from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Synonyms Chasselas, Fendant - for more see the Synonyms section
Art Grape vine ( Vitis vinifera subsp. Vinifera )
Berry color yellow-green
origin Western Alps, Switzerland (Vaud, Lake Geneva), France (Burgundy)
VIVC no. 2473

not known

List of grape varieties

Gutedel (in France and Switzerland Chasselas , called Fendant in Valais ) is an old white wine and table grape variety that has found worldwide distribution. Today the use of the grape variety for both wine and table grape production is declining worldwide.

The original home of this variety is controversial. In the literature, various areas are suspected such as Upper Egypt (5000 years ago), the Jordan Valley, Chasselas in France, Cahors in southern France or Spain. All of this information is based on assumptions, in which one inferreds the variety with the help of similarities in appearance (leaf representations on wall paintings in Egyptian graves). Extensive genetic diagnostics suggest the origin in the western Alps and not in Egypt.

A notable wine production with Gutedel has been preserved in western Switzerland and in the Markgräflerland in southern Germany.


Depiction of Egyptian viticulture from grave TT261
Lake Geneva and
Lavaux wine-growing region
Vineyards near Sion in the canton of Valais

The 'Gutedel' is an old grape variety. In the absence of corresponding documents, information about the origin is almost entirely based on assumptions. The millennia-long distribution of the grape variety by numerous peoples, Egyptians, Phoenicians, Greeks and Romans, but also crusaders, on various routes over and around the central Mediterranean has offered ample opportunities for the distribution of grape varieties.


In the literature, Egypt is often cited as the country of origin for Gutedel , where it has been cultivated for around 5000 years. Several forms of the 'Gutedel' can still be found today in the Fayyum oasis , around 70 kilometers southwest of Cairo . Several varieties of 'Gutedel', similar to those on the wall paintings in the royal tombs near Luxor in Upper Egypt, thrive there to this day. The Fayoumi variety in the large Flebberg of Gianaciis, for example, has a striking resemblance to the European Gutedel. The hypothesis of an origin in Egypt comes from the French ampelographer Adrien Berget , who believed to have recognized the grape variety there in 1932. This thesis was later defended by Henry Wuilloud (1947). It was only later that the claim arose that the variety had been known in Fayyum for 5000 years. The Romans are said to have brought the grape variety to Europe. Another interpretation puts the origin of the grape variety within the region of Palestine in the valley of the Jordan .


Evidence shows that in 1523 the Viscount of Auban , Ambassador of the French king Francis I at the court of Sultan Soliman II. , Chasselas vines from Konstantin Opel , has long been cultivated in its environment 'Chasselas' there, according to Fontainebleau and Burgundy has brought . This wine became the favorite drink at the royal court. From there de Courten, General of Louis XV. , Brought Chasselas vines from Fontainebleau to Sierre in the Swiss Valais .


Other authors shift the origin to southern France in the area of Cahors , capital of the Lot department . From there, Francis I and Henry IV are said to have planted Rebholz in the famous royal vineyard in Fontainebleau. On the other hand, August Wilhelm von Babo believes that from Cyprus , Emperor Franz I introduced the Chasselas to France. Johann Philipp Bronner, in turn, suspects Spain to be the origin . The Provençal Michel (1819) finally suspected that all French grape varieties came from mother vines that the Ionic Phocaeans brought with them from Asia Minor when Massalia ( Marseille ) was founded .

The brisk trade in goods in Europe increased the spread of Chasselas from east to west and north, so that the Chasselas vine in the Rhone Valley via Burgundy to the Valais was able to spread at an early stage . From western Switzerland, the Chasselas has spread under various synonyms over Alsace , Rheinpfalz , Baden , Württemberg and all of Central Europe. Hertwig (1660), for example, reports about him from Hungary . After its patron Josef Fabián, who introduced it from France, it was widely known there at the end of the 18th century under the name Fabián grape .

Many areas claim the origin for the Gutedel. The place “ Chasselas ” in Burgundy, not far from Mâcon, makes a strong statement . The grape variety of his name has thrived here for as long as anyone can remember, so he was right to bear the name, it comes from wild Swiss grapes, which western Switzerland has so abundantly on.

DNA analysis

An extensive DNA analysis at the University of Neuchâtel could not find any evidence of a relationship with grape varieties from Egypt and Palestine. Gutedel, on the other hand, is related to autochthonous grape varieties from the Alpine region in eastern France, Switzerland and northern Italy. The most important results of this scientific work are: The parent varieties of the Chasselas could not be determined. However, 20 clone variants with the same DNA could be identified. The Chasselas vine is genetically similar to most of the old grape varieties in the Alpine arc. For example with the Teroldego , the Lagreiner or the Altesse variety . Burgundy, where the Chasselas was mentioned in 1612 under the name Fendans , Fendant or Lausannois , is located in the area of ​​the genetic relationship of the Chasselas , especially the village of the same name, which is very likely a transit station for this variety. The name Lausannois or Luzannois even more likely reveals the beginnings of Chasselas . The most credible hypothesis sees the origin of the Chasselas in the arc of Lake Geneva, most likely in the canton of Vaud .


Due to the many assumptions, similarities and scientific research results, the exact origin will probably never be able to be determined. The great ancestors of Gutedel may come from Egypt or the Jordan Valley (due to a certain similarity in appearance). With the various spreading of the vines to Central Europe over the years, new types and varieties have emerged through natural crossing, mutations and propagation with seeds. The results allow the hypothesis that the now known Gutedel in Central Europe, in the area of ​​the Western Alps, was selected by winemakers. As with many of today's varieties, the ancestors are accepted in the southeast. A complete clarification is not possible even with the means of genetic engineering.


Castle Château de Chasselas in France - the town of Chasselas is the namesake of the grape variety.

It is difficult to clearly confirm the identity of the grape variety because the indication of the grape variety did not play a role until the late Middle Ages. It was only at the turn of the 17th and 18th centuries that the wines were named more and more after the grape variety.

The chasselas is said to have been grown for the first time in France in the village of Chasselas . The synonym Chasselas can be traced back to the year 1654. Nicolas de Bonnefons mentions this variety in his work Les délices de la campagne . It is considered certain that the name Chasselas is directly related to the place Chasselas, where seedlings were grown and the place gives its name to the grape variety of the same name . Chasselas is the common term for the grape variety in France and Switzerland .

The German name “Gutedel” is found for the first time in 1621 with boys, the French name Fendant around the same time (1619) with Caspar Bauhin from Basel. He cultivated it with the grape varieties known at the time in his botanical garden in Mömpelgard , then Württemberg , now Montbéliard , south of Besançon . In his Historia plantarum universalis he describes it and mentions that in Burgundy it is called Fendant, in Württemberg Gut-noble-vine .

Among the German grape varieties, Sachs listed the Juncker grape = Gutedel-Rothewiener = Traminer Fleischwiener (synonym: Breywiener) in 1661. The most common name for this grape variety Chasselas brings Merlet (1667) with Chasselas noir et rouge and Chasselas-sur-Aube . Johann Sigismund Elsholtz speaks of the Schönedel . The name 'Gutedel' indicates the early esteem, “good” and “noble”.

Entries from the early 18th century can be found under the name Fendant . First in Vaud and later in Valais. The variety did not become more widespread in Valais until 1848.

Ampelographic features

The main ampelographic features are:

  • The shoot tips are strikingly reddish and glabrous.
  • The tendrils are remarkably long.
  • The leaves are medium-sized, light green, red-veined, five-lobed, deeply indented and the edge of the leaf is serrated.
  • The grapes are large, loose and shouldered. The berries are large, round, green-yellow or red (depending on the type, white, pink-red or red). The skin of the berries is thin, but firm and often brownish in color when exposed to the sun. The berries taste juicy to crunchy sweet.

Striking features that have led to many types of play ( varieties ) through mutation are in the Gutedel: special leaf shape, e.g. B. Slotted Gutedel ( parsley grape), different berry shape and color ( pale red and red Gutedel ), earlier maturity (formerly White Diamond Gutedel ). The ripening takes place mid-early in September.

Varieties of the Gutedel

Golden yellow Gutedel

This variety is also known in Champagne under the names Chasselas dorê and Raisin de Champagne .

The grape has large, round, amber berries and is described as "melting, soft, sweet, very good". Larger cultivated vineyards can also be found north of Lake Geneva .

Red Gutedel

The origin of this table and wine grape, like that of all varieties, is uncertain. The questions remain open as to whether the Rote Gutedel is not the original form and the White Gutedel , corresponding to the Burgundy varieties, a mutation of the red ones. Roter Gutedel is more common than all other varieties.

In addition to a large number of pink and red types, there is another color variant in the Medoc noir ( Chasselas noir , Blauer Gutedel ), which is known in Hungary as wine . The breeder Johann Mathiasz brought it from the Médoc (Bordelais), where it is called Mornen noir , to Hungary as an early ripening and sugar-rich variety.

Noisy chimes

The more yellowish, sweet, spicy, hard-fleshed berries that crack when you bite, without the juice splashing out, gave the variety its name. The Krachgutedel is valued for its fertility and early maturity . In the 19th century this excellent grape was widespread between Freiburg and Basel (1836) and in Alsace. The coveted Markgräfler wines were made from it.

Royal Chassel

The berries are purple-red to pinkish-bluish in color, taste sweet and are pleasantly spicy. Because of their sensitivity, the table grapes are only grown on walls in France, Germany and Austria.

Formerly White Gutedel

One suspects a variety of French origin in this very good table grape. In France it is rarely found today and in Germany sporadically as a trellis grape. It has badly warped leaves; larger, uneven berries and ripe eight to ten days earlier than the white Gutedel .

Slotted-leaved Gutedel (parsley grape)

The growth of the vine is weak and the leaves are similar to parsley leaves. The grapes are not as valuable as those of the White Gutedel .


The Gutedel needs deep, fertile, not too dry clay , marl , loess or limestone soils.

Advantages and disadvantages


  • brings good yields with a favorable flowering process
  • resistant to grape rot ( botrytis )



The wine is a light, tasty, fresh, fruity and stimulating white wine with a pale yellow color, which is mainly made dry. With the best conditions, old vines and appropriate care in viticulture and winemaking , Gutedel can also produce far more sophisticated wines: with occasional impressive minerality and a beautiful balance of fruit and structure, fundamentally not unlike a better white wine from Burgundy . Here, the wines of Western Switzerland differ ( Chablais , Dézaley etc.) of which bathing occasionally even by the biological malolactic fermentation ( malolactic fermentation ), it is opposed to the German Gutedelweinen mild can appear.

When fermented on the skins, the grapes of the Rote Gutedel produce a rosé wine that is otherwise no different from the white wine.


Lavaux vineyards seen from the lake

As a table grape , the white and red Gutedel is widespread worldwide. The variety is losing importance because of better new table grape varieties. The Gutedel is pressed in western Switzerland, Alsace , the Markgräflerland, in the Saale Unstrut wine-growing region and partly in Romania , Hungary and the Czech Republic .


The variety is of great importance in Swiss viticulture , here it is called Fendant or Chasselas . The name Fendant is derived from the ability of the grape to split the skin and pulp when lightly pressed (French: fendre = split, break). In 2013, an area of ​​3954 ha was planted with chasselas in Switzerland .

The name Gutedel is not used in German-speaking Switzerland either and the German name is practically unknown here.

Although the vine is grown throughout the entire Lake Geneva area , since 1966 the name Fendant has only been used as a protected designation of origin for wines from the canton of Valais . 'Fendant' is grown throughout the Valais, making up around a third of the canton's total vineyard area. The most important growing areas are La Côte and Lavaux on Lake Geneva, Chablais , Wallis ; Martigny , Saillon , Chamoson , Sion , Sierre , Salgesch , Lake Neuchâtel ( Auvernier ), Mont Vully and Lake Biel ( Erlach , Ligerz , Twann ).

'Chasselas' is drunk in Switzerland as an aperitif wine and is served with cheese such as fondue or raclette . The terroir is reflected in a distinct way in the Chasselas. Although it is mostly drunk young, good vintages from good locations between the ages of 5–10 years can be high quality wines.


Portrait of Karl Friedrich von Baden as Margrave
Aerial view of a vineyard in the Markgräflerland

The Gutedel is said to have spread more widely within Germany through the activities of Margrave Karl Friedrich von Baden , who in 1780 introduced seedlings to the area south of Freiburg, today's Markgräflerland, from Vevey , a well-known wine-growing community on Lake Geneva . However, this notice is controversial as there is no documentation for it. The cultivation of Gutedel 1740 is documented in Ehaben, for example. By 1830, the Gutedel in the Markgräflerland had replaced the White Elbling and Blue Pinot Noir except for small remnants.

From the 16th century on, the Gutedel played a major role in the Palatinate, especially in Mittelhaardt. It is mentioned here as the predominant variety in 1833 and was represented from Landau to Maikammer . In the Württemberg Autumn Regulations of 1607, the Gutedel is listed as a nobler grape variety alongside Muscatel and Traminer , but is no longer mentioned later. It can be traced back to Franconia in 1607 and from there came to Saxony , where it appeared in 1726 under the name Junker . In 1846 the White Gutedel was still one of the “grapevine varieties predominantly grown in Saxon wine cultures”.

The main growing area of the Gutedel in Germany today is the Markgräflerland , where it grows on loam and loess soils. In the northernmost wine-growing region of Saale-Unstrut , the variety is grown on limestone soils. The Gutedel can also be found in Saxony, the Palatinate and Rheinhessen.

Growing area Area ha
Germany 1,146
to bathe 1,117
Saale-Unstrut 0.023
Saxony 0.003
Palatinate 0.001
Rheinhessen 0.001

New breeds

Due to its early maturity and quality, the Gutedel was used as a crossbreeding partner.


Synonyms: 320; Abelione, Abelone, Ag Shasla, Albillo, Albilloidea, Alsacia Blanca, Amber Chasselas, Amber Muscadine, Auslender, Bar Sur Aube, Bar Sur Auhe, Bassiraube, Bela Glera, Bela Sasla, Bela Zlahtnina, Berezka, Berezka Prostaja, Berezka Prostaya, Berioska Casla, Beyaz Gutedel, Biela Plemenika Praskava, Biela Plemenka, Biela Plemincka Chrapka, Biela Plemincka Pruskava, Biela Plemincka Pruskawa, Blanchette, Blanquette, Bois Rouge, Bon Blanc, Bordo, Bournet, Bournot, Buaki, Burda, Caslador, Charelapka Chasselas 1, Chasselas A Bois Rouge, Chasselas Angevin, Chasselas Bianco, Chasselas Blanc Royal, Chasselas Blanchette, Chasselas Cioutat, Chasselas Crognant, Chasselas Krokant, Chasselas De Bar-Sur-Aube, Chasselas De Bordeaux, Chasselas De Florence, Fontaine Chasselas De Florence Chasselas De Fontainebleau, Chasselas De Jalabert, Chasselas De La Contrie, Chasselas De La Nåby, Chasselas De Moissac, Chasselas Montauban, Chasselas De Mornain, Chasselas De Pondichery, Chasselas De Pontchartrain, C hasselas De Pouilly, Chasselas De Quercy, Chasselas De Rappelo, Chasselas De Tenerife, Chasselas De Tenerisa, Chasselas De Thomeri, Chasselas De Thomery, Chasselas De Toulaud, Chasselas De Vaud, Chasselas Di Fountanbleau, Chasselas Di Fountanbleau, Chasselas Diorey, Chasselas Dorada, Chasselas Dorada Chasselas Dore, Chasselas Dore Hatif, Chasselas Dore Salomon, Chasselas Dorée, Chasselas Du Doubs, Chasselas Du Portugal, Chasselas Du Roi, Chasselas Du Serail, Chasselas Du Thor, Chasselas Dugommier, Chasselas Dur, Chasselas Fendant, Chasselas Fendant, Chasselas Hatif De Tenerife, Chasselas Haute Selection, Chasselas Jalabert, Chasselas Jaune Cire, Chasselas Musque, Chasselas Piros, Chasselas Plant Droit, Chasselas Queen Victoria, Chasselas Reine Victoria, Chasselas Salsa, Chasselas Tokay Angevine, Chasselas Weiss, Vertelas Chasselat, Chrapka, Chrapka Bila, Chrupka, Chrupka Biela, Chrupka Bila, Chrupka Uslachtila, Common Muscadine, Cote Rouge, Danka Belaya, Debrorozne, Diamant, Diamanttraube, Dinka Belaja, Dinka Belaya, Dinka Blanche, Dobrohrozen, Dobrorozne, Double Spanish, Dorians, Dorin, Doucet, Dreixle, Eau Douce Blanche, Edelschoen, Edelwayn, Edelwein, Edelweiss, Edelxeiss, Elba Toro, Elsaesser, Elsasser Weiss, Fabian, Fabian Szoeloe, Fabianszoeloe, Fabiantraub, Fabianzoeloe, Feder Ropoos, Feher Chasselas, Feher Fabianszoeloe, Feher Gyoengyszoeloe, Feher Repoos, Feher Repoos Fabian, Feher Ropogos, Feher Ropvos Fabian, Feher Rpoosx Fabian, Fendant., Fendant Vert, Florenci Jouana, Fondan Belyi, Franceset, Franceseta, Frantraub, Frauentraub, Gamet, Ganzwaelsche, Gelber Gutedel, Gemeiner Gutedel, Gentil Blanc, Gentil Vert, Gerezka, Giclet, Golden Bordeaux, Golden Chasselas, Goldgutedel, Gotadel Weisser, Grossblaettrige, Grossblaettrige Spanish, Grosse Spanische, Grosser Spaniger, Gruener Gutedel, Gutedel, Gutedel Pariser, Gutedel Weiss, Gutedel Weisser, Gutedler, Gyoengyszoeloe, Gyoengyzoeloe, Junker, Kapucínské, Koenigs Gutedel, Kracher, Krachgutedel, Krach Lampe, Krachmost, Krachmoster, Lardeau, Lardot, Lausannois, Lendant Blanc, Lourdot, Maisa, Malvasia De El Bierzo, Markgraefler, Marnan Blanc, Marzemina, Marzemina Bianca, Marzemina Niduca, Meutger, Mornan Blanc, Mornant, Mornant Blanc, Mornen, Mornen Blanc, Most, Most Rebe, Moster, Moster Suessling, Mostmatt, Muealicevi Sasla, Pariser Gutedel, Perlan, Perltraube, Pinzutella, Plamenka, Plamenka Bijela, Plant De Toulard, Plant De Toulaud , Plant Droit, Plemenika Praskava, Plemenka, Plemenka Bela, Plemenka Bijela, Plemenka Rana, Pleminka Biela, Praskava, Pruscava Biela, Pruskawa, Queen Victoria, Queen Victoria Weiss, Raisin D'Officier, Raisin De Champagne, Ranka, Rdeca Zlahtina, vine Herr Fuchses, Reben Herm Fuchs, Reben Herr, Rheinrebe, Rosemary Grape, Rosemary Grape, Rust Red Gutedel, Roughness Ace, Royal Muscadine, Rozmarint Grape, Sasla, Sasla Aurul, Sasla Bela, Sasla Belaja, Sasla Bjala, Sasla Dore, Sasla Lecegna yes, Sasla Zlatista, Sasla Zolotistaja, Sazsla, Schoenedel, Shashla, Shasla, Shasla Belaya, Shasla Dore, Shasla Lechebnaya, Shasla Heil, Shasla Viktoria, Shasla Weiss, Shasla Zolotistaya, Silberlings, Silberwisak, Silberweissielske, Silberwisli , Suesling Kraechelte, Suessling, Suesstraube, Susstraube, Freshwater, Sweetwater Weiss, Table Grape Rolf, Temprana Agostena, Temprana Media, Temprana Tardia, Tempranillo De Nav, Temprano, Temprano Blanco, Terravin, Tibiano Tedesco, Traslador, Treixle, Tribi Vognoble, Tribianco Tedesco, , Tribiano Tedesco, Ugne, Uslachtile Biele, Uva Salsa, Valais, Valais Blanc, Viala, Viviser, Waelsche, Waelscher, Walischer, Weiser Gutedel, Weißer Burgunder, Weisser Gutedel, Weisser Junker, Weisser Krachgutedel, Weisser Muskateller, Weisser Tokayer, Welsche, White Chasselas, White Muscadine, White Sweetwater, White Van Der Laan, Zlahtnina, Zlahtnina Bigela, Zlahtnina Bijela, Zupljanka.


Web links

Wiktionary: Gutedel  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. JF Vouillamoz Claire Arnold: The Chasselas is a Vaudois. ( Memento of the original from July 28, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Etude historicogénétique de l'origine du Chasselas, University of Neuchâtel, NCCR Plant Survival @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  2. a b c d Hoffmann 1980, p. 26.
  3. a b See results of the DNA analysis.
  4. ^ Adrien Berget: L'origine des Chasselas. In: Revue de Viticulture. LIV (1399), 1921, pp. 289-293.
  5. ^ Adrien Berget: L'origine égyptienne des Chasselas. In: Revue de Viticulture. LXXVI (1969), 1932, pp. 181-185.
  6. Nikolaus Flüeler: Swiss Viticulture - Swiss Wine. 2nd Edition. Ex-libris Verlag, Zurich 1980, p. 138.
  7. Hoffmann 1980, p. 19.
  8. ^ José Vouillamoz, C. Arnold: Etude historico-génétique de l'origine du Chasselas . ( Memento from September 19, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
  9. The Chasselas is a Vaudois - clever minds track down the origin of the Chasselas vine (PDF)
  10. ^ José F. Vouillamoz, C. Arnold: Etude historico-génétique de l'origine du Chasselas. (PDF) (No longer available online.) University of Neuchâtel, 2009, archived from the original on July 14, 2014 ; accessed in 2015 (French). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  11. ^ Paul Fénelon: Vocabulaire de geographie agraire. Faculté des lettres et sciences humaines de Tours, 2007.
  12. Carl Renatus Hausen , Anton Bernhard Thiele: Representation of viticulture and with local wines: driven domestic and foreign trade in the Brandenburg Marches from 1173 to the present time. In addition to economic principles, according to which the formerly flourishing viticulture in the Brandenburg Marches can be restored CL Hartmann, 1798.
  13. Hoffmann 1980, p. 20.
  14. ^ Gebrüder Baumann: Pocket book of the understanding gardener. Volume 1 . JG Cotta'schen Buchhandlung, 1824, p. 538.
  15. Dézaley Médinette Grand Cru , Collection Louis-Philippe Bovard, Cully
  16. Office fédéral de l'agriculture OFAG - The 2013 Wine Year (PDF) ( Memento of the original from July 12, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , Editor Office fédéral de l'agriculture OFAG @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  17. In Kurt Hoffmann's book, too, the reference is only general.
  18. ^ Friedrich von Bassermann-Jordan: History of viticulture. Frankfurter Verlagsgesellschaft, 1923.
  19. Georg Heinrich von Carlowitz: Attempt of a cultural history of viticulture from prehistoric times to our times. Verlag W. Engelmann, Leipzig 1846.
  20. Hans Ambrosi, Bernd HE Hill, Erika Maul, first H. Rühl, Joachim Schmid, Fritz Schuhmann: color atlas grape varieties. 3. Edition. Eugen Ulmer, 2011, ISBN 978-3-8001-5957-4 , p. 133.
  21. State Statistical Office Rhineland-Palatinate: Statistical Reports - Planted Vineyards 2013. Bad Ems 2014, CI - j / 13, reference number: C1073 201300, ISSN  1430-5070 .
  22. a b c d e Federal Statistical Office: Agriculture, Forestry, Fisheries. Agricultural land use - vineyards. 2014, Series 3 Series 3.1.5.
  23. Seyve Villard 12-481 in the database Vitis International Variety Catalog of the Institute for Grapevine Breeding Geilweilerhof (English)
  24. Freiburg 153- 39 in the database Vitis International Variety Catalog of Institute for Grapevine Breeding Geilweilerhof (English)
  25. accessed on November 2, 2016 Gutedel in the database Vitis International Variety Catalog of the Institute for Grapevine Breeding Geilweilerhof (English)