Blue Portuguese

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Blue Portuguese
Synonyms see section synonyms
Blue Portuguese
Art Grape vine ( Vitis vinifera subsp. Vinifera )
Berry color blue black
origin Lower Styria in today's Slovenia
known since 1770-1780
VIVC no. 9620

Cross of
blue room grape × green Silvaner

List of grape varieties

The Blauer Portugieser is an old grape and red wine variety from Lower Styria in today's Slovenia, which is widespread in Central and Southeastern Europe. There are numerous synonyms for the Blue Portuguese. The acreage has been declining sharply since the 1990s. In Germany it was reduced from 5039 ha (2001) to 3966 ha (2011) within ten years, in Austria from 2358 ha (1999) to 1265.7 ha (2015).


The variety has its origin in Lower Styria in today's Slovenia.


Family tree Portugieser Blau.jpg

According to the latest genetic engineering studies, the variety is a cross between the blue room grape and green Silvaner . The local assignment was possible with an extensive investigation of the origin or descent of the parent varieties.

Grauer Portugieser, Roter Portugieser and Grüner Portugieser These mutations were found in Austrian vineyards.


Franz Langwieser wrote about this:

“The name Portugieser appeared for the first time in 1828. Prof. von Jaquin wrote about it: In addition to the Burgundy grapes, there are two other grape varieties in Badner vineyards, namely the sweeter, so-called Portuguese, which are also used to sell grapes, and the so-called Blue Franconians . "

Historical information about origin

The Lower Austrian homeland researcher Franz Langwieser writes in the Schwadorf homeland book 1953 in the chapter "The Wine":

“A Count von Fries was the Austrian envoy in various states, including Portugal. He had vineyards on his property in Vöslau . Around 1770 or 1780 he brought varieties from abroad to Vöslau and had them planted in his vineyard. "

The variety spread quickly in the wine-growing communities of Vöslau , Baden , Sooss and Gainfarn . The variety was called Portugieser . Further in the home book:

"Prof. Dr. Johann Burger mentioned in his description of the grape types occurring in the Austrian wine villages in 1837: Portuguese are only little known in Austria and only in the vineyards of Baden, Soos, Vöslau and Gainfarn, especially in the last three places the vines grow in large numbers cultivated. She is called Portuguese here. I couldn't raise the origin of this name, I only learned this much that Baron, later Count Fries, had them come from abroad and planted in his Vöslau vineyard. Johann Baumgartner, winegrower and nursery owner in Gumpoldskirchen wrote in 1856 that Count Fries imported Portuguese from Oporto and that every year he delivered over 300,000 Portuguese vines to western Germany and Styria. "

The regional fruit growing inspector Josef Löschnig found that Count Fries first planted the Blauer Portugieser in vineyards on his estate in Vöslau around the years 1770 to 1780, that it comes from a southern, unknown grape variety and that it is from Vöslau that it spreads over Lower Austria, Styria, Germany etc. as a popular red wine variety that gives a mild, not very dark red wine. In the Viticulture Handbook of Babo and Mach, the origin of the variety is given as Portugal. The messenger is the envoy Count Fries.

Information that the Blauer Portugieser variety was completely unknown in Portugal about 100 years ago comes from a much later time, before the vine material was brought from Portugal to Austria (around 1770 or 1780). At that time there was no description of varieties or a list of varieties in Portugal. Like so many varieties, varieties have not been increased any more in Portugal and have disappeared. It is not permissible to draw conclusions from this that the country of origin is Austria. The sources from Austria clearly indicate Portugal as the country of origin. There is also no evidence that the Blauer Portugieser variety was cultivated in Austria and Hungary before 1770.

In the more recent scientific literature, Portugal is given as the country of origin.

The indications of origin given here are no longer valid due to the new findings.

Ampelographic varietal characteristics

Blauer Portugieser - grapes
  • The shoot tip is open. It is very slightly hairy, yellowish-green in color and almost shiny. The greenish, slightly bronze-colored young leaves are also very weakly hairy.
  • The large leaves are rather rounded, thick, mostly three-lobed to weakly five-lobed and only slightly curved (see also the article leaf shape ). The stalk bay is lyren-shaped to V-shaped open. The blade is roughly serrated. The leaf surface is smooth or only slightly blistered.
  • The cone-shaped grape is medium-sized with one to three wings and has dense berries. The elongated berries are medium-sized and black-blue in color and have a thin berry skin.
  • The variety has a very vigorous growth.

Maturity: The blue Portuguese ripens almost at the same time as the Gutedel and is therefore considered to ripen early.


The yield is very high and regular. Without volume regulation, the yield can be 120 to 200 hl / ha.


The Blauer Portugieser drives out medium early. This avoids possible very late spring frosts. Compared to the genuine and downy mildew , the vine is very vulnerable. The variety is very susceptible to infection with the black spot disease (Phomopsis).

It also tends to be infected with raw rot . Since the raw rot has a disruptive effect on the red wine color, the blue Portuguese is often harvested before physiological ripeness. It is often harvested in the first half of September and is easy to drink as early as next spring. The variety has a low winter frost resistance.


The advantage of the Blauer Portugieser is that it can cope with almost all soils (except heavy, moist and cool ones), including those that are poor in nutrients and sandy ones. It also accepts flat locations and is easy to machine there .


The variety delivers low-acid, mild red wines with comparatively little tannin, which are ready to drink quickly. With high yields, the variety makes simple wines. It can only produce good quality wines with appropriate volume regulation and aging methods.


Spread across the world

country Vineyards ha
Slovakia 92
Chile 2
Germany 4202
France 28
Italy 167
Croatia 42
Austria (2015) 1265
Portugal 36
Czech Republic 622
Hungary 1216
World acreage 2010 8027


In Austria, the Blue Portuguese is only important in Lower Austria , namely in the Weinviertel and especially in the thermal region . In 2015, the Blauer Portugieser covered 1264 hectares and 8.5% of the Austrian red wine cultivation area and was thus, despite the downward trend, behind the Zweigelt and the Blaufränkisch in third place among the red wine varieties. The Blauer Portugieser has lost a lot of its importance in Austria: its cultivation area decreased by 31.2% in the period from 1999 to 2009.

In 2015 the variety was distributed among the federal states in Austria as follows:

state Area ha
Lower Austria 1245
Burgenland 10
Vienna 6th
Styria 2
Other federal states 1
Total Austria 2015 1264


The variety was brought to Germany from Austria , where it was mainly distributed in the Rheinhessen and Palatinate growing areas . From 1840 onwards, Johann Philipp Bronner played a key role in its spread within Germany . Bronner brought the Blauer Portugieser grape from Bad Vöslau to Germany. This is said to have been unknown 30 to 40 years before Bronner's visit to Austria (1840).

In Germany in 2007, 4,557 ha (= 6.5% of the vineyard area) were planted with the Blauer Portugieser grape variety. The planted area has been decreasing continuously for several years despite the red wine boom. In 2006 there were still 4683 hectares of arable land, after 5039 hectares were surveyed in 2001. In the list of red wine varieties, the Blauer Portugieser only has to admit defeat to the Pinot Noir and Dornfelder varieties . The main cultivation areas are the Palatinate with 2282 hectares and Rheinhessen with 1738 hectares.

In 2011, the variety was distributed among the individual growing areas as follows:

Wine region Area ha
Ahr 34
to bathe 28
Francs 68
Hessian mountain road 4th
Middle Rhine 7th
Moselle 2
Near 106
Palatinate 1967
Rheingau 6th
Rheinhessen 1530
Saale-Unstrut 44
Saxony 3
Württemberg 166
Total Germany 2011 3966


The synonym "Portugues Azul" is a literal translation of Blauer Portugieser into the Portuguese language. There are 107 other synonyms: Autrichien, Azul, Badener, Badner, Blue Feslaner Grape, Blue Feslauer Grape, Blauer Fraenchischer, Blauer Oporto, Blauer Portuguese, Bonnette, Brina, Cerna Krajelvina, Cerna Kraljevina, Cerne Rane, Cerny Sryk, Crna Kraljevina, Crne Kraljevina , Early Burgundy, Feslauertraub, Frueher Blauer Portugieser, Frueher Voerlauer, Frueher Voeslauer, Fruehreife Garidelitraube, Fruh Portugieser, Fruher Blauer Portugieser, Garidelia Monopyrena, Garidelia Praecox, Garidelitraube Fruehereife, Imbrina, Ke Koperto, Kekjevorto, Kekoporto Kraljlvina, Laska Modrina, Maviona Rana, Mavrovna Rana, Mavrvona Rana, Modra Kraljevina, Modry Portugal, Mor Portugieser, Moravna, Oporto, Oporto Kek, Oporto Vaeslauer, Oportoi, Oportorebe, Opporto, Perequita, Plant de Oporto, Oporto, Perequita, Plant de Oporto, Porto Nero, Porthogeze, Portjuge, Portoghese, Portoghese Nero, Portokiz, Portougalka, Portougalsky Siny, Portugais, Portugais Bleu, Portugais de Bingen, Portugais Noi re, Portugaiser, Portugal, Portugalika, Portugaljka, Portugalka, Portugalkja, Portugalske Modre, Portugalske Sive, Portugalski, Portugalskie, Portugalskii Sinii, Portugalskij Sinij, Portugalsky Siny, Portuge Bleu, Portughese, Portugieser, Portugieser Blauer, Portugiesi, Portugiesische, Portugiezi, Portugiesi, Portuguese , Portugizac, Portugizac Crni, Portugizal Crni, Portugizee, Portugizer, Portugizer N, Portugroljka, Portugues Azul, Prokupac, Raisin Des Roses, Rana Modra, Rana Modra Kraljevina, Ranina, Schwarze, Skorak, Skore Cerne, Uessinella, Veslaver, Veste di Monaca , Voeslaner, Voeslauer, Voslaner, Weslau .

See also

Web links

Commons : Blauer Portugieser  - Collection of images, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Blauer Portugieser  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations


Individual evidence

  1. a b c d E. Maul, F. Röckel, R. Töpfer: The "missing link" Blaue Zimmettraub reveals that 'Blauer Portugieser and Blaufränkisch originated in Lower Styria , Julius Kühn Institute (JKI), Institute for Grapevine Breeding Geilweilerhof, Siebeldingen, Germany; Vitis 55, 135-143 (2016), doi: 10.5073 / vitis.2016.55.135-143
  2. "Grauer Portugieser" on the Vitis database., accessed on August 12, 2020 (English, Passport data ).
  3. "Roter Portugieser" on the Vitis database., accessed on August 12, 2020 (English, Passport data ).
  4. ^ "Green Portuguese" on the Vitis database., accessed on August 12, 2020 (English, Passport data ).
  5. ^ A b c d Franz Langwieser: Home book of Schwadorfs . Typewritten compilation 1953. Lower Austria State Library, St. Pölten .
  6. Because of the preferred cultivation of Blauer Portugieser in the Lower Austrian thermal region , especially in Bad Vöslau and Baden near Vienna, the variety was formerly referred to in Austria as "Vöslauer" or "Badener". Otherwise, the variety is often referred to simply as "Portuguese" in Austria. See the Brockhaus wine. Grape varieties, tasting, viticulture, cellar technology, international growing areas, ed. from the lexicon editors of the FA Brockhaus publishing house, Leipzig and Mannheim 2005, ISBN 3-7653-0281-3 , p. 334.
  7. The vines delivered were not grafted at that time, as phylloxera did not yet exist in Europe at that time .
  8. Josef Löschnig (1872–1949) former director of the viticulture and fruit growing department of the Lower Austrian Chamber of Agriculture ( Memento from February 5, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
  9. A. Babo, E. Mach: Handbook of viticulture and cellar management. 3. Edition. Paul Parey Publishing House, Berlin 1909, p. 287.
  10. Jancis Robinson : The Oxford Wine Lexicon. 3. Edition. Hallwag, 2007, ISBN 978-3-8338-0691-9 , p. 554.
  11. ^ Hans-Jörg Koch: Weinland Rheinhessen. Südwestdeutsche Verlagsanstalt, Mannheim 1976, p. 117.
  12. Hornikels Wine Library: The varieties. Seewald Verlag, Stuttgart 1976, p. 157.
  13. ^ Deutsches Weininstitut GmbH and German Wine Fund: German Wine Atlas. Nierstein 1990, p. 120.
  14. ^ Andrea Poss, Holger Vornholt, Joachim Grau, Yvonne Tiedt: Wine Encyclopedia. Approved edition 2002, pp. 56, 57, 820.
  15. Katja Schweder, July Becker, Susanne Winterling: Königliches Weinlexikon. Höma Verlag, Offenbach, 2008, p. 33.
  16. ^ Ferdinand Regner : Directory of Austrian quality wine varieties and their clones , 2008, HBLA and BA Klosterneuburg
  17. Hans Ambrosi , Bernd HE Hill, Erika Maul, Ernst H. Rühl, Joachim Schmid, Fritz Schumann: color atlas grape varieties. 3. Edition. Eugen Ulmer, 2011, ISBN 978-3-8001-5957-4 .
  18. a b Jancis Robinson , Julia Harding, Josè Vouillamoz: Wine Grapes. 1st edition. Penguin Books, London 2012, ISBN 978-0-06-220636-7 , p. 113.
  19. ^ Ferdinand Regner : Directory of the Austrian quality wine grape varieties and their clones. LFZ Klosterneuburg, 2008.
  20. a b Karl Bauer, Ferdinand Regner , Barbara Schildberger: Weinbau , avBuch im Cadmos Verlag, Vienna, 9th edition 2013, ISBN 978-3-7040-2284-4 .
  21. Horst Dietrich Mohr: color atlas diseases, pests and beneficial insects on the vine. Eugen Ulmer Verlag, p. 121.
  22. K. Anderson, NR Aryal: Database of Regional, National and Global Winegrape Bearing Areas by Variety, 2000 and 2010, Wine Economics Research Center, University of Adelaide, December 2013 (first revision April 2014) (second revision May 2014) (third revision July 2014).
  23. Blauer Portugieser on
  24. ÖSTAT Weingarten Survey 2015.
  25. Klaus Beneke: Johann Philipp Bronner (02/11/1792 Neckargemünd - 04/12/1864 Wiesloch) pioneer of viticulture in Germany, pharmacist, researcher and the history of wine, as well as the Colica Pictonum and the production of sugar from beets. January 2006, amended June 2006, October 2006, p. 36, p. 37, p. 49.
  26. ^ German Wine Institute (ed.): Statistics 2011, ( Memento from March 23, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) . Mainz 2011.
  27. ^ German Wine Institute (ed.): Statistics 2007/2008, ( Memento from September 20, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) . Mainz 2007.
  28. ^ Deutsches Weininstitut (Ed.): Statistics 2004/2005, ( Memento from September 20, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) . Mainz 2004.
  29. Descriptive list of varieties of the Federal Plant Variety Office 2008 (PDF; 519 kB).
  30. ^ F. Regner, JE Eiras-Dias, A. Stadlbauer, D. Blahous: Blauer Portugieser, the dissemination of a grapevine. In: Ciencia e Tecnica Vitivinicola. 14 (2) 1999, ISSN  0254-0223 , pp. 37-44.
  31. Blauer Portugieser in the database Vitis International Variety Catalog of the Institute for Grapevine Breeding Geilweilerhof (English), accessed on August 12, 2020