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Synonyms Rivaner - for more see the Synonyms section
Breeding number 58
Art Grape vine ( Vitis vinifera subsp. Vinifera )
Berry color yellowish green
origin Germany, Switzerland
breeder Hermann Müller , Geisenheim Research Station in the Rheingau
Breeding year 1882
VIVC no. 8141

Cross of
Riesling × Madeleine Royale

List of grape varieties

Müller-Thurgau is a white wine variety that is now also called Rivaner for legal and marketing reasons . It was bred in 1882 by the Swiss Hermann Müller-Thurgau from the Swiss canton of Thurgau at the Geisenheim research institute in the Rheingau . With 22,934 hectares (2010) of cultivation area, Müller-Thurgau is the world's most successful new white wine variety . One example of the original vine has been preserved in Wädenswil.


The variety is a cross between Riesling and Madeleine Royale by Hermann Müller .

History of origin

From 1882, Hermann Müller carried out cross-breeding attempts at the Geisenheim research institute . The preliminary examination of the new breeds lasted until 1890. In 1891 Müller moved to Wädenswil (Switzerland) and 150 cuttings from the Geisenheim new breeds were sent to Switzerland. The cuttings were grown in Switzerland from 1892 to 1893. In 1894, 73 varieties could be planted outdoors. The Riesling × Silvaner had breeding no. 58. Propagation with cuttings by Heinrich Schellenberg (Eidgenössische Forschungsanstalt Wädenswil) took place in 1897.

The first refinement on rootstocks took place in 1901 and in 1903 the first harvesting systems of the new variety were created. From 1906 to 1907, the test facility consisted of 894 refined Riesling × Silvaner on seven rootstocks. In 1908, 22,000 grafted vines were distributed in Switzerland and abroad. The first return of 100 vines to Germany took place in 1913 by Dern using the variety designation Müller-Thurgau-Rebe.

In the 1930s, test facilities were set up in all German wine-growing regions and selections were made by Hartmut Fueß . The cultivation results were seen in 1938 at a Müller-Thurgau conference in Alzey . Since 1945, the variety has been increasingly planted during reconstruction and conversion. The seed law entry took place in 1956. From 1969 Müller-Thurgau is entered in the list of varieties according to the Seed Traffic Act. The classification as a recommended variety in all wine-growing regions in Germany took place in 1970. The Müller-Thurgau penetrated in Germany to the first place in terms of cultivation area until 1975. Propagation as clones of the Müller-Thurgau variety, basic and certified seedlings , took place from 1980.

Clarification of the crossing partners

Hermann Müller himself, however, was not entirely sure which parent grape varieties he had actually used. That's why there were doubts from the start. Attempts to reproduce the breeding failed. For a long time it was assumed that it was a cross between Riesling and itself.

In 1957, Heinz-Martin Eichelsbacher (born December 29, 1924 in Munich; † September 3, 2003 in Würzburg) was able to prove the absence of Silvaner genetic material during his doctorate at the Bavarian State Institute for Viticulture and Horticulture in Veitshöchheim (Franconia).

Again in 1998 in the Klosterneuburg Viticulture School in Austria, with the help of genetic engineering (using specific microsatellites ), the Silvaner was excluded from being a cross-breeding partner. The result suggested Chasselas as a crossbreed partner (father candidate). Scientists from the German Federal Institute for Breeding Research in Siebeldingen / Palatinate were then able to determine the origin of the Müller-Thurgau grape even more precisely in 1999 with new, expanded genetic diagnosis options: They identified the Madeleine Royale grape variety as the father. Madeleine Royale was seen as a breed from the Chasselas (Gutedel) shape , but has been considered a cross between Pinot and Trollinger since an investigation in 2009 .


Variety name Crossing partner
Albalonga Rieslaner × Silvaner
Arnsburger Riesling CL. 88 Gm × Riesling CL. 64 gm
Bacchus (Silvaner × Riesling) × Müller Thurgau
Boschidar Rieslaner × Müller Thurgau
Cumdeo blanc Gewürztraminer × Müller Thurgau
Diana Silvaner × Müller Thurgau
Elegancia (Traminer × Elbling) × Müller Thurgau
Ezmet / A Ezerjó × Müller Thurgau
Faber (grape variety) White Burgundy × Müller Thurgau
Floriánka Veltliner early red × Müller Thurgau
Fontanara Rieslaner × Müller Thurgau
Freiburg 90-64 Müller Thurgau × FREIBURG 587-54
Freiburg 986-60 SV 12-481 × Müller Thurgau
Garnier 15-6 SV 18-315 × Müller Thurgau
Geilweilerhof 30N- 9- 35 Silvaner × Müller Thurgau
Geilweilerhof 30N- 9- 83 Silvaner × Müller Thurgau
Geilweilerhof 30N- 9-129 Silvaner × Müller Thurgau
Geilweilerhof 31- 1-118 Silvaner × Müller Thurgau
Geilweilerhof B- 8-20 Oberlin 702 OP × Müller Thurgau
Geilweilerhof KOE- 50-24 (Silvaner × Müller Thurgau) Müller Thurgau
Geilweilerhof KOE- 50-100 (Silvaner × Müller Thurgau) × Müller Thurgau
Geisenheim 17-59 Chasselas Napoleon × Müller Thurgau
Geisenheim 17-103 Müller Thurgau × Pirovano 1
Geisenheim 18-1 Müller Thurgau × admirable de Courtillier
Geisenheim 18-26 Müller Thurgau × admirable de Courtillier
Geisenheim 18- 54 Müller Thurgau × (Madeleine Angevine × Calabreser Fröhlich)
Geisenheim 18-58 Müller Thurgau × (Madeleine Angevine × Calabreser Fröhlich)
Geisenheim 18-62 Müller Thurgau × (Madeleine Angevine × Calabreser Fröhlich)
Geisenheim 18-91 Müller Thurgau × (Madeleine Angevine × Calabreser Fröhlich)
Geisenheim 6437 Müller Thurgau × (Wälsche Early Blue × Färber 1)
Geisenheim 6441-4 (Seibel 7053 × Riesling) × Müller Thurgau
Geisenheim 7213 Kolor × Müller Thurgau
Geisenheim 7221 Opaque red × Müller Thurgau
Gloria Silvaner green × Müller Thurgau
Gloriosa (Riesling x Silvaner) x Müller Thurgau
Gold Riesling Welschriesling × Müller Thurgau
Grando (Riesling x Silvaner) x Müller Thurgau
Gutborner Müller Thurgau × Chasselas Napoleon
Hildegardis grape Müller Thurgau × winning vine
Jakob Gerhardt blanc Müller Thurgau × Gewürztraminer
Chancellor (grape variety) Müller Thurgau × Silvaner
Mariensteiner Silvaner × Rieslaner
Striking Müller Thurgau × Madeleine Royale
Medea Rivaner × Gewürztraminer
Milia Müller Thurgau × Tramin Cerveny
Montagna Rieslaner × Müller Thurgau
Muscabona Siegerrebe × Müller Thurgau
Optima (grape variety) (Silvaner × Riesling) × Müller Thurgau
Ortega (grape variety) Müller Thurgau × winning vine
Osiris Riesling × Rieslaner
Palava Traminer × Müller Thurgau
Pearl from Alzey Gewürztraminer × Müller Thurgau
R- 71 ERAPL. Müller Thurgau × Teli Muskotály
Rabans Riesling clone 88 GM × Riesling CLONE 64 GM
Sprinkler Luglienca bianca × Gamay early
Reichensteiner Müller Thurgau × (Madeleine Angevine × White Calabreser)
Sauvignon great Müller Thurgau × Sauvignon 13/21
Schantlrebe Müller Thurgau × Ruländer
Septimer Gewürztraminer × Müller Thurgau
Tamara Müller Thurgau × winning vine
TC / MT 0103 Traminer ROT × Müller Thurgau
Thekla grape Müller Thurgau × winning vine
Thürling Müller Thurgau × Riesling
Weinberg S 431 Müller Thurgau × Blaufränkisch
Würzburg 80- 09- 001 Thürling × Müller Thurgau 04.12
Wuerzburg B 51-04-008 Rieslaner × Müller Thurgau
Wuerzburg B 55-08-162 P. 2765 × Müller Thurgau
Wuerzburg B 64-22-031 B 13-56 × Müller Thurgau
Flavoring Gewürztraminer × Müller Thurgau


In 1978 a red mutation was found. The red Müller-Thurgau was registered with the Bundessortenamt in Germany for approval in 2014 .

Ampelographic features

  • The tip of the shoot is slightly hairy and is light green with a reddish tinge.
  • The young leaf is light green, deeply indented and the mature leaf is medium-sized, five-lobed, deeply indented, strongly wavy and the central lobe is clearly twisted. The stalk bay overlapping with a V-shaped base.
  • The grapes are medium to large, loose to dense berries, conical, often shouldered. The berries are medium-sized, oval, yellowish green in color and slightly scented. The berry flesh is undyed and juicy with a subtle nutmeg taste.
  • The shoots are strong.

Maturity: early, early to mid-September



Demands on soil and location

The Müller-Thurgau variety has relatively low demands on climate and soil quality. It needs deep soils with a good water supply. No drought-prone locations and nutrient-poor, light soils. It is also suitable for late layers, but deep, enclosed layers are not suitable. The wood ripeness can be weak, which means that frost damage can often occur from −15 ° C.

Advantages and disadvantages

The advantages of the variety are its early ripeness, that it does not require very much location and is not very sensitive to flowering.

The disadvantage is the poor ripeness of the wood and thus the high sensitivity to winter frost. It is very susceptible to the oidium and downy mildew , Botrytis cinerea , red burner , Phomopsis and stem paralyzes . When overripe, the berries fall off easily.


The variety brings high and regular yields. A must weight of 65–90 ° Oechsle can be achieved at 80–150 hl / ha. In very rare cases, must weights of over 150 ° Oechsle are possible.


The wine is mild (not very acidic), easily drinkable and has a slightly musky fragrance and taste. The vinification takes place very quickly - the wines are therefore ready to drink early (apart from Prädikat wines). The low acid content often results in premature aging of the wine with a poor shelf life (except for premium wines).



Development of the Müller Thurgau, Riesling and Silvaner varieties from 1964

The area under cultivation of the Müller-Thurgau grape variety in Germany was 12,736 ha in 2015, which corresponds to 12.4% of the area under vines . Between 1975 and 1995 it held first place with around 25% of the vineyard area, until it was replaced by Riesling.

Wine region Area ha
Ahr 15th
to bathe 2,491
Francs 1,645
Hessian mountain road 24
Middle Rhine 22nd
Moselle 1,046
Near 538
Palatinate 2,053
Rheingau 34
Rheinhessen 4,320
Saale-Unstrut 116
Saxony 77
Stargarder Land -
Württemberg 339
total Germany 2016 12,736

Other countries

country Vineyards ha
Austria (2015) 2,807
Slovakia 1,378
France 5
Japan 172
Luxembourg 184
Moldova 173
Switzerland 493
Canada 7th
Croatia 60
Czech Republic 1,572
Germany (2015) 12,736
Hungary 2,098
Italy 1.312
Russia 106
United Kingdom 43
New Zealand 79
World acreage 2010 22,934


According to the EU variety regulations, only the designation "Müller Thurgau" or "Rivaner" may be used for the wine. In the case of the Riesling-Sylvaner synonym, one of the crossing partners is incorrect and the name simulates a blend of varieties.

The name Riesling × Silvaner used in Switzerland is of older origin: Hermann Müller did not want his crossbreed product to be known under his name in his home country.

Synonyms 39: Mathiasz Janos, Miler Turgau, Mueller, Mueller Thurgau, Mueller Thurgau Bianco, Mueller Thurgau Bijeli, Mueller Thurgau Blanc, Mueller Thurgau vine, Mueller Thurgau Weisser, Mueller Thurgau White, Mueller Thurgaurebe, Mueller Thurgeau, Mueller Thurgeaux, Muellerka, Muellerovo , Muller Thurgau, Muller Thurgeau, Muller Tourgau, Mullerka, Mullerovo, Myuller Turgau, Riesling Silvaner, Riesling Sylvaner, Riesling × Silavaner, Riesling × Silvaner, Riesling × Sylvaner, Riesvaner, Rivaner, Rizanec, Rizlingsilvani, Rizlingsylvany, Rizlingsylvanzilvani, Rizlingszilvanvan , Rizvanac Bijele, Rizvanac Bijeli, Rizvanec, Rizvaner, Uva di Lauria .


  • Karl Bauer, Ferdinand Regner , Barbara Schildberger: Viticulture. 9th, updated edition. avBook published by Cadmos Verlag, Vienna 2013, ISBN 978-3-7040-2284-4 .
  • Ferdinand Regner , Karel Hanak, Cornelia Eisenheld: Directory of Austrian quality wine grape varieties and their clones , 2nd edition 2015, HBL and BA for WB, Klosterneuburg.
  • Helmut Becker : 100 years of the Müller-Thurgau grape variety. In: German viticulture . Vol. 37, No. 12, 1982, pp. 532-538.
  • Oliver Bock: Intersection accident in the greenhouse. 125 years of Müller-Thurgau. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung . No. 171, of July 26, 2007, p. 9.
  • Oz Clarke, Margaret Rand: Clarke's Great Lexicon of Grape Varieties. Droemer, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-426-27239-3 .
  • Erika Dettweiler, Andreas Jung, Eva Zyprian, Reinhard Töpfer: Grapevine cultivar Müller-Thurgau and its true to type descent. In: Vitis. Vol. 39, No. 2, 2000, pp. 63-65, ( digital version (PDF; 317 kB) ).
  • Hans Ambrosi , Bernd HE Hill, Erika Maul, Erst H. Rühl, Joachim Schmid, Fritz Schuhmann: Color atlas grape varieties 3rd edition, Eugen Ulmer, 2011, ISBN 978-3-8001-5957-4 .

Web links

Commons : Müller-Thurgau  - Collection of images, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Müller-Thurgau  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Erika Dettweiler et al .: Grapevine cultivar Müller-Thurgau and its true to type descent. In: Vitis. Vol. 39, No. 2, 2000, pp. 63–65, ( digital version (PDF; 317 kB) ( memento of the original from March 1, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this note. ). @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.vitis-vea.de
  2. Javier Ibáñez, Alba M. Vargas, Margarita Palancar, Joaquín Borrego, M. Teresa de Andrés: Genetic Relationships among Table-Grape Varieties. In: American Journal of Enology and Viticulture. Vol. 60, No. 1, 2009, pp. 35-42, ( abstract ).
  3. accessed on October 23, 2016 Müller-Thurgau in the database Vitis International Variety Catalog of the Institute for Grapevine Breeding Geilweilerhof (English)
  4. Müller Thurgau - Variety Description - Institute for Vine Breeding - University of Geisenheim. ( Memento of the original from July 27, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.hs-geisenheim.de
  5. Cultivation statistics for 2015 Federal Statistical Office (2016): Agriculture and Forestry, Fisheries. Agricultural land use - vineyards. Technical series 3 series 3.1.5.
  6. K. Anderson, NR Aryal: Database of Regional, National and Global Winegrape Bearing Areas by Variety, 2000 and 2010, Wine Economics Research Center, University of Adelaide, December 2013 (first revision April 2014) (second revision May 2014) (third revision July 2014).
  7. Müller-Thurgau in the database Vitis International Variety Catalog of the Institute for Grapevine Breeding Geilweilerhof (English), accessed on March 25, 2020