High School Herborn
The High School Herborn ( Academia Nassauensis ) was a university-like German university in Herborn , which existed from 1584 to 1817. The theological faculty of the university continues to exist in a modified form in the "Theological Seminary of the Evangelical Church in Hesse and Nassau ".
The Academia Nassauensis , a high school , was founded by Count Johann VI. founded by Nassau-Dillenburg at the urging of his brother Wilhelm von Oranien in the year of his death in 1584. The sovereign granted his students two warm meals and three liters of thin beer a day. The beginnings of the high school ( pedagogy ) were in Herborn Castle . In 1588, Count Johann bought the old town hall from the city of Herborn and had it converted into a high school with extensions. The later reformed university-like college was equipped with four faculties. It soon became one of the most important educational institutions for the Calvinist Reformed in Europe. In the Netherlands there was a comparable university with the University of Franeker .
Despite repeated efforts and the undisputed high quality of the teaching, the high school was not granted any imperial privilege to run the designation “ university ”, possibly because it was a Calvinist foundation. The high school therefore never had the right to award doctorates.
In the first heyday, which lasted until 1626, over 300 students were enrolled in Herborn. B. in 1603 about 400. Apart from a second bloom in the period from 1685 to 1725, the numbers fell sharply after 1626. Since then, on average, around 100 students have been registered in Herborn. History shows time and again strong fluctuations in the number of pupils and students. For example, in 1745 there were fewer than five students in the city. From its founding in 1584 to its closure in 1817, around 5,700 students from all over Europe studied here. Many came from Switzerland , Bohemia , Moravia , Hungary or Scotland ; 1,000 came from Herborn alone.
On December 17, 1811, Napoleon issued a decree to establish a state university for the Duchy of Berg (to which Herborn fell in 1806) in Düsseldorf and, among other things, to close the Herborn High School in its favor. As a result of the end of Napoleonic rule, this arrangement was no longer implemented, but the Duchy of Nassau , established in 1806, could not or did not want to continue the high school. The college was closed in 1817, only the theological faculty was continued as the theological seminary of the Evangelical Church in Nassau .
The successor to the high school, the theological seminary of today's Evangelical Church in Hesse and Nassau (EKHN), was located in Herborn Castle.
The original buildings are cultural monuments according to the Hessian Monument Protection Act and are also protected by the Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict . Today they are used as a hotel and restaurant.
The upper floors are now the city museum with collections from the prehistory and early history of the Dill area, many exhibits on the history of the high school (there is also a rare disputation chair in the former lecture hall, the auditorium), its facilities, professors and students, as well as many other departments with exhibits from the eventful city history. Changing special exhibitions regularly deepen individual topics.
When it was founded, the high school had four faculties :
This order reflects the prestige ranking of the faculties that was customary at the time.
The school building at Schulhofstraße 3–5 is now a listed building . It is the old town hall of Herborn. The local history museum with library and a restaurant are located in the U-shaped closed courtyard. The entrance to the courtyard is through an arched portal. The main building is a two-story quarry stone building. A bay window was added to the gable front in 1645 . The half-timbered gable of the attic with profiled offsets of the front attic beams and continuous rows of decorative shapes in the parapet compartments dates from 1591. The long side of the courtyard has three dwelling houses . A round stair tower is attached to the south-western corner of the building. The former auditorium is located on the ground floor , a large hall with a beamed ceiling resting on consoles spanning the ground floor in transverse direction without any support. The former cafeteria from the early 17th century with an octagonal corner tower is at an angle to the main building. The former brewery was later used as the residence of the professors of the high school. It is a half-timbered house from the 17th century on the western side of the courtyard. There is a 19th century cast iron fountain in the courtyard. The Mühlbach lies south of the property.
|Caspar Olevian (1536–1587)||1584-1587||Founding rector, dogmatist and professor of theology|
|Johannes Piscator (1546-1625)||1584-1625||Professor of theology , major Bible translator|
|Johannes Althusius (1563–1638)||1586-1604||Professor of law, Calvinist state theorist, rector 1599/1600 and 1602|
|Johann Heinrich Alsted (1588–1638)||1610-1628||Professor of philosophy and theology, wrote the first German encyclopedia|
|Johann Heinrich Bisterfeld (1605–1655)||1629||Professor of Philosophy|
|Matthias Nethenus (1618–1686)||1669-1686||Professor of Theology|
|Johannes Voet (1647-1713)||1670-1674||Professor of Roman Law|
|Johannes Melchior (1646–1689)||1682-1689||Professor of theology, author of the first Reformed children's Bible|
|Nicolaus Gürtler (1654–1711)||1685-1688||Professor of philosophy and eloquence and head of education|
|Johann Heinrich Florin (1650–1700)||1688-1700||Teacher at the pedagogy and from 1691 professor of theology|
|Heinrich Horch (1652–1729)||1690-1698||Professor of canon law and church critic, he was removed from office in 1698: he had described the universities as the work of the devil.|
|Ernst Alexander Otto Cornelius Pagenstecher (1697–1753)||1722–1753?||Professor of Law, Rector of the High School 1725, Nassau-Orange Council since 1733|
|Wilhelm Bernhard Nebel (1699–1748)||1700-1728||Mathematics, physics and medicine|
|Karl Andreas Duker (1670–1752)||1701-1704||Teacher for history and rhetoric at the Herborn pedagogy|
|Johann Heinrich Schramm (1676–1753)||1701-1707||Professor of Rhetoric, History and the Greek Language|
|Johann Matthias Florin (1680–1751)||1707-1751||Professor of Rhetoric, History and the Greek Language|
|Johann Eberhard Rau (1695–1770)||1721-1770||Professor of theology as well as the Greek and Hebrew languages|
|Johann Kasimir Mieg (1712–1764)||1733-1743; 1757-1764||Philosophy and theology|
|Johann Franz Coing (1725–1792)||1749-1753||Professor of Philosophy and Mathematics|
|Dietrich Christoph Ihringk (1727–1781)||1750-1752||Professor of Law|
|Johann Daniel Leers (1727–1774)||1755-1774||Botanist and head of the Hohe-Schul-Apotheke, author of the "Flora Herbornensis"|
|Wolrad Burchardi (1734–1793)||1757-1793||Professor of law, university syndicate and university archivist, twice rector|
|Count Philipp Ludwig II of Hanau-Münzenberg (1576–1612)||1585-1591||from 1585 student, 1588 at the pedagogy, 1589 rector of the high school and 1590 again as a student. In 1607 he founded the High School in Hanau , based on the example of the High School in Herborn|
|Count Albrecht von Hanau-Münzenberg (1579–1635)||1585-1591||Younger brother of Philipp Ludwig II.|
|Georg Pasor (1570-1637)||from 1591||Student at pedagogy and high school, later professor for Greek at the university in Franeker, Friesland|
|Georg Cruciger (1575–1637)||1595-1597||Lutheran theologian, philosopher and university professor|
|Johann Textor (1582–1626)||from 1599||Lawyer and historian|
|Johann Heinrich Alting (1583–1644)||reformed theologian|
|Johann Heinrich Alsted (1588–1638)||from 1608||Later professor at the high school|
|Johann Amos Comenius (1592–1670)||from 1611||Promoter of education|
|Johann Heinrich Bisterfeld (1605–1655)||1619-1623||Later professor of philosophy at the high school|
|Friedrich von Bawyr (around 1600–1667)||from 1622||Elector Brandenburg Lieutenant General , member of the Prussian General Staff|
|Johann Friedrich Mieg (1744-1819)||before 1765||Reformed preacher, freemason and Illuminate|
|Georg Wilhelm Heinrich Seippel (1788–1850)||Pastor of the Reformed Churches . Educator of Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen .|
|Karl Friedrich Fuchs (1776–1846)||from 1793||Doctor and professor at Kazan University|
|Christian Daniel Vogel (1789-1852)||until 1812||Historian, topographer and pastor in the Duchy of Nassau|
|Carl Ludwig Heusler (1790-1851)||1807-1808||Entrepreneur and secret mountain ridge|
|Friedrich Christian Vogel (1800–1882)||around 1820||Pastor, writer, poet and politician in Wittgenstein|
|Christoph Corvin (1552-1620)||from 1585||academic printer|
- Johann Hermann Steubing: History of the high school Herborn. In the publishing house of the new learned bookstore, Hadamar 1823. (Reprint: Verlag Die Wielandschmiede, Kreuztal 1983)
- Gottfried Zedler, Hans Sommer (ed.): The matriculation of the high school and the pedagogy in Herborn (= publications of the historical commission for Nassau. Volume 5, ). Bergmann, Wiesbaden 1908.
- Heinrich Schlosser: The High School Herborn and Caspar Olevian (= Main Association Wiesbaden of the Gustav Adolf Foundation. Flyer. No. 15). Ritter, Wiesbaden 1918.
- Carl Heiler: The register of the high school in Herborn: 1725-1817. Reconstructed. In: Nassau Annals. Volume 55, 1935, , pp. 149-184.
- City of Herborn and Herborner Geschichtsverein e. V .: High School Herborn. City of Herborn and others, Herborn 1972.
- Gerhard Menk : The Herborn High School in its early days (1584–1660). A contribution to the higher education system of German Calvinism in the age of the Counter Reformation (= publications of the Historical Commission for Nassau. Volume 30). Historical Commission for Nassau, Wiesbaden 1981, ISBN 3-922244-42-4 (At the same time: Frankfurt am Main, University, dissertation, 1975).
- Dieter Wessinghage: The high school in Herborn and its medical faculty. 1584-1817-1984. = The High School of Herborn and its Medical Faculty. Schattauer, Stuttgart et al. 1984, ISBN 3-7945-1016-X .
- Joachim Wienecke (Ed.): From the high school to the Theological Seminary Herborn. 1584-1984. Festschrift for the 400th anniversary. City Council, Herborn 1984.
- Hans Haering: The late period of the high school in Herborn (1742-1817). Between Orthodoxy and Enlightenment (= European university publications. Row 3: History and its auxiliary sciences. Volume 615). Lang, Frankfurt am Main et al. 1994, ISBN 3-631-47632-9 . (At the same time: Marburg, University, dissertation, 1994)
- Wilhelm A. Eckhardt, Gerhard Menk (ed.): Christian Wolff and the Hessian universities (= contributions to Hessian history. Volume 18). Trautvetter and Fischer, Marburg 2004, ISBN 3-87822-118-5 .
- Christiane Bender, Hans Grassl, Zurich, 2018: Calvinist ethics and the spirit of federalism: https://www.nzz.ch/feuilleton/johannes-althusius-er-verband-calvinismus-und-foederalismus-ld.1440260
- Archives of the High School Herborn in the Hessian Main State Archive, Wiesbaden
- Literature about High School Herborn in the Hessian Bibliography
- Herborn Theological Seminar
- Theological documents of the High School Herborn
- Störkel in Festschrift 1984, p. 26.
- Störkel in Festschrift 1984, p. 55.
- Print edition of the Dill newspaper , June 8, 2011.
- State Office for the Preservation of Monuments Hesse (ed.): High School In: DenkXweb, online edition of cultural monuments in Hesse
- Zedler, pp. 7 (no. 73), 10, 11 (no. 179), 185 (no. 29).