Voiced dental fricative

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IPA mark ð
IPA number 131
IPA character description Latin minuscule Eth
Unicode U + 00F0
HTML (dec.) & # 240;
Kirshenbaum D
Formation of the voiced dental fricative

The voiced dental fricative (a voiced , between the teeth educated fricative ) has the following in different languages phonetic and orthographic realizations:

  • Arabic [ð]: Represented by the letter ذ (Ḏāl) . In the DMG romanization this appears as ḏ or Ḏ.
    • Example: ذ هب / ahaba  / 'go'
  • Bashkir [ð]: Denoted by the letter ҙ .
    • Example: ҡа ҙ [ qɑð ] (goose)
  • Danish [ð]: The so-called "soft D" ( det bløde d ) is realized a little differently than in English or Spanish. Here the tip of the tongue is pressed against the lower tooth comb, while the middle part of the tongue approaches the palate and thus (for "German ears") a more [l] -like sound is created. As in Spanish, the soft D is never in the absolute initial or after n or l .
  • Fijian [ð]: Denoted by the letter c .
    • Example: c iwa [ ðiwa ] (nine)
  • Icelandic [ð]: The voiced dental fricative is pronounced almost like an approximant in Icelandic at the end of words . It is always written with ð or Đ, e.g. B. orð ( German word ).
  • Kiswahili [ð]: Denoted by the digraph dh .
  • Modern Greek [ð]: The voiced dental fricative is represented in Modern Greek by the letter Delta (δέλτα): Δ (uppercase) and δ (minuscule), e.g. Ex. Δαμοκλής ( dt. Damocles ) or δημοκρατία ( dt. Democracy ).
  • Spanish [ð]: Any d that is not after n or l and is not in the absolute initial.
  • Sylter Frisian / Sölring [ð]: Similar to Danish, a mixture of "D" and "L" is found in many words, often before consonants, less often as an ending.
    • Examples: üðers (Spoken similar to üllers, Ger .: "different") Faaðer (Spoken similar to Fohler, Ger .: "Father")
  • Welsh [ð]: Marked by the digraph dd .

Because in English the voiceless and voiced dental fricative with th are illustrated, in German , the term th-sound [ tiɛɪtʃˌlaʊt ] established for the dental fricatives.

See also

Pulmonary consonants
according to IPA (2005)
bilabial labio-
dental alveolar post-
retroflex palatal velar uvular phase-
stl. sth. stl. sth. stl. sth. stl. sth. stl. sth. stl. sth. stl. sth. stl. sth. stl. sth. stl. sth. stl. sth.
Plosives p b t d ʈ ɖ c ɟ k ɡ q ɢ ʔ
Nasals m ɱ n ɳ ɲ ŋ ɴ
Vibrants ʙ r ʀ
Taps / flaps ɾ ɽ
Fricatives ɸ β f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ ç ʝ x ɣ χ ʁ H ʕ H ɦ
lateral fricatives ɬ ɮ
Approximants ʋ ɹ ɻ j w ¹
lateral approximants l ɭ ʎ ʟ
¹ The labialised variant [ w ] was inserted here as a voiced velar approximant ( half vowel ) instead of the non-labialised variant [ ɰ ].