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Real grapevine (Vitis vinifera)

Real grapevine ( Vitis vinifera )

Class : Bedecktsamer (Magnoliopsida)
Nuclear eudicotyledons
Order : Grapevine-like
Family : Grapevines
Scientific name of the  order
Yuss. ex Bercht. & J. Presl
Scientific name of the  family

Grapevines (Vitaceae) form the only family of the order of the Vitales within the Rosids , they are flowering plants (Magnoliopsida). The approximately 16 genera with approximately 950 species (as of 2018) mainly thrive in tropical to subtropical areas. Some species are known as ornamental or useful plants .


Appearance and leaves

All species are perennial plants . Either evergreen or deciduous climbing shrubs and lianas thrive , mostly with winding tendrils; or they are shrubs or succulent plants.

The leaves are alternate and arranged in two rows. The leaf blades are simple, palmately lobed or compound. The leaves are usually tomentose or hairy on the underside, these outer hairs consist of dead cells. Live, single or multicellular trichomes are often present on the veins . The leaf margins can be serrated. They have quickly perishable stipules .

Inflorescences and flowers

Subfamily Vitoideae: inflorescence of Clematicissus angustissima with flowers in detail

The flowers are never single, but always in inflorescences , often complexly branched : in their basic structure, panicles or umbels (so botanically speaking, they are not grapes !) That arise in the axes of the leaves. There are always small bracts under the flower stalks .

The hermaphroditic or unisexual flowers are radial symmetry and are four or five-fold (rarely up to seven-fold). The species can be one ( monoecious ) or dioecious ( dioecious ). There is only one circle with four or five (up to seven) stamens each. The upper ovary is usually formed from two carpels . There is a mostly cup-shaped or bowl-shaped disc , which is a disc of nectar-secreting glands.

The basic flower formula is :, There are deviations from this for individual taxa .

Fruits and seeds

Mostly soft-fleshed berries with two, rarely three to eight compartments are formed. In each compartment there are two or one seeds with a hard shell.

Subfamily Vitoideae: succulent growing Cyphostemma elephantopus
Subfamily Vitoideae: Succulent Climber: Cissus quadrangularis
Subfamily Vitoideae: Tetrastigma species
Subfamily Leeoideae:
Leea rubra that grows shrubby

Systematics and distribution

The Vitaceae family was established in 1789 by Antoine-Laurent de Jussieu in Genera Plantarum , page 267 under the name "Vites". Type genus is Vitis L. Synonyms for Vitaceae Juss. are: Ampelopsidaceae Kostel. , Cissaceae Drejer , Leeaceae Dumort. nom. cons., Pterisanthaceae J. Agardh .

So that the Vitaceae family is monophyletic, the species of the Leeaceae Dumort family became . as subfamily Leeoideae Burmeister into the family Vitaceae Juss. posed. This was confirmed in APG IV. There the Vitaceae sl family is confirmed as the only family of the order Vitales. But some authors led as independent families Leeaceae and Vitaceae in the order Vitales.

The grapevine family (Vitaceae) contains 14 to 16 genera with 850 to 960 species, depending on the author:

Wen et al. In 2015, the two genera Causonis and Afrocayratia were spun off from Cayratia . Nekemias was spun off from Ampelopsis .

The family Vitaceae sl is divided into two subfamilies Leeoideae and Vitoideae. The subfamily Vitoideae can be divided into the five tribe Ampelopsideae J.Wen & ZLNie , Cisseae Rchb. , Cayratieae J.Wen & LMLu , Parthenocisseae J.Wen & ZDChen and Viteae Dumort. structure:

  • Subfamily Vitoideae Eaton : The basic chromosome number is x = 10–16, 19, 20. It is divided into five tribes and contains 14 to 15 genera:
    • The new tribe Ampelopsideae J.Wen & ZLNie was set up by J. Wen and ZL Nie in 2018 . It contains four to six genera:
    • The tribe of Cisseae Rchb. contains only one genus:
    • The new tribe Cayratieae J.Wen & LMLu was set up in 2018 by J. Wen and LM Lu . It contains about seven genera: Tetrastigma ,
      • Acareosperma Gagnep. : There is only one type:
      • Causonis Raf. : J. Wen et al. separated this genus from the genus Cayratia in2014. It contains about 15 species in East to Southeast Asia .
      • Cayratia Juss. : The only 50 to 60 species left since 2014 arewidespreadin Africa, Asia and Oceania .
      • Cyphostemma (Planch.) Alston : The approximately 250 species are mainly distributed in Africa and Madagascar , only a few species also extend to Thailand.
      • Pseudocayratia J.Wen, LMLu & ZDChen : It was established in 2018 and contains about five species in China and Japan.
      • Tetrastigma (Miq.) Planch. : The 90 to 100 species are distributed from Asia to Oceania.
    • The new Tribus Parthenocisseae J.Wen & ZDChen was set up in 2018 by J. Wen and ZD Chen . It contains only two genera:
      • Virgin vines ( Parthenocissus Planch. ): The approximately 14 species occur in Asia and North America.
      • Yua C.L.Li : The only two species are found in India, Nepal and China.
    • The tribe Viteae Dumort. contains two genera:
      • Ampelocissus Planch. : The 90 to 100 species are widespread in the tropics.
      • Grapevines ( Vitis L. ): The 60 to 75 species thrive from the temperate areas to the subtropics, with centers of biodiversity in China and eastern North America.
  • Subfamily Leeoideae Burmeister : Also as a separate family Leeaceae Dumort. guided: The basic chromosome number is x = (10-) 12 .:
    • It contains only one genus:
      • Leea L .: The approximately 34 species are widespread in tropical and subtropical Asia, extend into the Himalayas and Australia, only a few species exist in Africa and only one in Madagascar.


Individual evidence

  1. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Jun Wen, Li ‐ Min Lu, Ze ‐ Long Nie, Xiu ‐ Qun Liu, Ning Zhang, Stefanie Ickert ‐ Bond, Jean Gerrath, Steven R. Manchester, John Boggan, Zhi ‐ Duan Chen: A new phylogenetic tribal classification of the grape family (Vitaceae). In: Journal of Systematicsand Evolution , Volume 56, 2018, pp. 262–272. doi : 10.1111 / jse.12427
  2. First publication scanned at .
  3. ^ Vitaceae at Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, accessed January 20, 2020.
  4. ^ A b c Vitaceae in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), USDA , ARS , National Genetic Resources Program. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
  5. ^ JE Molina, Jun Wen, L. Struwe: Systematics and biogeography of the non-viny grape relative Leea (Vitaceae). In: Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society , Volume 171, 2013, pp. 354-376.
  6. The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group: An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV. In: Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society , Volume 181, 2016, pp. 1-20. doi : 10.1111 / boj.12385
  7. a b c The family of Vitaceae in APWebsite .
  8. a b c Michael O. Moore, Jun Wen: Vitaceae. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee (Editor): Flora of North America North of Mexico , Volume 12: Magnoliophyta: Vitaceae to Garryaceae , New York and Oxford - via, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis and Harvard University Herbaria , Cambridge, 2016, ISBN 978-0-19-064372-0 . P. 3−23 - online with the same text as the printed work .
  9. a b Jun Wen, Li ‐ Min Lu, Ze ‐ Long Nie, Steven R. Manchester, Stefanie Ickert-Bond, Zhi-Duan Chen: Phylogenetics and a revised classification of Vitaceae. Presented at Botany 2015, Edmonton, Alberta. on-line.
  10. a b Jun Wen et al .: Synopsis of Nekemias Raf., A segregate genus from Ampelopsis Michx. (Vitaceae) disjunct between eastern / southeastern Asia and eastern North America, with ten new combinations. In: PhytoKeys , Volume 42, 2014, pp. 11-19.
  11. Akiko Soejima, Jun Wen: Phylogenetic analysis of the grape family (Vitaceae) based on three chloroplast markers. In: American Journal of Botany , Volume 93, Issue 2, 2006, pp. 278-287. doi : 10.3732 / ajb.93.2.278 full text online.
  12. Jun Wen, Li ‐ Min Lu, Tsai-Wen Hsu, Viet Dang, Sadaf Habib, John Boggan, Hiroshi Okada, Iju Chen, Zhi ‐ Duan Chen: Pseudocayratia, a new genus of Vitaceae from China and Japan with two new species and three new combinations. In: Journal of Systematics and Evolution , Volume 56, 2018, pp. 374–393. doi : 10.1111 / jse.12448

Web links

Commons : Grapevine Family (Vitaceae)  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

further reading

  • Sadaf Habib, Viet-Cuong Dang, Stefanie M. Ickert-Bond, Jin-Long Zhang, Li-Min Lu, Jun Wen, Zhi-Duan Chen: Robust Phylogeny of Tetrastigma (Vitaceae) Based on Ten Plastid DNA Regions: Implications for Infrageneric Classification and Seed Character Evolution. In: Frontiers in Plant Science , Volume 8, April 2017, p. 590. doi : 10.3389 / fpls.2017.00590