesling , Zweigelt , Chardonnay (Morillon)
- Cultivation area: 538 ha, 261 farms
- Special features: The Schilcher is a very specific wine in western Styria .
The Schilcher is specially protected by law and may only be obtained from the Blauer Wildbacher vine as rosé, which is why western Styria is of particular importance as the main growing area for this variety.
Bergland wine-growing region
The cultivation areas of the five federal states of Carinthia , Upper Austria , Salzburg , Tyrol and Vorarlberg are combined in this region . With a total of 139 ha (174 holdings), these play a subordinate role.
Since, on the one hand, around 40,000 tons of table grapes are imported, but only a small part is produced in the country, attempts were made in 2010 to increase the cultivation of these grape varieties, especially in the Weinviertel. For the first time 11.5 hectares were planted by 13 winemakers.
Since viticulture has a great tradition in Austria, it is also linked to an old tradition that is still cultivated in many areas today.
Also, harvest festivals are celebrated in the wine. The Perchtoldsdorfer Hütereinzug is considered to be the largest harvest festival in Eastern Austria, which , due to its old tradition, was placed under protection by the Austrian UNESCO Commission as intangible cultural heritage in Austria in 2010.
- György Sebestyén (Ed.): The great Austrian wine lexicon. Molden Verlag, Vienna 1978, ISBN 3-217-00819-7 .
- Klaus Egle: The Austrian Wine. Verlag Pichler, Vienna 2007, ISBN 978-3-85431-403-5 .
- Helmut Romé: The great wines of Austria. Verlag Seewald, Stuttgart-Degerloch 1979, ISBN 3-512-00558-6 .
- Jancis Robinson (Ed.): The Oxford Wine Lexicon . Hallwag, Gräfe and Unzer, Munich 2006, ISBN 978-3-8338-0691-9 .
- André Dominé (Ed.): Wine . Könemann, Cologne 2000, ISBN 3-8290-2765-6 .
- Alexander Jakabb: Wine Book Austria. Regions, vintners, vineyards, vines. Verlag Pichler, Vienna 2015, ISBN 978-3-85431-715-9 .
- Willi Klinger, Karl Vocelka (Ed.): Wine in Austria. The history. Brandstätter, Vienna 2019, ISBN 978-3-7106-0350-1 .
- Austria Wine Marketing GmbH
- BGBl. I No. 111/2009 : Federal Law on the Trade in Wine and Fruit Wine (Wine Law 2009) of Austria
- Basic survey of the vineyards 2015 (PDF) at statistik.at (the next basic survey is planned for 2020)
- Karl Bauer: Austrian viticulture and its history. Lecture at the autumn conference of the Society for the History of Wine in September 2015
- Wine-growing areas on oesterreichwein.at
References and comments
- "Harvest and wine inventory calendar year 2019" at statistik.at (PDF), accessed on May 20, 2020
- “Weingartengrunderammlung 2009” on statistik.at (PDF), accessed on June 17, 2016
- Dio Cassius Book 59, 32
- Gerald Kreucher: The Emperor Marcus Aurelius Probus and his time . Steiner, Stuttgart 2003, ISBN 3-515-08382-0 (Historia individual writings 174).
- Andreas Otto Weber: Studies on the viticulture of the old Bavarian monasteries in the Middle Ages. Old Bavaria, Austrian Danube region, South Tyrol . Steiner, Stuttgart 1999, ISBN 3-515-07290-X , p. 36.
- Christian-Dietrich Schönwiese : Klimatologie , Ulmer, Stuttgart 1994. ISBN 3-8001-2676-1 .
- Hans-Rudolf Bork et al .: Landscape development in Central Europe. Effects of humans on landscapes , Klett-Perthes, Gotha 1998. ISBN 3-623-00849-4 .
- André Dominé : Wine . Verlag Könemann, Cologne 2000, ISBN 3-8290-2765-6 , pp. 534f.
- Jancis Robinson (ed.): The Oxford Companion to Wine . Oxford University Press 1999, ISBN 0-19-866236-X , p. 50.
- Johann Rasch: The wine book. Reprint of the edition from around 1580, Renate Schöne, Gesellschaft für Geschichte des Weines .
- Ferdinand Regner : Directory of the Austrian quality wine grape varieties and their clones. 2008, LFZ Klosterneuburg.
- Hugh Johnson , Jancis Robinson: The Wine Atlas. Hallwag Verlag, Munich 2002, ISBN 3-7742-0775-5 , p. 242.
- Federal Law Gazette I No. 111/2009 : Federal Law on the Trade in Wine and Fruit Wine (Wine Law 2009)
- Martin Raggam: new wine law at a glance. In: The winemaker. 11/2009 p. 88.
- Classification according to the common market organization for wine (GMO-'Wein) Regulation No. 1234/2007
- The common name PDO wine or PGI wine is not a sales description and must therefore not appear on the label.
- The collective name Wein GA is not a sales name and must not be included on the label.
- The common name PDO wine is not a sales description and must not be included on the label.
- DAC areas | Austria wine. Retrieved May 25, 2020 .
- Vinea Wachau - Nobilis Districtus Vinea Wachau Nobilis Districtus
- Source: Statistics Austria, Weingartengrunderammlung 2015.
- DAC regulation Carnuntum
- Leithaberg wine-growing region on oesterreichwein.at
- Rosalia wine region on oesterreichwein.at
- Eisenberg wine-growing region on oesterreichwein.at
- Wine law amendment renaming 2016 , accessed on June 1, 2016
- The new brand for more quality, regionality and climate protection from September 22, 2010, accessed on September 30, 2010
- Weintaufe , accessed on November 6, 2010