For pairs of symbols (u • g) the left symbol stands for the
unrounded vowel, the right symbol for the rounded vowel.
|IPA character description||below left open semicircle|
|Unicode||U + 0339|
|HTML (dec.)||& # 825;|
|IPA character description||lower right open semicircle|
|Unicode||U + 031C|
|HTML (dec.)||& # 796;|
In phonetics , rounding refers to the strength of the rounding of the lips during the articulation of a vowel . This is a vocal labialization . The opposite of the rounding is the spread . When a rounded vowel is pronounced, the lips form a circular opening, while unrounded vowels are pronounced with relaxed lips.
In most languages, leading vowels tend to be splayed and trailing ones to be rounded. But some languages such as German and French differentiate between rounded and spread front tongue vowels of the same vowel height (e.g. [ɛ] and [œ] in know and can ) and Vietnamese distinguishes between rounded and spread back tongue vowels .
Rounded consonants are called labialized .
In the vocal Table of International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), the rounded vowels of each pair on the right side. There are also two diacritics to indicate a stronger and weaker rounding, namely the IPA characters 412 ( Unicode COMBINING RIGHT HALF RING BELOW U + 0339) for stronger rounding and 413 (Unicode COMBINING LEFT HALF RING BELOW U + 031C) for weaker ones Rounding, e.g. B. [ɔ̹] and [ɔ̜] for the sound [ɔ]. The diacritics are sometimes used with consonants for the degree of labialization. For example, in the Athapaskan language Hupa , voiceless velar fricatives are distinguished between three levels of labialization, transcribed either as [x x̹ xʷ] or [x x̜ʷ xʷ]. The extended IPA has two additional symbols for the degree of rounding: [ə͍] and [ʒ œ ].
- Delabialization (rounding)
- Hadumod Bußmann (Ed.): Lexicon of Linguistics. 3. Edition. Kröner, Stuttgart 2002, ISBN 3-520-45203-0 , p. 385.
- Helmut Glück (Ed.), With the collaboration of Friederike Schmöe : Metzler Lexikon Sprache. 3rd, revised edition. Metzler, Stuttgart / Weimar 2005, ISBN 3-476-02056-8 , p. 382.
- T. Alan Hall: Phonology. An introduction. 2nd edition de Gruyter, Berlin & New York 2011, ISBN 978-3-11-021587-8 , p. 23.
- Bernd Pompino-Marschall: Introduction to Phonetics. 3rd edition de Gruyter, Berlin 2009, ISBN 978-3-11-022480-1 , p. 221.