The rootstock of a vine is called a rootstock . It is used to make the vine resistant to phylloxera and forms its root stem with the entire root system. The root phylloxera is combated biotechnologically by combining a rootstock that is resistant to phylloxera with a noble variety . The production of the grafted vines (refinements) for the creation of a new vineyard takes place in nurseries .
The European Culture vines ( Vitis vinifera ), which used to stand on their own roots ( direct producer , ungrafted vines ) were from the introduced from America from the mid-19th century phylloxera infested. This pest first came to France and quickly spread to European wine-growing regions . There he wreaked havoc. The phylloxera caused swellings (tuberosities) on the roots of the European vines, which led to subsequent fungal attack and consequently to the death of the vines.
In order to save European viticulture, American wild grape varieties were used as rootstock for the European noble grapes. The American vines are more resistant or even completely resistant to phylloxera. The phylloxera tolerance is based on the formation of a cork layer, which limits the spread of the tuberosities , but does not prevent the phylloxera from multiplying. When the pressure of infestation is strong, grafted vines also show signs of decline. Most of the rootstock vines used in Europe today are descendants of the three American wild species Vitis riparia , Vitis rupestris and Vitis berlandieri , crosses of the same or hybrids of American wild species with Vitis vinifera .
Selection criteria: sufficient grape vine tolerance or resistance, vigor, lime tolerance, drought tolerance, frost tolerance.
- Kober 5 BB
- Kober 125 AA
- Selection Oppenheim 4 (SO4)
- Teleki 5 C (5 C Geisenheim)
- Teleki 8 B
- Couderc 161-49
- 420 A Millardet et de Grasset
Hybrid of Vitis solonis x Vitis riparia 1 G
Hybrid of American and European Vitis species
Approval for the cultivation of rootstock varieties
In some European countries such as B. Germany, only certain types of documents are allowed for cultivation, which regulates the regulation for the control of phylloxera (phylloxera regulation) of July 27, 1988 (Federal Law Gazette I p. 1203).
As of 2019, the following are approved for cultivation in Germany: Kober 5 BB , Kober 125 AA , 5 C Geisenheim , Selektion Oppenheim 4 ( SO 4 ), Binova , Teleki 8 B , 3309 Couderc , Börner , Cina , Rici, Richter 110 , 161- 49 Couderc , 420 A Millardet et de Grasset , 1103 Paulsen and Sori.
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- Erwin Kadisch (founder): Viticulture (= the winemaker. Vol. 1). Edited by Edgar Müller. 3rd, completely revised edition. Eugen Ulmer, 2008, ISBN 978-3-8001-1241-8 .
- Karl Müller (Ed.): Viticulture Lexicon. For winemakers, wine merchants, coopers and innkeepers. Paul Parey publishing house, Berlin 1930.
- Jancis Robinson : The Oxford Wine Lexicon. 3rd, completely revised edition. Hallwag, Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-8338-0691-9 .
- Joachim Schmid, Frank Manty, Bettina Lindner: Geisenheimer grape varieties and clones (= Geisenheimer reports. 67). Department of grapevine breeding and refinement of the Geisenheim Research Institute Geisenheim, 2nd edition 2011, ISBN 978-3-934742-56-7 .
- Karl Bauer, Ferdinand Regner, Barbara Schildberger: Viticulture. 9th, updated edition. 2013, p. 406.
- Karl Bauer, Ferdinand Regner, Barbara Schildberger: Viticulture. 9th, updated edition. 2013, p. 108.