Johann Amos Comenius
Johann Amos Comenius (German also Komenius , Latin Iohannes Amos Comenius , Czech Jan Amos Komenský , former family name Segeš ; born March 28, 1592 in Nivnice , Southeast Moravia ; † November 15, 1670 in Amsterdam ) was a Czech Protestant philosopher , theologian and educator as well Bishop of the Unity of the Bohemian Brethren from the Margraviate of Moravia .
Comenius was born in southeast Moravia, whether in Nivnice (Nivnitz), Uherský Brod (Hungarian Brod) or Komňa is not certain. His father, who died early, was a member of the congregation of the Bohemian Brethren , an evangelical free church community which on the eve of the Thirty Years' War was still under the protection of Rudolf II's letter of majesty and was treated relatively tolerantly. After his mother and sisters died, Comenius was raised by relatives.
Comenius was born as Johann (Jan) Segeš . In the course of his life he used a number of different names and name variants: He picked up his middle name, Amos , while he was in high school. When he enrolled at the High School in Herborn in 1611 and at the University of Heidelberg in 1613 , he used the " family names " Nivanus and Nivnicensis , d. H. “From Nivnice ”. When he acquired a Copernicus font , De Revolutionibus , from the widow Jakob Christmann in Heidelberg in 1614 , he added the title Johannes Amos Nivanus to it . The name Komenský , which his father already bore, did not appear until 1623, its Latin form Comenius not until 1627. He only used the surname Hunno Brodensis , which can be related to Hungarian Brod, late and rarely, in 1657 when a speech from 1650 was printed.
From 1608 to 1611 he attended the grammar school of the Brethren in Přerov (Prerau). From 1611 he studied theology at the Calvinist high school in Herborn , where he was influenced by the ruling Ramism , from 1613 at the University of Heidelberg . Since he did not have the means for a doctorate in Heidelberg, he returned to Moravia.
First professional activity
From 1614 to 1617 he worked as a teacher and rector of the brother school in Prerau. In 1616 he became the pastor of the Moravian Church ordained . From 1618 to 1621 he was the chairman of the brothers in Fulnek . During this time he married his first wife, Magdalena Vizovska, a relative of the Bishop of the Brethren and his patron Lanecius.
When the Protestant Bohemian estates were defeated by the Catholic League in the Battle of White Mountain (1620) , the persecution of all Protestant denominations in the countries of the Habsburg monarchies began. Comenius hid in changing places in the border area of Moravia, while his wife stayed with his firstborn son in Fulnek and gave birth to a second son there. After Fulnek was sacked, his wife and both sons were killed by the plague in 1622 . Comenius initially found refuge with Karl von Zierotin on his property in Bohemia for a few years . During this time he married for the second time in 1624: Dorothea Cyrillova, daughter of one of the four elders of the Brethren. From this connection came three daughters and one son.
After temporary stays in Görlitz , Berlin and Holland and subsequent return to Moravia, he and his family had to leave the country for good in 1628 and found exile with thousands of other expellees in Lissa, Poland on February 8, 1628.
Exile and European impact
The religious refugees also built their own education system in their own district. For the next few years Comenius found a meager livelihood as a teacher at the high school in the community. Very soon he took over the rectorate of the Lissaer Gymnasium, which flourished under his leadership ("Gymnasium Illustre"). At the same time, this was a literarily highly productive period for Comenius. He gained renown among philosophers and intellectuals throughout Europe and as far as North America. At the invitation of Samuel Hartlib , he made a trip to England from 1641 to 1642 and presented his pansophy there.
In 1642 he received an invitation from the industrialist Louis de Geer to Sweden through the mediation of John Dury, who also corresponded with Hartlib . He traveled through the Netherlands, where he met Descartes , and Germany. He settled in Elblag , which is controlled by Sweden , and brought his family to join him. On behalf of the Swedish Chancellor Axel Oxenstierna , he worked on new school books. From 1644 he was a professor at the Elbingen grammar school and made several trips through Germany and Sweden. As a representative of the Bohemian Brothers, he took part in the Thorner Religious Discussion in 1645 . In 1648 he returned to Lissa, in the same year his second wife died and he was appointed Bishop of the Brethren. On May 17, 1649 he married Johanna Gajusová in Lissa, the third marriage.
Reform of the Sárospatak school
The Moravian communities in exile in Hungary had long wanted to have Comenius as their bishop close by. At the same time, Comenius received an invitation from Sigismund Rákóczi , the younger brother of Prince George II , who ruled over Transylvania and parts of Upper Hungary ( Eastern Slovakia ) . He was supposed to participate in the reform of the school system in his residence Sárospatak (Weißenburg). Many of the Hungarian communities were dependent on the protection of the Rákóczi. The princely family also pursued an anti-Habsburg policy: Sigismund's impending marriage to a daughter of the “Winter King”, Frederick V of the Palatinate, made them the hope of the community in the game of European powers. This situation led Comenius to travel to Hungary in the spring of 1650.
On Easter Sunday, April 17th, he reached Skalica , where the Moravian exiles had their main church near the Moravian border and Comenius celebrated Easter with the local community, held a meeting with her on the day after Easter and the already elected Johann Chodnicius as bishop appointed. He then visited Trnava (Tyrnau) to consult with a friendly congregation of the Helvetic denomination , which encouraged him to plan his trip to Sárospatak to counteract the rampant independentism among the Protestants there . After reaching Púchov , where Johann Effronius had been appointed head of the community and then visiting other parishes, he finally went to Sárospatak after another phase of hesitation and further consultation, where he arrived in May 1650.
Sárospatak had a Protestant Latin school since 1531, which was elevated to the rank of a college for further studies in 1550 and flourished with the support of the Rákóczi. The negotiations that Comenius conducted after his arrival mainly with Sigismund and his political and theological advisers resulted in his calling to contribute to a reform of the school and to implement his widely praised method in an ideal form. He was freed from the “school dust” of arduous duties and should only be in charge of the reform work. Without bothering with the existing curricula and organizational structures, Comenius had developed the concept of a completely new Schola Pansophica in the course of his negotiations with Sigismund , which is open to all classes and offers elementary, advanced and elegant use of Latin in three lower classes and in four higher classes Should teach philosophy, logic, politics and theology. He was sent to Sárospatak by his parish, initially without his family and for a shorter stay, possibly ending before winter, which ultimately lasted until June 1654. In Sárospatak he was assigned a board of trustees of initially three and then seven people, including Tolnai.
However, the implementation of the plans turned out to be more difficult than expected, and only three of the planned seven classes could be established. Tolnai, who had already been named by the head of the community in Trnava as a particularly dangerous representative of independentism because of his position at court and whom Comenius had criticized about it on first arrival, later developed into his from Comenius' point of view greatest adversary. With the unexpected death of Sigismund on February 11, 1652, Comenius not only lost an important sponsor. His political hopes also suffered a severe setback and from then on concentrated entirely on his older brother Georg II, with whom he tried, albeit largely unsuccessfully, to assert the chiliastic prophecies of his childhood friend Nikolaus Drabik . In terms of literature, however, the stay in Sárospatak was highly productive: Among other things, two of his most famous educational works, Schola ludus and Orbis sensualium pictus , were created there, the latter of which is more recent because it is aimed at boys (who know Latin) from childhood has sometimes been rated as the first illustrated book for children. The writings produced during this time show that his didactic theory - especially under the difficult conditions of practical implementation - developed significantly. His contemporary reputation as a didactic specialist, which he tried to reaffirm with his farewell speech on June 2, 1654, was not affected by the experience in Sárospatak.
End of life
He returned to Lissa, where he stayed until the city was destroyed by Polish soldiers in 1656. He then lived in Amsterdam until his death. Here he taught his grandson Johann Theodor Jablonski , who later wrote the General Lexicon of Arts and Sciences , and the young patricians Pieter de Graeff and Nicolaas Witsen for a few years . Comenius died on November 15, 1670 and was buried seven days later, on November 22, in Naarden .
Comenius can be seen as the great pedagogue of the 17th century. He gave pedagogy a new direction: Comenius was the first to design pedagogy from the perspective of children. He didn't see childhood as an independent phase. With him, the child still had no intrinsic value, as it would later with Jean-Jacques Rousseau or Maria Montessori , but rather childhood was the preparation for later life as an adult, which in turn was preparation for eternal life. Nonetheless, Comenius was one of the first to orient pedagogy methodically, didactically and in terms of content according to the different childhood phases, although it was still roughly structured, but at least more differentiated than was usual until then.
His demand for a basic, all-important general education for everyone, for equal educational opportunities for girls, the socially weak and the mentally retarded, the principles of intuition and independence, education for the use of one's own reason, his idea of a realistic, friendly school and one Nonviolent upbringing has remained valid to this day, as has his goal of educating people to be human and thereby improving the world.
His hope for a humane world, for progress and improvement in human life, connects him to the modern age. His conception of the central position of man for the renewal process of the world is also modern, but connected with God's action. Comenius is the link between the Renaissance and the Enlightenment : on the one hand, rooted in the theological tradition, on the other hand, emphasizing the common sense of every human being, emphasizing personal responsibility and independence.
Pedagogy and Didactics
His focus is on a Christian-humanistic way of life. A philosophical principle of his pedagogy is: omnes omnia omnino excoli. Not only did Comenius demand informal teaching , but he opposed coercion in all respects. This is shown by the motto on the cover of his Orbis sensualium pictus : Omnia sponte fluant, absit violentia rebus. Comenius saw the education of adolescents to wisdom as the saving way on which mankind could find its way back from its pernicious errors to the order of the world as God intended it to be.
In his didactic works, Comenius called for a general reform of the school system with compulsory schooling for boys and girls of all classes with a uniform school education up to the age of 12. Thereafter, the practically gifted should complete an apprenticeship, the others a further education at the Latin school, from the age of 18 to 24 years at the university. His demands for education for both boys and girls, clarity and structure of lessons and their relation to everyday life were revolutionary. Many of these principles are still part of the education system today.
His best-known works are Janua linguarum reserata (The Open Language Door ), which for the first time combined subject teaching with (Latin) language teaching and was translated into fourteen European and allegedly also several Asian languages, and the Orbis sensualium pictus (The visible world in pictures), which illustrated Version of Janua, the "ancestor of all children's picture books". It was not only the first illustrated children's book , but also the first encyclopedia for children.
His main pedagogical works are the Pampaedia (allergy), as the fourth part of the seven-part Consultatio catholica and the Didactica magna (Great Teaching), one of the most important writings in the history of didactics. Jan Šimon Václav Thám published some of his rare poems in his work Poems in Bound Language (Básně v řeči vázané).
Significance for the present
The schools, which were mainly operated in Austria in the first half of the last century and which taught according to the teachings and writings of Comenius, have meanwhile almost all been closed. Today there is only one single teaching institute of this type in Vienna.
The names Komenský or Comenius bear, in addition to numerous general and special education schools:
- the Comenius University Bratislava ,
- the Comenius program , an EU program to promote cooperation between schools and the mobility of pupils and teachers in the EU,
- the KomenskýFond, a program of the ERSTE Foundation and Caritas Austria in Austria and Eastern Europe to fight poverty through education,
- the Saxon institute for the development of curricula, supervision of pilot projects and competitions, etc.,
- the Comenius Institute, Protestant workplace for educational science in Münster ,
- the Comenius program of the Psychological Institute of the Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg ,
- the student dormitory "Comeniushaus" in Heidelberg,
- the Comeniusplatz in Berlin-Friedrichshain (near: Kopernikusstraße (Berlin) ),
- the Comenius-EduMedia-Award for excellent educational media,
- the Comenius Garden , a publicly accessible garden at the Bohemian Village in Berlin-Neukölln,
- the JA Comenius Foundation , a non-profit foundation to support children and young people in need.
- the asteroid (1861) Komenský
- Comenius monument in the Weber district of Potsdam-Babelsberg
There are streets named after Comenius ( Comeniusstraße ) in Leipzig, Munich ( Haidhausen district ), Wiesbaden , Dresden, Braunschweig ( eastern ring area , with a primary school of the same name), Crailsheim, Herrnhut , Überherrn / Saarland (border municipality to France) and Übach- Palenberg . In Vienna- Hernals there is a Comeniusgasse so named in 1872. There is one Comeniusplatz each in Hamburg-Hohenfelde , Dresden- Striesen and Berlin-Friedrichshain . A Texan city is called Komensky.
At the Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg there had been a research center for “Intercultural Philosophy and Comenius Research” since 2000. The management was held by the philosophers Heinrich Beck and Erwin Schadel .
Komenský adorned the Czechoslovak 20-kroner banknote until 1990, now the Czech 200- kroner note . In the South Moravian town of Uherský Brod , one of the possible birthplaces of Comenius, there is a museum that takes account of the region's most famous son through extensive exhibitions, research and publications.
The 1992 by the Neuköllner adult educators and VHS -Director Werner Korthaase and other founded German Comenius Society (DCG) wants as already its predecessor in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the Comenius Society, the educational, philosophical and theological heritage of Keeping Comenius alive through publications (Comenius yearbook since 1992, vol. 20-21 / 2012-2013) and cultural events. In connection with the Herrnhuter Brethren in Berlin-Rixdorf u. a. DCG initiated the Comenius Garden in Berlin-Neukölln (district Rixdorf), which is designed according to Comenian ideas. The DCG maintains close ties to the Comenius Research Centers at Charles University in Prague and the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic and to memorials in the Czech Republic and the Netherlands (Naarden).
“If there weren't any books, we'd all be completely crude and uneducated, because we wouldn't have any knowledge of the past, none of things divine or human. Even if we had any knowledge, it would be like the sagas changed a thousand times by the flowing impermanence of oral tradition. So what a divine gift are the books for the human spirit! Nothing greater could be desired for a life of memory and judgment. Not to love them is not to love wisdom. But not to love wisdom is to be a fool. This is an insult to the divine Creator, who wants us to be his image. "
“Everything should be presented to the senses wherever possible, what is visible to the face, what is audible to hearing, what can be smelled to smell, what can be tasted to taste, what can be felt to the sense of touch. And if something can be received through different senses, it should be presented to the different ones at the same time. And because the senses are the most faithful administrators of memory, this visualization of things will have the effect that everyone keeps what he knows. "
- Problemata miscellanea (1612) - "Various Problems", his oldest known work, a philosophical treatise for the University of Herborn .
- Gramatica Latina (1631) - "Latin grammar", written for the grammar school in Leszno , forerunner of Janua linguarum .
- Divadlo veškerenstva věcí (1616) - (“Theatrum universitatis rerum”), “The scene of the totality of things”, an incomplete program for the first Czech encyclopedia.
- Retuňk proti Antikristu a svodům jeho (1617–18) - “Warning of the seductions of the Antichrist”, a treatise against the Pope.
- Listové do nebe (1619) - "Letters to Heaven", a critique of social injustice.
- O poezii české (1620) - “On Czech poetry”, propagates the quantitating principle of verse in Czech poetry, which Comenius himself used.
- Přemyšlování o dokonalosti křesťanské (1622) - "Reflecting on Christian Perfection", a consolation pamphlet dedicated to his abandoned wife.
- Nedobytedlný hrad jméno Hospodinovo (1622) - "The impregnable castle, the name of the Lord", consolation. The title is reminiscent of Luther's song A strong castle is our God .
- Truchlivý (1623–1650) - “The Mourner”, a consolation in four parts, reflects the desperate situation of the Czech Protestants.
- Labyrint světa a ráj srdce (1623/1631) - “The labyrinth of the world and the paradise of the heart”, an allegorical novel, the most widely read book by Comenius.
- O sirobě (1624) - “On being orphaned”, a consolation pamphlet addressed to those wholost spouses, children or friends duringthe Thirty Years' War .
- Pres boží (1624) - “God's wine press”, consolation, reflections on the meaning of suffering.
- Centrum securitatis to jest hlubina bezpečnosti (1625) - "Center of Security", consolation. Only in intimate contact with God, the center of the world, can man find peace.
- Renuntiatio mundi (1633) - “Rejection to the world”, a passionate religious treatise written out of disappointment over the failure of the Swedish-Saxon coalition, appendix to the Centrum Securitatis .
- Map of Moravia (1627)
- Didactica, to jest umění umělého vyučování (1627–1632) - “Didactics, that is the art of teaching”, his most important Czech pedagogical work, the first systematic educational book in Europe.
- Informatorium školy mateřské (1630) - “Educator's Guide of the Mother School”, a guide to educating preschool children.
- Janua linguarum reserata (1631) - “Open Language Door”, a Latin textbook with which Comenius achieved fame all over Europe.
- Navržení krátké o obnově škol v království českém (1632) - “A brief draft on the renewal of schools in the Kingdom of Bohemia”, reform program for the period after the return home.
- Haggaeus redivivus (1632) - "The revived Haggai " expresses the hope of returning home soon after the victory in Sweden.
- Bazuine des genaden jaar (1632) - (Czech: Polnice milostivého léta ), "Trumpet of the year of grace ", is only preserved in the Dutch translation, expresses the hope of returning home soon after the victory of Sweden.
- Januae linguarum reseratae aureae vestibulum (1633/1635) - "Porch of the open language door", the simplified version of Janua linguarum reserata .
- Physicae ad lumen divinum reformatae synopsis (1633) - "Natural history, renewed in the light of God", his main work in natural philosophy.
- Prodromus pansophiae (1639) - "Forerunner of Pansophia", pansophic script, first published in Oxford under the title Conatuum Comenianorum praeludia without the knowledge of Comenius.
- Via lucis (1642 and 1668) - pansophical program which contains, among other things, proposals for the reform of education and school systems.
- Pansophiae diatyposis (1643) - "Sketch of Pansophy".
- Methodus linguarum novissima (1644–1648) - “Latest method of language teaching”, summary of his pedagogical views, especially for language teaching.
- Historia persecutionum Ecclesiae Slavonicae (1647) - “History of the persecution of the Bohemian brothers”.
- Kšaft umírající matky, Jednoty bratrské (1650) - “Legacy of the dying mother, the unity of brothers”, his most frequently printed book, disappointment about the Peace of Westphalia, which did not bring freedom of religion to the Bohemian countries.
- Rebita Laucus (1650) - a collection of verses
- Independentia aeternarum confusionum origo (1650) - "Independentism, the origin of all confusion", a script directed against the English Independents .
- Schola pansophica (1651) - "School of omniscience", program for the Transylvanian Prince Rákóczi, proposal for a school reform in the spirit of pansophy.
- Sermo secretus Nathanis ad Davidem (1651) - "Nathan's secret speech to David", an invitation addressed to Prince Sigismund Rákóczi to fight against the Habsburgs.
- Gentis felicitas (1659) - "Happiness of the People", a cultural and socio-political treatise on the subject of how a country should best be governed for the benefit of its inhabitants.
- Schola ludus seu encyclopedia viva (1654) - “School through play or a living encyclopedia”, a stage adaptation of Janua linguarum reserata .
- Panegyricus Carolo Gustavo (1655) - "Eulogy to Karl Gustav", an invitation to the Swedish king for reforms and freedom of religion in Poland.
- Opera didactica omnia (1657) - “Complete edition of pedagogical works”, contains 43 of his most important pedagogical works in four volumes, compiled and edited by Comenius in Amsterdam.
- Didactica magna (1657) - "Great Didactics", his most important educational work.
- Lux in tenebris (1657) - “Light in the Darkness”, translation of the prophecies by Christoph Kotter , Mikuláš Drabík and Krystyna Poniatowska , which contain calls for a fight against the Habsburgs and against Catholicism.
- Orbis sensualium pictus (1658) - "Visible world in pictures", his famous picture book for a unity of language and science lessons.
- Kancionál (1659) - hymn book of the Brethren Church
- Ecclesiae Slavonicae brevis historiola (1660) - "Outline of the history of the Slavic Church".
- De rerum humanarum emendatione consultatio catholica (1662) - "General advice on the improvement of human affairs", his greatest work, a pansophic and universal Reformation script in 7 parts (4 of which are unfinished)
- Last Trumpet over Germany (1663) - political writing, an appeal to the German imperial princes to revise the Peace of Westphalia and to work for religious freedom in Bohemia.
- Lux e tenebris (1665) - "Light from the Darkness", an extension of Lux in tenebris .
- Syllogism Orbis Terrarum Practicus (1665).
- Clamores Eliae (1665–1670) - "Calls of Elias", collection of Komensky's ideas for the betterment of the world.
- Angelus pacis (1667) - "Angel of Peace", memorandum for the Anglo-Dutch peace negotiations of 1667, was personally handed over to the negotiating partners by Comenius.
- Unum necessarium (1668) - "The only necessary thing", as it were the philosophical and spiritual testament of Comenius.
- Continuatio admonitionis fraternae (1669) - "Continuation of the fraternal admonition", polemic with one of his adversaries who had denounced him as a chiliastic fanatic; because of the autobiographical passages it contains, an important source for the life and thought of Comenius.
- Manuálník, aneb Jádro celé Biblí svaté (1620–1623) - “Manuálník, or the core of the whole of the Holy Scriptures”, a pocket Bible, excerpts from the most important biblical texts.
- Catechism pro mládež českou Jednoty bratrské (1661) - “Catechism for the youth of the brotherhood”, translated in the same year for the German parishes with the title The ancient Christian Catholic religion .
- Confessio aneb počet z víry a učení i náboženství Jednoty bratří českých - (1662) “Denomination, that is the accountability for the faith, doctrine and religion of the fraternity”, the fraternity's denomination from 1564, edited by Comenius, appendix to the catechism by 1661.
- Epistula ad Montanum (1661) - "Letter to Montanus", letter to the Dutch publisher Peter van den Berge (Petrus Montanus), provides valuable bibliographical information on the origin of his writings.
- Žalmy (1626–1628, 1658–1662) - "Psalms", Comenius used the quantitating principle of verse for his psalms, which were translated into verse. Only 64 psalms have survived.
Modern editions and translations
- Johannes Kühnel : New edition of Comenius' Orbus pictus. Leipzig (Klinkhardt) 1910.
- Angelus Pacis - Angel of Peace , trans. v. Otto Schönberger, ed. v. Walter Eykmann. Königshausen and Neumann, Würzburg 1993. ISBN 3-88479-865-0
- The gate of things , trans. u. ed. v. Erwin Schadel. Meiner, Hamburg 1994. ISBN 978-3-7873-1175-0
- The way of light , over. v. Uwe Voigt. Meiner, Hamburg 1997. ISBN 978-3-7873-1240-5
- School as a game , translated into German v. Wilhelm Boetticher. Beyer & Sons, Langensalza 1888. Digitized edition
- Anti-Socinian writings , by Johann A Comenius, translated by Jürgen Beer, Horst Bulitta, Regine Froschauer, Horst Schröder, Merve, Otto Schönberger and Erwin Schadel (eds.), Peter Lang Frankfurt, 2007, ISBN 978-3-631-55614-6
- The labyrinth of the world and the paradise of the heart , translated by Zdenko Baudnik. Diederichs, Jena 1908. Digitized edition
- Pansophic writings , trans. v. Matthias Scherbaum, Utopica, Oberhaid 2008. ISBN 978-3-938083-10-9
- New Orbis Pictus for the youth, or scene of nature, art and human life: in 322 lithographed illustrations with precise explanations in German, Latin, French and English . - 3rd, with completely redesigned. french Trans. Vers. u. with d. Transferred in d. Engl. Verm. Ed. - Reutlingen: Mäcken, 1835. Digitized edition of the University and State Library Düsseldorf (not a work by Comenius, but a book in the style of the Comenian Orbis pictus, written by Jacob Eberhard Gailer; as such a document by the Comenian Impact history)
- Selected works , 5 volumes, ed. by Dmitrij Tschižewskij and Klaus Schaller, Hildesheim - New York: Olms 1973–2003
- Anežka Baďurová (Ed.): Bibliography spisů JA Komenského vytištěných do roku 1800 = Bibliography of the works of JA Comenius printed before 1800 , Knihovna Akademie věd ČR, Prague 2007, ISBN 80-86675-12-2 (CD-ROM)
- Josef Brambora: Knižní dilo Jana Amose Komenského: study bibliografická. 2nd edition, Státní pedagogické nakladatelství, Prague 1957
- György Geréb: Válogatott bibliográfia Comenius munkásságának tanulmányozásához = Selected bibliography for studying the activity of [!] Comenius Szeged 1959 (= A Szegedi egyetemi Köyvtár Kiadványai, 44)
- Heinz-Joachim Heydorn (Ed.): Jan Amos Comenius. History and actuality. 1670–1970 , Volume 2: A bibliography of the complete works , Auvermann, Glashütten im Taunus 1971
- Gerhard Michel (Ed.): Comenius Bibliography: German-language titles 1870–1999. Academia-Verlag, Sankt-Augustin 2000 (= writings on Comenius research, 27), ISBN 3-89665-114-5
- Emma Urbánková (ed.): Soupis děl JA Komenského v československých knihovnách, archivech a museích. Státní pedagogické nakladatelství 1959, Prague (Edice Universitní Knihovny v Praze)
- Čeněk Zíbrt: Bibliography České historie. Pomocí Josef Volfa. Díl. 5. Zpracování. 2. Dějiny České od roku 1670–1679. Č. 17.324-30.638: Jan Amos Komenský , Nákladem České Akademie Císaře Františka Josefa pro Vědy, Slovesnost a Umění, Prague 1912
- Lexicon article
- Paul Kleinert : Comenius, Johann Amos . In: Realencyklopadie for Protestant Theology and Church (RE). 3. Edition. Volume 4, Hinrichs, Leipzig 1898, pp. 247-250.
- Gustav Baur : Comenius, Johann . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 4, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1876, pp. 431-436.
- Herbert Schönebaum: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 3, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1957, ISBN 3-428-00184-2 , p. 332 f. ( ). In:
- Friedrich Wilhelm Bautz : Johann Amos Comenius. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Volume 1, Bautz, Hamm 1975. 2nd, unchanged edition Hamm 1990, ISBN 3-88309-013-1 , Sp. 1107-1112.
- Milada Blekastad: Comenius. Attempt to outline the life, work and fate of Jan Amos Komensky, Universitetsforlaget, Oslo 1969.
- Veit-Jakobus Dieterich: Jan Amos Comenius. With testimonials and photo documents . Rowohlt, Reinbek 2005, ISBN 3-499-50466-9 .
- Veit-Jakobus Dieterich: Johann Amos Comenius. A man of longing. 1592-1670. Theological, educational and political aspects of his life and work , Calwer Stuttgart 2003.
- Dieter Fauth: Comenius - in the labyrinth of his world . Religion & Kultur Verlag, Zell am Main / Würzburg 2009, ISBN 978-3-933891-21-1 .
- Joachim Friedrichsdorf: Reversal: Prophecy and Education with Johann Amos Comenius . Schulz-Kirchner, Idstein 1995 (= research - teaching - learning, 11), ISBN 3-8248-0211-2 .
- Johannes Kühnel : Comenius and object lesson. Dissertation. Leipzig (Klinkhardt) 1911.
- Daniel S. Larangé: La Parole de Dieu en Bohême et Moravie. La tradition de la prédication dans l'Unité des Frères de Jan Hus à Jan Amos Comenius . L'Harmattan, Paris 2008, ISBN 978-2-296-06087-6 .
- Andreas Lischewski: "Omnia sponte fluant ...". Johann Amos Comenius on self-employment and voluntariness. A provocation (= Philosopher. Brocken, Volume 6). JHRöll, Dettelbach 2010, ISBN 978-3-89754-356-0 .
- Daniel A. Neval: The power of God for salvation. Johann Amos Comenius' understanding of the Bible in a time of crisis and upheaval . Theological Publishing House Zurich, Zurich 2006, ISBN 978-3-290-17361-6 .
- Ders .: Comenius' pansophy. The threefold revelation of God in scripture, nature and reason . Theological Publishing House Zurich 2006, ISBN 978-3-290-17435-4 .
- Manfred Richter: Johann Amos Comenius and the Colloquium Charitativum von Thorn 1645. A contribution to ecumenism . Stowarzyszenie Tutajteraz, Siedlce 2013. ISBN 83-63307-84-X .
- Klaus Schaller : Jan Amos Comenius. An educational portrait . Beltz, Weinheim 2004, ISBN 3-407-25279-0 .
- Matthias Scherbaum: The metaphysics concept of Johann Amos Comenius . Utopica, Oberhaid 2008, ISBN 978-3-938083-09-3 .
- Uwe Voigt : Johann Amos Comenius' understanding of history in Via Lucis as a creative synthesis. From the conflict of extremes to the cooperation of cultures. Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main 1996 (writings on triadics and ontodynamics. 11), ISBN 3-631-30890-6 .
- Michael Widmann: Ways out of the crisis. Early modern reform vision with Johann Valentin Andreae and Johann Amos Comenius. bibliotheca-academica-Verlag, Epfendorf, Neckar 2001, ISBN 978-3-928471-78-7 .
- Klaus Goßmann u. a. (Ed.): In the footsteps of Comenius. Texts on life, work and impact . Vandenhoeck u. Ruprecht, Göttingen 1992, ISBN 3-525-01613-1 (on the occasion of his 400th birthday).
- Veit Jakobus Dieterich (ed.): Comenius the politician . Schneider, Hohengehren 2004. ISBN 3-89676-854-9 .
- Uwe Hericks u. a. (Ed.): Comenius the pedagogue . Schneider, Hohengehren 2004 ( 2 2005). ISBN 3-89676-973-1 .
- Werner Korthaase u. a. (Ed.): Comenius and the world peace. Comenius and World Peace. German Comenius Society Berlin 2005 (available there).
- Erwin Schadel (ed.): Johann Amos Comenius - thought leader of a creative peace. German-Czech colloquium on the occasion of Heinrich Beck's 75th birthday (University of Bamberg, April 13-16, 2004). Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main a. a. 2005 (Schriften zur Triadik und Ontodynamik. 24), ISBN 3-631-52851-5 .
- Klaus Goßmann (ed.): Comenius the theologian . Schneider, Hohengehren 2007. ISBN 978-3-8340-0331-7 .
- Petr Zemek, Jiří Beneš and Beate Motel (eds.): Studies on Comenius and Comenius reception in Germany. Festschrift for Werner Korthaase on his 70th birthday. Muzeum JA Komenského, Uherksý Brod 2008. 958 pp. (Studia Comeniana et Historica. 79).
- Fletcher DuBois, Hans-Peter Gerstner (Ed.): Comenius in Heidelberg. Student in Heidelberg - teacher of humanity . Universitätsverlag Winter, Heidelberg 2014, ISBN 978-3-8253-6216-4 (on the occasion of the 400th anniversary of his matriculation at Heidelberg University).
- Acta Comeniana. International Review for Studies on Comenius Vol. 1 ff. Prague: Academia 1969ff. (Continuation of Archiv pro bádáni ... )
- Archive pro bádání o životě a díle JA Komenského. Vol. 1–20 Prague 1910–1961.
- Comenius yearbook. Published on behalf of the German Comenius Society. Sankt Augustin: Academia u. a. Vol. 1 ff. 1993 ff.
- Monthly notebooks of the Comenius Society. Berlin: Unger 1 (1892/1893) - 16 (1907). Monthly issues of the Comenius Society for Philosophy and History. 17 (1908). Monthly issues of the Comenius Society for Culture and Spiritual Life. 18 (1909 )-28 (1919). Spiritual culture and popular education. 29 (1920 )-32 (1923). Mental culture. 1 (1892) - 43 (1934).
- Studia Comeniana et Historica. Vol. 1 ff. Uherský Brod: Muzeum JA Komenského 1970 ff.
- Literature by and about Johann Amos Comenius in the catalog of the German National Library
- Works by and about Johann Amos Comenius in the German Digital Library
- Literature and other media by and about Johann Amos Comenius in the catalog of the National Library of the Czech Republic
- Publications by and about Johann Amos Comenius in VD 17 .
- German Comenius Society
- Orbis pictus Text: Latin only, online version (151 chapters)
- Orbis pictus. The world in pictures , text: Latin - German, facsimile, edition Vienna 1781 (82 chapters, 166 pages, with third column for vocabulary)
- Orbis pictus , text: Latin - English, facsimile, London edition 1659 (151 chapters, 309 pages)
- The orbis sensualium pictus by JA Comenius ( Memento of August 28, 2006 in the Internet Archive ) article
- Jan Amos Komensky Last Brethren Bishop and Europe's first educator
- Comenius - student in Heidelberg - teacher of humanity - a digital monument
- Orbis pictus. 1792, e-book of the University Library Vienna ( e-books on demand )
- The older Comenius research assumed the year 1671 as the date of death until the entry in the church register for the burial was discovered. More recently, Josef V. Polisenský advocated the thesis that the date November 15 is given according to the Julian calendar and therefore should be set to November 25 according to the Gregorian calendar, but this proved unlikely due to the version of the funerary inscription reproduced by Jan Kvafala (cf. Josef Brambora: When did Komenský die?. In: Acta Comeniana 25.1 (1969), pp. 247–248).
- Latin: To teach everyone everything completely or to teach everyone everything with regard to the whole (Comenius: Didactica magna , chap. 11, col. 49)
- Latin: Everything flows of its own accord, violence is far from things.
- Gyula Décsy: Komenský-Comenius and his names . In: Eurasian Studies Yearbook 67 (1995), pp. 67-68.
- Directory of the 17th century prints published in the German-speaking area (accessed on November 5, 2014).
- Comenius School Herborn: Who Was Comenius. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on February 1, 2014 ; Retrieved January 26, 2014 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Comenius: Opera Didactica Omnia Vol. 3. Amsterdam 1657, Sp. 71f.
- Comenius: Continuatio Admonitionis Fraternae , § 98 ( German translation by Gerhard Michel: Johann Amos Comenius . Sankt Augustin 1992, p. 117).
- Comenius: Continuatio Admonitionis Fraternae , § 99f (German translation by Gerhard Michel: Johann Amos Comenius . Sankt Augustin 1992, p. 117ff).
- Comenius, Continuatio Admonitionis Fraternae § 100 (German translation by Gerhard Michel: Johann Amos Comenius . Sankt Augustin 1992, pp. 118f.)
- Comenius: Continuatio Admonitionis Fraternae , § 101f. (German translation by Gerhard Michel: Johann Amos Comenius . Sankt Augustin 1992, p. 119ff.)
- Comenius: De Vocatione in Hungariam . In: Opera Didactica Omnia vol. 3. Amsterdam 1657, p. 3.
- János Szombathi: Historia Scholae seu Collegii ref [ormatorum] Sárospatakiensis = Monumenta protestantium hungariae ecclesiastica 1. Sárospatak 1860, p. 197.
- Comenius: Continuatio Admonitionis Fraternae , § 103 (German translation by Gerhard Michel: Johann Amos Comenius . Sankt Augustin 1992, p. 121).
- Reproduced by Comenius in his farewell speech of June 2, 1654. In: Opera Didactica Omnia Bd. 3. Amsterdam 1657, Sp. 1042f .; see: Comenius: Continuatio Admonitionis Fraternae , § 104 (German translation by Gerhard Michel: Johann Amos Comenius . Sankt Augustin 1992, p. 122).
- Comenius: Scholae Pansophicae Delineatio . In: Opera Didactica Omnia , vol. 3. Amsterdam 1657, p. 10 to col. 58.
- Comenius: Continuatio Admonitionis Fraternae , § 105f. (German translation by Gerhard Michel: Johann Amos Comenius . Sankt Augustin 1992, p. 123f).
- Comenius: Continuatio Admonitionis Fraternae , § 106 (German translation by Gerhard Michel, Johann Amos Comenius , Sankt Augustin 1992, p. 123).
- Comenius: Continuatio Admonitionis Fraternae , § 102 (German translation by Gerhard Michel, Johann Amos Comenius , Sankt Augustin 1992, p. 121).
- Comenius: Continuatio Admonitionis Fraternae , § 106 (German translation by Gerhard Michel, Johann Amos Comenius , Sankt Augustin 1992, p. 123f).
- Jaroslav Pánek: Jan Amos Comenius: on political thinking and acting . In: Karlheinz Mack (Ed.): Jan Amos Comenius and the politics of his time = series of publications by the Austrian Institute for East and Southeast Europe 21. Munich 1992, pp. 55–74, pp. 56ff.
- Gyula Geréb: Az Orbis Pictus mint egyik első illusztrált gyermekkönyvünk . In: Tiszatáj 9,1 (1954), pp. 50-63; Connie C. Epstein: The Art of Writing for Children . Hamden (Conn.) 1991, p. 2.
- See: Gerhard Michel: Johann Amos Comenius . Sankt Augustin 1992, pp. 106f.
- Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg: The Comenius program .
- Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, Volume 1 in the Google Book Search
- Texas State Historical Association: Komensky, TX .
- Hannelore Piehler: Research center "Intercultural Philosophy and Comenius Research" founded .
- Homepage: Muzeum JA Komenského, Uherský Brod
- Johann Amos Comenius in the Ecumenical Lexicon of Saints
- JA COMENII DIDACTICORUM OPERUM Pars III. Exhibens ea qvae from Anno 1650 Usqve ad annum 1654 in Hungaria fuerunt acta. Qvorum abacum seqvens ostendet pagina . 105/106. (At CAMENA - Latin Texts of the Early Modern Age , University of Mannheim: transcript and digitized version 105/106 )
|SURNAME||Comenius, Johann Amos|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Comenius; Komenský, Jan Ámos|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Czech Protestant philosopher, theologian and educator as well as bishop|
|DATE OF BIRTH||March 28, 1592|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Southeast Moravia|
|DATE OF DEATH||November 15, 1670|
|Place of death||Amsterdam|