Coordinates: 40 ° 14 ′ 3 ″ N , 34 ° 41 ′ 46 ″ E
Alaca Höyük (also Alacahöyük or Alaca Hüyük ) is a settlement mound near the village of the same name in the district of Alaca in the Turkish province of Çorum in Central Anatolia , 25 km northeast of Boğazkale . It is equated with the Hittite Zippalanda (Popko 1994) or Arinna , the cult place of the sun goddess (Erkut 1992).
Alaca Höyük was already from the second half of the 6th mill. BC, thus in the middle Chalcolithic , settled. In the middle of the 3rd millennium BC It was a settlement of the pre- Indo-European Hattier , of which, among other things, the princely graves found testify. In the time of the Hittite empire 1600–1200 BC It was an important city, but it was overshadowed by the not far away capital Hattuša . A possible identification with Zippalanda, Kuššara or Arinna is not certain. During this time, the settlement was expanded with a fortification with at least two gates. With the fall of the Hittite Empire, the history of the city ended for the time being. In the early 1st millennium BC The place was briefly inhabited by Phrygians .
Alaca Höyük was discovered in 1836 by the English geologist and explorer William John Hamilton . Theodor Makridi carried out his first research in 1907. In the 1930s, the Turkish archaeologists Hâmit Zübeyir Koşay and Remzi Oğuz Arık uncovered the so-called princely graves during excavation work on behalf of the Türk Tarih Kurumu , in which the bronze standards of Alaca Höyük were found along with other grave goods. Since 1997 excavations by the University of Ankara under Aykut Çınaroğlu have been taking place. Since 2009, the German Mining Museum Bochum has been investigating the metal finds from the graves of Alaca Höyük in the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations in Ankara as part of the project, metal finds from the early Bronze Age princely graves of Alacahöyük, funded by the Fritz Thyssen Foundation . The finds are exhibited in the local museum and in the Çorum Archaeological Museum , except in Ankara .
In the course of the excavations from 2002 onwards, the Gölpınar dam , located 1.5 kilometers to the south, was exposed and made usable again by the Turkish Office for Water Management .
- Maciej Popko : Zippalanda and Ankuwa once more. In: Journal of the American Oriental Society. Vol. 120, No. 3, 2000, pp. 445-448, doi : 10.2307 / 606014 .
- Sedat Erkut: Hitit çağının önemli cools kenti Arinna'nin yeri. In: Heinrich Otten , Hayri Ertem, Ekrem Akurgal , Aygül Süel (Eds.): Hittite and other Anatolian and Near Eastern Studies in Honor of Sedat Alp. = Sedat Alp'a armağan. = Festschrift for Sedat Alp (= Anadolu Medeniyetlerini Araştırma Vakfı yayınları. 1, ZDB -ID 197594-8 ). Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi, Ankara 1992, pp. 159-165.
- Volkert Haas : History of the Hittite religion (= Handbook of Oriental Studies . Sect. 1: The Near and Middle East. 15). Brill, Leiden 1994, ISBN 90-04-09799-6 .
- ↑ Ulf-Ulrich Schoop: The Chalcolithic on the Plateau. In: Gregory McMahon, Sharon Steadman (Eds.): The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia. 10,000–323 BCE Oxford University Press, Oxford et al. 2011, ISBN 978-0-19-537614-2 , pp. 150-173, here p. 160, doi : 10.1093 / oxfordhb / 9780195376142.013.0007 .
- ↑ Horst Ehringhaus : Gods, rulers, inscriptions. The rock reliefs of the Hittite Empire in Turkey (= Zabern's illustrated books on archeology . = Ancient world . Special volume). von Zabern, Mainz 2005, ISBN 3-8053-3469-9 , pp. 6-11.
- ↑ Excavations in the province of Çorum ( Memento of the original of March 22, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ^ Metal finds from the Early Bronze Age princely graves of Alacahöyük