Shore vine ( Vitis riparia )
The wild grapevine Vitis riparia , also known as river bank vine , is native to the USA. It has the most natural distribution in America compared to other Vitis species. This results in important properties such as good rooting and phylloxera resistance. Selections from Vitis riparia are among the first documents for grafting. Their low tolerance to lime is unfavorable. This limits their importance as a document. But crosses with other Vitis species have a dominant role in rootstock varieties. André Michaux has Vitis riparia Michx. First described in 1803.
The species is found in southern Canada and most of the United States, with the exception of the southernmost states , in areas with both temperate and cooler climates. It is the most common type of grapevine in America. It often grows on river banks and prefers deep, fertile and moist soils. It is not found in dry locations.
The number of chromosomes is 2n = 38.
- The tip of the shoot is completely closed and almost hairless.
- The growth is very strong. Drive lengths of over 20 m are not uncommon. The above-ground shoots are more developed than the root system. The roots are fine, richly branched and more shallow in the ground, with a shallow depth.
- The leaves are large and roughly the same length as they are wide. They have a long stem and are triple lobed, the lower leaves often five times. The leaf margin is sharp and serrated irregularly. The leaves are hairless, only the ribs on the underside of the leaves are sometimes slightly hairy. The young leaves remain folded in the first few days and only open in the course of further development.
- The flowers are dioecious. The grapes are always small and have very small round berries. The berry juice has a sharp, sour taste, but has no Fox tone .
Has a good resistance against the root aphid, against powdery mildew and downy mildew , good frost resistance down to below −40 ° C. The shoot occurs earlier than other Vitis species and is therefore sensitive to late frost. For good development, Vitis riparia requires deep, fertile, lime-poor soils with an abundant supply of nutrients. It gets chlorosis on soils with more than 15% easily soluble lime and is therefore not suitable as a rootstock for most of the lime-rich soils in Europe. It prefers cooler areas and is not suitable for very warm and dry locations - low drought tolerance.
Vitis riparia has, in addition to the resistance to the root of phylloxera, other good properties, such as good rooting ability, good adhesion with the grafting partner and a positive influence on fertility and grape ripeness. Therefore it is also used as a base. The prerequisite is a low lime content and a good nutrient and water supply in the soil. These conditions severely limit its use. It is of much greater importance as a cross-breeding partner for breeding stock varieties. Most rootstock varieties go back to crosses with Vitis riparia . Crossing partners are the rootstock varieties Vitis berlandieri , Vitis rupestris and Vitis cinerea , but also the grape variety ' Trollinger ' and others.
- Selections from Vitis riparia
- 'Riparia Gloire de Montpellier' ('Riparia Portalis', 'Riparia Michel') by Viala. Is one of the first phylloxera-proof documents. Is a selection from Vitis riparia on the Portalis estate near Montpellier.
- 'Riparia Grand glabre' (by Ravaz, 1902)
- 'Riparia Geisenheim 1'
- Hybrid with Vitis riparia
|Hybrid from Vitis berlandieri × Vitis riparia|
|Kober 5 BB||Vitis riparia × Vitis berlandieri|
|Kober 125 AA||Vitis riparia × Vitis berlandieri|
|Selection Oppenheim 4 ('SO4')||Vitis riparia × Vitis berlandieri|
|Binova||Selection from ( Vitis riparia × Vitis berlandieri 'Selektion Oppenheim 4')|
|Teleki 5 C||Vitis riparia × Vitis berlandieri|
|Teleki 8 B||Vitis riparia × Vitis berlandieri|
|161-49 Couderc||Vitis riparia × Vitis berlandieri|
|Hybrid of Vitis riparia × Vitis cinerea|
|Borner||Vitis riparia 183 Geisenheim × Vitis cinerea Arnold|
|Hybrid of Vitis riparia × Vitis rupestris|
|3309 Couderc||Vitis riparia × Vitis rupestris|
|101-14 Millardet et de Grasset||Vitis riparia × Vitis rupestris|
The winemaking of Vitis riparia grapes is of no economic importance.
- There are around 45 synonyms, including: Bernuda Vine, Frost Grape, June Grape, Maple Leaved Canadian Grape, Mignonette Vine, River Grape, Riverside Grape, Scewnted Grape, Vigne de Battures and others
- Hans Ambrosi , Bernd HE Hill, Erika Maul, Ernst H. Rühl, Joachim Schmid, Fritz Schumann: color atlas grape varieties. 300 varieties and their wines. 3rd, completely revised edition. Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart 2011, ISBN 978-3-8001-5957-4 .
- Karl Bauer: Viticulture (= AV specialist book. ). 8th, updated edition. Österreichischer Agrarverlag, Vienna 2008, ISBN 978-3-7040-2284-4 .
- Erwin Kadisch (founder): Viticulture (= the winemaker. Vol. 1). Edited by Edgar Müller. 3rd, completely revised edition. Eugen Ulmer, 2008, ISBN 978-3-8001-1241-8 .
- Karl Müller (Ed.): Viticulture Lexicon. For winemakers, wine merchants, coopers and innkeepers. Paul Parey publishing house, Berlin 1930.
- Jancis Robinson : The Oxford Wine Lexicon. 3rd, completely revised edition. Hallwag, Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-8338-0691-9 .
- Joachim Schmid, Frank Manty, Bettina Lindner: Geisenheimer grape varieties and clones (= Geisenheimer reports. 67). Geisenheim Research Institute - Department of Vine Breeding and Refinement, Geisenheim 2009, ISBN 978-3-934742-56-7 .
- Andor Teleki: Modern viticulture. The reconstruction of the vineyards. 3rd, completely revised and significantly expanded edition. A. Hartleben, Vienna et al. 1927.
- BONAP's North American Plant Atlas (NAPA) ( Memento from January 21, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
- Riverside vine in the database Vitis International Variety Catalog of the Institute for Vine Breeding Geilweilerhof (English)
- Image of the seeds of Vitis riparia
- Vitis riparia Pictures of V. riparia - Distribution of V. riparia in North America. USDA Plants Database
- Lady Bird Johnson Center for Wildflowers
- Native North American Grapes: Vitis riparia
- riparia? Projectid = 9 bank vine at Tropicos.org. In: IPCN Chromosome Reports . Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis
- DP Pongrácz: Rootstock for Grape-vines. David Philip Publisher, Cape Town et al. 1983, ISBN 0-908396-67-8 , pp. 58-59.
- Karl Bauer: Viticulture. 8th, updated edition. 2008, p. 97.
- Hans Ambrosi, Bernd HE Hill, Erika Maul, Ernst H. Rühl, Joachim Schmid, Fritz Schumann: color atlas grape varieties. 3rd, completely revised edition. 2011, p. 48.