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Synonyms Shiraz, Balsamia - for more see the Synonyms section
Art Grape vine ( Vitis vinifera subsp. Vinifera )
Berry color black
origin Rhone wine region , France
VIVC no. 11748

Cross of
Mondeuse Blanche × Dureza

List of grape varieties

Syrah (also Shiraz or Balsamia ) is a red wine variety that was originally cultivated mainly in the French Rhone Valley . In South Africa , Australia , the USA and Canada the variety is called Shiraz .

Descent, origin


Syrah was created through a natural crossing of the Mondeuse Blanche × Dureza varieties . It is very likely that it comes from the Rhone valley . Syrah is related to other Central European grape varieties, most likely even a great-grandson of Pinot Noir . There are additional family ties on the other side of the Alps, namely in the South Tyrol / Trentino region with its Lagrein , Marzemino and Teroldego varieties .

The Petite Sirah grape variety , which is grown in California, is not a Syrah, but a cross between Syrah and Peloursin and is therefore identical to the Durif variety .

Ampelographic features

  • The shoot tip is green and hairy with white wool.
  • The vine has a strong upright growth, the eyes sprout late.
  • The leaves are medium-sized, pentagonal, slightly vesicular, five-lobed, slightly cuspid, the stalk bay is V-shaped.
  • The grape is medium-sized, medium-dense, cylindrical in shape with one to three medium-sized grapes.
  • The berries are small and have a thin skin. They are elongated, blue-black in color, strongly scented and the flesh is soft and juicy.

Maturity: late


The grape variety prefers a hot, rather dry climate and needs the best locations. Because of the strong growth, the variety should not be planted on fertile soil. Medium-heavy soils with sufficient moisture are preferred.


The grape yield is medium to high. Yield regulation is necessary for good grape ripeness. In bad weather (too little sun) the variety ripens poorly; Because of the high tannin content, this leads to an unpleasant taste, which is often described as green and unripe. If there is a lot of sunshine during the ripening period, it quickly turns from ripe to overripe, losing its acidity and fruity aroma.



Late budding is advantageous (lower risk of late frost). The grape variety is also less susceptible to oidium .


The disadvantage is the sensitivity in the flowering to drought, chlorosis , grape buds , mites , downy mildew , botrytis and wind (wind break). When overripe, the berries fall off easily. The basal eyes on annual wood are not very fertile.


Worldwide area development of the red wine varieties Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Tempranillo and Syrah

The variety occupied a total of 184,834 hectares of vineyards in 2010. Compared to 1990 with 35,086 hectares at the time, this means a huge increase in 20 years or more than five times the area. This made it, together with Tempranillo, the most rapidly expanding grape variety. Syrah ranks 6th in the global grape variety ranking.

country Vineyards ha
France 67,382
Australia 42,675
Spain 20,000
Argentina 12,810
South Africa 10.136
United States 9,197
Italy 6,739
Chile 6,027
Portugal 3,501
Algeria 1,510
Turkey 1,367
Greece 641
Romania 470
Tunisia 337
New Zealand 293
Canada 274
Cyprus 244
China 223
Croatia 187
Switzerland 181
Hungary 177
Mexico 145
Austria 137
Uruguay 87
Thailand 66
Myanmar 27
Germany 27
Peru 2
World acreage 184,834


With 67,382 hectares (as of 2010), Syrah is one of the most important red wine varieties in France. The grape variety needs a hot, dry climate and is mainly cultivated in the Rhone Valley. It is part of many blended wines throughout the south of France. In the appellations of the northern Rhone Valley ( Côte-Rôtie , Saint-Joseph , Hermitage , Crozes-Hermitage and Cornas ) it is even the only red wine variety allowed. In Languedoc , one of the largest contiguous wine-growing regions in the world, it flows into the cuvées together with Carignan , Grenache and Mourvèdre .

Their cultivation area extends west to Gaillac . Cuvées are also possible there together with the Bordeaux grape varieties. Incidentally, it ripens there later than the Merlot , but earlier than the Cabernet Sauvignon .


James Busby (1802–1871) introduced the Syrah grape variety in Australia in 1833. Here it is called Shiraz and became famous for the Penfolds "Grange", whose 1951 vintage is one of the most expensive wines in the world. With 42,675 ha in 2010, it is the most common variety. It is found primarily in the Barossa Valley , Clare Valley , Coonawarra , Hunter Valley , Langhorne Creek , McLaren Vale , Murray Darling , Padthaway , Riverina and Riverland areas . Traditionally, the Shiraz is blended with Cabernet Sauvignon , but there are also single-variety wines from top locations with a good 15% alcohol by volume. Famous representatives are the Grange by Penfolds and the Amon Ra by Ben Glaetzer .


In Switzerland , around 187 hectares are planted with Syrah , mainly in the canton of Valais (as of 2014). The red grape variety came to Valais in 1926 and is considered a traditional grape variety to which the Grand Cru label is reserved. Their wines may not be put on the market before April 1st of the second year following the harvest.


Syrah has been approved as a quality grape variety in Austria since 2001. In 2015, a cultivation area of ​​140.5 ha is surveyed, most of which is located in Burgenland .


In very good locations with low yields, the variety brings deep red, tannin-rich wines with a scent of violets, reseda, currants , black pepper, plums, chocolate and leather, which have high aging potential. The vinification takes place very slowly. High quality is only achieved with longer storage. A typical flavor note of Syrah is rotundon .


Synonyms 97: Antournerein, Antournerein Noir, Antournerin, Anzher Muskatnyi, Arnitas, Balsamina, Biaune, Biaune Noir, Bione, Blue Schiraz, Blue Serine, Blue Sirah, Blue Syrah, Bragiola, Candive, Candive Noir, Caudive, Ciras, Costigliola, Costiola , Damas Noir du Puy de Dome, Damaszener Blau, di Santi, Entourneirein, Entournerein, Entournerin, Ermitage, Fresa Grossa, Hermitage, Hignin, Hignin Noir, Marsanne Noir, Marsanne Noire, Marzane Noir, Neiret di Saluzzo, Neiretta Cunese, Neiretta del Cuneese - Fassanese, Neiretta del Monregalese, Neiretta del Rosso, Neiretta dell'Albese, Neiretta di Saluzzo, Neiretto del Cuneese, Neiretto di Bene, Neiretto di Carru, Neiretto di Costigliole, Neiretto di Farigliano, Neiretto di Saluzzo, Nereta Piccola di Monre , Neretta Cuneese, Neretta del Cuneese-Fassanese, Neretta del Monregalese, Neretta di Costigliole, Neretta di Saluzzo, Neretta Piccola, Neretta Piccola di Dogliani, Neretto del Beinale, Neretto di Dogliani, Neretto di Saluzzo, Petit e Chiras, Petite Sirah, Petite Sirrah, Petite Syrah, Petite Syras, Plan de la Biaune, Plant de Biaune, Plant de la Bianne, Plant de la Biaune, Schiras, Schiraz, Scyras, Seraene, Sereine, Serene, Serenne, Serine, Serine Noir, Serine Noire, Serinne, Sevene, Shiras, Shiraz, Shyrac, Sira, Sirac, Sirah, Sirah de l'Ermitage, Sirah dell'Ermitaggio, Siriaca, Sirica, Sirrah, Syra, Syrac, Syrac de l'Ermitage, Syracuse , Syrah Crni, Zagarese, Zizak.


Individual evidence

  1. JE Bowers, R. Siret, CP Meredith, P. This, J.-M. Boursiquot: A single Pair of Parents proposed for a Group of Grapevine Varieties in Northeastern France . In: Acta Horticulturae . tape 528 , May 12, 2000, pp. 129–132 ( online, PDF, 19 kB ).
  2. Généalogie des cépages: le 'Pinot' est apparenté à la 'Syrah' ( Memento of the original of October 8, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 262 kB) @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  3. ^ Karl Bauer, Ferdinand Regner , Barbara Friedrich: Viticulture. 9th edition. avBook published by Cadmos Verlag, Vienna 2013, ISBN 978-3-7040-2284-4 .
  4. ^ Ferdinand Regner , Karel Hanak, Cornelia Eisenheld: Directory of the Austrian quality wine varieties and their clones. 2nd Edition. 2015, HBL and BA for WB, Klosterneuburg.
  5. a b c d K. Anderson, NR Aryal: Database of Regional, National and Global Winegrape Bearing Areas by Variety, 2000 and 2010. Wine Economics Research Center, University of Adelaide, December 2013 (first revision April 2014) (second revision May 2014) (third revision July 2014).
  6. "German Syrah: Attack?", Captain Cork,
  7. The 2014 Wine Year. (PDF; 1.1 MB) (No longer available online.) April 21, 2015, archived from the original on July 10, 2015 ; accessed on November 30, 2015 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  8. Articles 32, 88 and 95 of the (PDF) Ordinance on Viticulture and Wine (VRW, 916.142) , Sion March 17, 2004.
  9. Weingarten Baseline Survey 2015, Statistics Austria
  10. Syrah in the database Vitis International Variety Catalog of the Institute for Vine Breeding Geilweilerhof (English), accessed in August 2020