With contraction (from latin contra here = "contract" → "contraction"), the contraction ( contraction ) of two different or identical sounds ( and ) to a sound ( referred to), wherein the features of , and usually in unite. In part, this step was preceded by an elision .
Alternative names are Synizese , Synizesis , Syneresis (emphasis on the first e ) and Synäresis (emphasis on the ä ), the latter both from the Greek συναίρεσις synaíresis , German 'contraction' ; the opposite of this is diariesis .
Contraction means the sound contracting of two words to form a new one without changing the meaning. Often this results from frequent use of the phrase or speaking quickly (cf. Allegro way of speaking ). Colloquially in German the result of a contraction is sometimes called a melting word. The results are orthographically permissible.
- German: for that → for; with the → mit'm
- English: do not → don't; will not → won't
- French: à le → au (like to / for)
Contractions in German
Contractions often occur in German in the declination . Affected are z. B. the possessive article words our and yours :
|us (e) re
eu (e) re
|Genitive||us (e) res
eu (e) res
|us (e) rer
|dative||us (e) rem, our
(e) rem, yours
|us (e) rer
The e- deletion also affects the inflection of adjectives to -el, -er and -en:
|Ending||Neither e-redemption nor suffix shortening||e-repayment||Suffix shortening|
|-el||In adjectives with an unstressed -el , the e in front of initial suffixes is usually deleted:
In rare cases, the e is retained, but the -en suffix is shortened:
|-he||For adjectives of German origin on -er , the e is usually retained:
Even with adjectives from non-Romance languages, the e is usually retained:
In the case of comparatives, the sequence -ereerer can result in individual cases ( a cleaner space ); such forms are avoided.
For some adjectives the stem exit can be shortened:
According to diphthongs , the shortening is even mandatory:
The e is often deleted from adjectives from Latin or other Romance languages:
For some adjectives, the suffix -en can be shortened to -n :
Occasionally the suffix -em can also be shortened to -m :
|-en||With adjectives ending in -en , the e of the word ending is usually retained; suffix shortening never takes place:
This also applies to participles (Partizip II):
In poetic language, the e is occasionally deleted:
An e-repayment also occurs in the past participle:
Furthermore, an e-repayment also occurs with the comparative:
Meaning in Greek studies
Contraction has a more specific meaning - often with the term syneresis - especially in Greek studies : There it describes the contraction of two vowels to form a syllable, often by omitting an intervening consonant . Usually this is how a diphthong is created . In ancient Greek numerous contracting verbs occur, so-called contracta Verba . Their forms are usually given uncontracted in dictionaries, while the flow text is often written as contracted. The contraction is possible with all forms of conjugation.
- τιμάω timáō → τιμῶ timô (I honor)
- τιμῶ timô , τιμᾷς timâs , τιμᾷ timâ , τιμῶμεν timômen , τιμᾶτε timâte , τιμῶσι (ν) timôsi (n)
- ποιέομαι poiéomai → ποιοῦμαι poioûmai (I do for myself)
- ποιοῦμαι poioûmai , ποιῇ poiḗ [ ποιέ-ει poié-ei → ποιεῖ poieî → ποιῇ poiḗ ] ποιεῖται poieîtai , ποιούμεθα poioúmetha , ποιεῖσθε poieîsthe , ποιοῦνται poioûntai
Such syneresis can also be observed in German when speaking quickly and swallowing syllables, but without being justified in writing:
- ideal (standard language: [ideˈʔaːl] or [ideˈaːl]) contracted to [iˈde̯aːl] or [iˈdjaːl]
- Clitization ( clitization )
- Verba contracta:
- Jörg Schuster: Introduction to Linguistics . (PDF file, 2.22 MB) LMU Munich (Center for Information and Language Processing - CIS), Munich 2003. Page 48.
- Duden editors: The grammar . 8th edition. Dudenverlag, Mannheim, Vienna, Zurich 2009, ISBN 978-3-411-04048-3 , pp. 365 .