Friedrich von Hardenberg came from the old north German nobility. He was born on the manor Oberwiederstedt in the part of the county of Mansfeld which is under the administration of the Electoral Saxon Sequester . There his father was one of three co-owners of a small Renaissance palace with a manor . Novalis spent part of his childhood and youth in Oberwiederstedt and on Gut Schlöben .
His father, as the Electorate of Saxony since 1784 saltworks director in Dürrenberg , Artern , and Kosen active Heinrich Ulrich Erasmus von Hardenberg (1738-1814), was a strictly pietistic man who because of the early death of his first wife, whom he previous as punishment for his saw extraordinary worldly life, became a close friend of the Moravian Brethren . In his second marriage he was married to Auguste Bernhardine von Hardenberg, born von Bölzig (1749-1818), who gave birth to eleven children, including - as the second child - Friedrich.
In the church in Oberwiederstedt he was baptized in the name of Georg Philipp Friedrich. Other names, especially Leopold, may be regarded as mere appropriations or dedications to friends and loved ones by the father and Friedrich von Hardenberg himself. His nickname was - as was common at the time - the last first name before the family name, ie "Friedrich" or "Fritz (e)" for short. The presumed baptismal bonnet from 1772, which Sophie von Hardenberg kept, is now shown next to the only oil painting in the permanent exhibition in Oberwiederstedt Castle.
Initially, the boy was taught by private tutors, including in 1781/82 by Carl Christian Erhard Schmid (1761-1812), whom he met again at the beginning of his higher education in Jena . Novalis attended the 1790 Prima of the school in Eisleben under Rector Christian David Jani , where he then common knowledge of rhetoric and ancient literature acquired. The uncle, Friedrich Wilhelm von Hardenberg, Landkomtur of the Teutonic Order , took Novalis into his care on the Teutonic Order Commander Lucklum for almost a year when he was twelve .
Since the von Hardenberg family had a second residence in Schlöben , Thuringia , Novalis lived there primarily before his parents moved to Weißenfels in 1786.
In 1790 Novalis began studying law in Jena (where he was looked after by his former court master Carl Christian Erhard Schmid , among others ), which he continued in Leipzig and Wittenberg . In the course of this study he heard Schiller's history lecture in 1791 and made close personal contacts with him during his illness. He also met Johann Wolfgang von Goethe , Johann Gottfried Herder and Jean Paul , made friends with Ludwig Tieck , Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling and the brothers Friedrich and August Wilhelm Schlegel . In June 1794 Novalis graduated from law school with the best exam.
In October 1794 Novalis was not accepted into the civil service - as actually planned - but initially hired himself in Tennstedt as an actuary with the district administrator Coelestin August Just , who not only became his superior, but also a friend and finally a biographer , according to his motto: “Every beginning is an act of freedom”. During this time he met the young Sophie von Kühn in the nearby Grüningen Castle . He got engaged to her on March 15, 1795, shortly before her thirteenth birthday. She died in agony at the age of only fifteen on March 19, 1797, which Hardenberg had a particularly strong influence on his poems.
In 1795/96 Novalis dealt intensively with Johann Gottlieb Fichte's theory of science , which had a considerable influence on his worldview, because the mere reception of the writings was followed by the further development of the concept. Novalis made the starting point for a love religion from Fichte's “I”, which was differentiated from everything “not me”. Now the “not-me” was a “you”, an equal subject.
In 1797 Novalis began his studies at the Bergakademie in Freiberg , one of the first university addresses for natural sciences at that time . There he was a student of Wilhelm August Lampadius and Abraham Gottlob Werner , to whom he soon felt friends. The study included mining science, mathematics and chemistry as well as practical work in the mines; It thus offered a far-reaching education, especially since the "natural science" at that time encompassed more than the later natural sciences. His educational path was already a tradition in his family.
In 1798 his first fragments appeared under the title Blüthenstaub , using the name Novalis for the first time as a pseudonym in the Athenaeum , the journal of the early romanticists Friedrich and August Wilhelm Schlegel. Friedrich von Hardenberg chose his publication name for a reason, because he himself remarked in a note to August Wilhelm Schlegel that it was an ancient nickname of his family: De novali, the "clearing new land", derived from the estate of his ancestors, Großenrode or " magna Novalis ”at Nörten .
Novalis entered his second engagement in December 1798 with the daughter of the mining captain and Freiberg professor Johann Friedrich Wilhelm von Charpentier (1738–1805): Julie von Charpentier (1778–1811).
From Whitsun 1799 Novalis worked again in the local saline management and was appointed saline assessor and member of the saline management board in December of the same year . In this function, he made a significant contribution to the development of the lignite deposits in the area around today's Profen open-cast mine , as lignite was required as heating material for the salt pans of the salt works in Artern , Dürrenberg and Kösen . In late autumn 1799 he met in Jena to other writers of the so-called Jena romanticism , having already acquainted with in July Ludwig Tieck had made.
In the following year, on December 6th, 1800, the now 28-year-old was appointed Supernumerar governor for the Thuringian district , an entitlement to a civil servant position that is comparable to that of today's district administrator . The bustling and hard-working Friedrich von Hardenberg was involved in the first geological survey of the region in 1800 and examined the area between Zeitz , Köstritz , Gera , Ronneburg and Meuselwitz .
On March 25, 1801 at 1 p.m. Friedrich von Hardenberg died in Weißenfels of a hemorrhage as a result of "consumption" ( tuberculosis ). He was probably infected while taking care of Friedrich Schiller . As early as August 1800 he was terminally ill with the lung disease that made it impossible for him to practice his profession. However, recent research suggests that the hereditary disease cystic fibrosis is the actual cause of death; Novalis has suffered from pneumonia and general weakness since childhood, which supports this thesis.
He was buried in Weißenfels in the old cemetery .
Novalis himself had only seen the publication of the pollen fragments, the fragment collection Faith and Love or The King and Queen (1798) and the Hymns to the Night (1800). The unfinished novels Heinrich von Ofterdingen and Die apprentices to Sais as well as the later so-called speech Die Christenheit oder Europa only became accessible to the public after the posthumous printing by the friends Ludwig Tieck and Friedrich Schlegel.
The restless, creative and reflective Friedrich von Hardenberg is considered to be one of the most important representatives of early German romanticism . He only had a few years to discover, recognize and develop his skills. Friedrich von Hardenberg, who had extensive knowledge of the natural sciences, law, philosophy, politics and economics, became active as a writer at an early age. Even the youth work makes it clear that the author was very well read and educated at an early age. His work has close connections to his professional activities, including the time of his studies, for apart from the poems, the fragments and essays, an astonishing abundance of records on history and politics, philosophy, religion, aesthetics and the history of science is known.
Hardenberg collected everything that had formed him and reflected it, saw and drew connections in the sense of an all-encompassing encyclopedia of the arts and sciences . These records from 1798/99 are also known as the General Brouillon .
The core of his literary work is the pursuit of the “romanticization of the world” and the search for a connection between science and poetry. The result should be “progressive universal poetry”. Hardenberg continued to be convinced that philosophy and the poetry that precedes it must be closely related to one another.
The fact that the romantic fragment in particular is the most suitable form of portraying progressive universal poetry is shown by the success of this genre, which was new at the time, in later reception.
The demands that Hardenberg placed on poetry and thus also on his own work can be seen in the following statements:
- “Poetry is the great art of constructing transcendental health. The poet is therefore the transcendental doctor. "
- "One searches with poetry, which is, as it were, only the mechanical instrument to produce inner moods, paintings or views - perhaps also spiritual dances etc."
- "Poetry = the art of emotion."
- "Poetry is a representation of the mind - the inner world in its entirety."
The entire work is based on an educational concept: "We are on a mission: we are called to educate the earth". It should be conveyed that everything is in a constant process. This also applies to people who always try to approach an earlier - hypothetically assumed - state that is shaped by the fact that people and nature are in harmony. This thought of romantic universal poetry was given a form of representation by the romantic triad, which repeatedly reminds the recipient that the moment described is exactly the right (the most favorable) time ( Kairos ) - a term that Hardenberg had adopted from Lessing - , the moment of crisis, when it will be decided which turn things will take. These times of upheaval, presented again and again, correspond to a feeling for the artist's presence that Novalis shared with some of his contemporaries.
That is why a triad structure can usually be recognized in the works, i.e. there are three corresponding structural elements within a work. In ancient Greek poetry, these were the three stanzas: stanza , antistrophe, and epode . Novalis designs them differently in terms of content and, if necessary, also formally, at least the third so-called epode.
The influence of the mystic Jakob Böhme , whose works Novalis had been intensively grappling with since 1800, is also of particular importance . A mystical worldview, a very high level of education and the often noticeable pietistic influences are combined with Novalis in an attempt to arrive at a new conception of Christianity, faith and God and to link this with his transcendental philosophy. In his late mystical texts, Novalis combines reflections on the project of a 'transcendental universal poetry' by his friend Friedrich Schlegel with reflections on the philosophical absolute and his own visions of a realm of spirits that is beyond empirical reality. In this mystical realm of spirits, individual and collective historical (faulty) developments in real history are canceled out in a dialectical sense. H. at the same time preserved and overcome in memory.
The spiritual songs , published in 1802, are a result of these efforts . B. When everyone is unfaithful and when only I have him . Some of these songs soon became part of Lutheran hymn books.
In the song What would I have been without you , the first of the spiritual songs , the eighth stanza reads:
Then came a savior, a liberator, a son of
man, full of love and power,
and has kindled an all-animating fire within us
Now we only saw the sky open
As our old fatherland,
We could believe now and hope.
And felt related to God.
In August 1800 - around eight months after its completion - the previously revised version of the Hymns to the Night was published in the Athenaeum . They are considered the high point of Hardenberg's lyrical oeuvre and also an important poetry of early romanticism.
The six hymns interweave the autobiographical with the fictional; they reflect Hardenberg's experiences from 1797–1800. The theme is the romantic interpretation of life and death, the limit for which the image of the night serves. Life and death become relative, intertwined areas, so that ultimately "death [...] is the romanticizing principle of life" (Novalis). Furthermore, influences of the then current literature can be proven. The metaphor of the Hymns to the Night shows parallels to works that Hardenberg was reading at the time of writing, including the translation of Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet in 1797 (by A. W. Schlegel) and Jean Paul's Invisible Lodge from 1793.
In the hymns to the night , a universal mediator religion is unfolded, which is based on the idea that there is always a mediator between man and the divine. This mediator can be Christ - as in Christian mythology - or the deceased beloved - as explained in the 3rd hymn.
Two of the hymns can be combined. The resulting small cycles in the cycle follow the same scheme: In each of the first hymns, the path from an assumed happy earthly life through painful alienation to liberation in the eternal night is shown by means of the romantic triad. The hymns that follow each tell of waking up from this vision and of longing for a return to the vision. The pairs of hymns increase continuously and convey a higher level of experience and knowledge.
Heinrich von Ofterdingen
The novel fragments Heinrich von Ofterdingen and Die Lehrlinge zu Sais clearly reflect the idea of conveying an all-encompassing world harmony with the help of poetry. The blue flower comes from the novel Heinrich von Ofterdingen , a symbol that became a symbol for all of Romanticism. Originally, the work was intended to be a counterpart to Wilhelm Meister Goethe , who was read enthusiastically but judged to be inadequate . Novalis' attitude to this novel by Goethe, which he considered to be directed against poetry, becomes clear in the fragments and studies of the years 1799–1800:
“It is basically a fatal and silly book - so pretentious and pretentious - leaky in the highest degree as far as the mind is concerned - as poetic as the presentation is. It is a satyr on Poësie, religion, etc. A tasty dish made from straw and wood shavings, composed of an image of a god. At the back everything becomes farce. The economic nature is the true - what remains. [...] Avanturies, comedians, maitresses, shopkeepers and philistines are the components of the novel. Whoever takes it to heart will no longer read a novel. The hero retards the penetration of the gospel of economics. "
Christianity or Europe
The so-called European speech The Christianity or Europe , originated as early as 1799, but only published in 1826, is a poetic, cultural-historical program with a clear focus on a political utopia as reflected in the Middle Ages reception that a new Europe on the foundations of a "poetic Christianity", the unity and freedom leads to symbiosis, wants to establish. The suggestions for this theoretically condensed text can be found in Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher's On Religion , also from 1799.
The first comprehensive editions of the work were made by Friedrich Schlegel and Ludwig Tieck, Berlin 1802 and 1837, in two volumes. Ludwig Tieck and Eduard von Bülow published the third volume in Berlin in 1846.
The poet's work - although it was created in a short creative period due to the artist's short life - had a considerable influence on the work of other artists. For example, Karoline von Günderrode read and edited the literary legacy of Novalis as early as 1802, that is, in the year of the first edition of his writings. She excerpted the writings, let herself be inspired and compared her own poems with those of Friedrich von Hardenberg. Earlier and closer to the work process, the Schlegel brothers and other early romantics repeatedly read individual texts.
Heinrich Heine worked out his own approach to Novalis, but gave him little appreciation. Also Eichendorff found in his literary history place for the early Romantics. Eichendorff's childhood friend, the enthusiastic poet Otto von Loeben , was an ardent admirer of Hardenberg and based his poetry very much on that of Novalis. Furthermore, philosophers - among them Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel - and cultural theorists, for example Wilhelm Dilthey and Rudolf Haym , worked on the extensive work of Novalis.
Novalis' main thing , his job in mining , was, like the associated saline writings, hardly received for a long time. Because of his writings and dreamy portraits, even his contemporary readers found it difficult to imagine the poet “as a governor or as a salt collector” (according to Justinus Kerner ). It was not until after 1960 that German studies, especially the literary scholars Gerhard Schulz and Hans-Joachim Mähl , began to understand the everyday work of the supposed fanatic.
Not least because of the canonization as school and study reading, reading Novalis' (especially literary) texts became possible for all those interested in literature.
The reception of the work is particularly problematic at the time of the Nazi dictatorship and early GDR literature.
For a long time, the entire work of the young poet, whose focus was on the hymns to the night, was interpreted in a strongly biographical manner, especially with a view to the early death of his first fiancé, Sophie von Kühn.
The reception of the unfinished novel Heinrich von Ofterdingen had a special effect : the still young Germanic Philology began to take care of Heinrich von Ofterdingen , who at the time was still considered a historical figure . As early as 1812, the potential effectiveness of the singer presented by Novalis led to August Wilhelm Schlegel, then Friedrich Schlegel and F. H. v. d. Hagen wrongly attributed the Nibelungenlied . But as early as 1820 Karl Lachmann's thesis was invalidated.
The miner's chants in Heinrich von Ofterdingen found their way into mining song collections, some of his clerical songs were included - in a more or less revised form - in Lutheran hymn books, and numerous settings of the poems were created.
His poetics found u. a. enthusiastic recipients among the French symbolists.
Novalis's work received further reception and an intensive interpretation by Rudolf Steiner , and anthroposophists are still concerned with a very special interpretation of the artist's worldview.
Wagner's musical drama Tristan und Isolde is also unthinkable without Novalis' hymns to the night. Above all, the reinterpretation of the night from chaos and threat to a transcendental space of utopian love experience plays an essential role in this.
Alphons Diepenbrock set several poems by Novalis to music around 1900. He composed two of the hymns to the night as symphonic chants with orchestral accompaniment.
Thomas Buchholz set fragments from Hymns to the Night for a cappella choir and summarized them in his work Novalis-Madrigal , which was published in a version for male choir in 2002 and in a version for mixed choir in 2010 by Verlag Neue Musik , Berlin , ISBN 978-3-7333-0692-2 .
- Selcuk Cara filmed the first hymn from Hymns to the Night (film, FH Dortmund, 2011) official selections - Level Ground Film Festival Pasadena, USA 2014; Pride Mostra Film Festival, Cap Verde 2014; PERLEN Film Festival Hannover, Germany 2014; Everybody's perfect 3 Film Festival Geneve, Switzerland 2014; Outtakes Film Festival, New Zealand 2013; 7 ° FOR RAINBOW - Festival de Cinema e Cultura, Brasilia 2013; Florence Festival Internazionale Di Cinema LGBT, Italy 2013; EL LUGAR SIN LIMETES Festival de Cine, Ecuador 2013; Rio Filmfest de Cinema, Brasilia 2013.
- In 1993, Herwig Kipping filmed Heinrich von Ofterdingen as Novalis - The Blue Flower .
- Lamentation of a youth (1791 in Wieland's New German Mercury ).
- Flowers , 1798;
- Spiritual songs (published in 1802; i.a. When everyone is unfaithful , If only I have him )
- Hymns to the Night (created 1799/1800, published 1800)
- If not more numbers and figures (poem from the fragment of the novel Heinrich von Ofterdingen )
- To Julien (date of creation 1800)
- The Apprentices at Sais , fragment of a novel, published 1802
- Heinrich von Ofterdingen , fragment of a novel, published in 1802, often referred to as a fragmentary Bildungsroman ( digitized version and full text in the German Text Archive )
- Pollen (1798 in the journal Athenaeum by Friedrich Schlegel)
- Faith and Love or The King and Queen (1798)
- Collection of fragments and studies, created 1799–1800
- Europe (created in 1799, published in 1826 as Die Christenheit or Europa ( digitized and full text in the German Text Archive ))
- Dialogues , 1802;
The General Brouillon contains the encyclopaedic materials that were collected in 1798/99.
- Novalis writings. The works of Friedrich von Hardenberg. Historical-critical edition (HKA) in four volumes, a material volume and a supplementary volume in four sub-volumes with the literary estate of young people and other newly emerged manuscripts. Founded by Paul Kluckhohn and Richard Samuel. Published by Richard Samuel in collaboration with Hans-Joachim Mähl and Gerhard Schulz . Kohlhammer, Stuttgart a. a. 1960 ff. A total of 6 volumes: 4 volumes (volumes I – IV) + 1 supplementary volume (volume V) + 1 supplementary volume in four sub-volumes (volume VI. Among others: The literary youth estate (1788–1791) and entries in the archives (1791–1793), Edited by Hans-Joachim Mähl in collaboration with Martina Eicheldinger, Editing of Ludwig Rommel's family books; Volume 2: Commentary (1999); Writings and documents from professional activity Text, Volume 3 (2006).
- The annotated historical-critical edition is the complete work edition based on the surviving manuscripts or the first prints and standard edition of Novalis research. Volume 5 contains a comprehensive register of persons, subjects and places.
- Emil Staiger (Ed.): Novalis poems - novels. Manesse Verlag, Zurich 1994, ISBN 3-7175-1320-6 .
- Gerhard Schulz (Ed.): Works. CH Beck, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-406-47764-X .
- Hans-Joachim Mähl, Richard Samuel (ed.): Works, diaries and letters of Friedrich von Hardenberg, in 3 volumes. Carl Hanser, Munich / Vienna.
- Hans-Joachim Mähl, Richard Samuel (ed.): Works in one volume . Commented by Hans-Joachim Simm with the assistance of Agathe Jais. Munich / Vienna 1981 (Hanser Library). Paperback edition of the 3rd edition 1984: Munich 1995.
- The general brouillon: materials for encyclopedia 1798/99. With an introduction by Hans-Joachim Mähl. Meiner, Hamburg 1993, ISBN 3-7873-1088-6 .
- Fragments and Studies. Reclam, Ditzingen 1984, ISBN 3-15-008030-4 .
- Poems. 6th edition. Insel, Frankfurt 1987, ISBN 3-458-32710-X .
- Poems and prose. Ed. And with an afterword v. Herbert Uerlings. Artemis & Winkler, Düsseldorf / Zürich 2001, ISBN 3-538-06897-6 (in various editions, ISBN 3-538-05415-0 , ISBN 3-538-05915-2 ).
- Joseph Kiermeier-Debre (ed.): Heinrich von Ofterdingen. Berlin 1802. Orig. Edition (library of the first editions, German version 2603). Dtv, Munich 1997, ISBN 3-423-02603-0 .
- Alexander Knopf (ed.): Heinrich von Afterdingen. Critical edition and interpretation. Stroemfeld, Frankfurt am Main / Basel 2015, ISBN 978-3-86600-246-3 .
Audio books and radio plays
- Heinrich von Ofterdingen . Novalis (Friedrich von Hardenberg). Spokesman Pure disbelief . Beltershausen, 1988; 6 cassettes in the publisher: Studio for audio book productions, ISBN 3-926610-24-7 .
- "I wall over ...". Novalis settings . Live recording from November 3rd, Klangbrücke, Altes Kurhaus Aachen. Designed by Lutz Grumbach, produced by OnLine Studios, Monschau. Audio CD in a cardboard slipcase with a 26-page booklet with lyrics of the songs and an accompanying essay. Rights at the Research Center for Early Romanticism and the Novalis Museum at Schloss Oberwiederstedt 2005.
- Hans Jochim Schmidt (ed. And speaker): Hyazinth and rose blossom / Klingsohrs fairy tale . Two fairy tales from the fragments of the novel The Apprentices to Sais and Heinrich von Ofterdingen , 2 CDs; Reader Schmidt Hörbuchverlag, Schwerin 2006, ISBN 3-937976-47-7 .
- Hans Jochim Schmidt (ed. And speaker): Heinrich von Ofterdingen. Unabridged reading of the fragment of the novel. 1 MP3 CD; Reader Schmidt Hörbuchverlag, Schwerin 2007, ISBN 978-3-937976-90-7 .
- Christian Brückner (ed.): Hymns to the night. 1 audio CD; Director: Waltraud Brückner, music: Kai Brückner ; Edition Christian Brückner; Parlando, Berlin 2000, ISBN 3-935125-04-6 .
- Doris Wolters (ed.): Karoline von Günderrode, Eduard Mörike / Novalis: A kiss breathed life into me. 1 audio CD; Audiobook, Freiburg i.Br. 2005, ISBN 3-89964-111-6 .
- Edgar Hederer: Novalis. Amandus, Vienna 1949.
- Biography at rbb : Georg Philipp Freiherr von Hardenberg Novalis , Prussia - Chronicle of a German State
Gerhard Schulz: Novalis. Life and work of Friedrich von Hardenberg. Beck, Munich 2011, ISBN 978-3-406-62781-1 , p. 84 ; Ernst Behler: Early Romanticism. de Gruyter, 1992, p. 145 ; Herbert Uerlings: Novalis. Reclam, 2015, p. 30.
Other sources mention March 17, 1785 as the engagement date, Sophie's 13th birthday: Lektürehilfe.de, for example .
- Ludger Lütkehaus : Novalis follows the beloved into death. In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung, November 22, 2013
- In the church book of Weißenfels the cause of death is "emaciation".
- Norman Franke: Ironic prayers? Novalis on skepticism, the thinking of the absolute and metaphysical transgressions of ironic poetry. In: Wirkendes Wort (65, 2/2015), pp. 215–241.
- Novalis: Writings. The works of Friedrich von Hardenberg, Volume 1 The poetic work. 3rd edition, ed. by Paul Kluckhohn and Richard Samuel . Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1977, ISBN 3-17-001299-1 , pp. 159-161 ( at Zeno.org ).
- The beautiful mining. On the professional skills of the poet Novalis NZZ, September 2, 2006
- Peter Gülke: Franz Schubert and his time. 2nd edition (of the original edition from 1996). Laaber-Verlag, 2002, pp. 213, 369, 370.
- Literature by and about Novalis in the catalog of the German National Library
- Works by and about Novalis in the German Digital Library
- G. Baur: Hardenberg, Friedrich Leopold v., Called Novalis . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 10, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1879, pp. 562-570.
- Remigius Bunia: Romantic Rationalism. On science, politics and religion at Novalis. Schöningh, Paderborn 2013, ISBN 978-3-506-77697-6 .
- Carl Busse : Novalis' Poetry. Georg Mask, Opole 1898 ( digitized version ).
- Norman Franke: Ironic prayers? Novalis on skepticism, the thinking of the absolute and metaphysical transgressions of ironic poetry. In: Wirkendes Wort (65, 2/2015), pp. 215–241.
- Winfried Freund : Novalis. Dtv, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-423-31043-X .
- Curt Grützmacher : Novalis - monologue. Also contains: The apprentices to Sais , Christianity or Europe , hymns to the night , spiritual songs , Heinrich von Ofterdingen , Novalis' living conditions / Ludwig Tieck . With an essay on understanding the works and a bibliography by Curt Grützmacher. [Editors: Curt Grützmacher and Jürgen Claus]. Rowohlt Verlag, Reinbek near Hamburg 1963.
- Curt Grützmacher: Novalis and Philipp Otto Runge: Three central motifs and their sphere of meaning: the flower - the child - the light (dissertation). Eidos Verlag [WP Fink], Munich 1964.
- Wolfgang Hädecke : Novalis. Biography. Hanser, Munich 2011, ISBN 978-3-446-23766-7 .
- Karl von Hardenberg: Novalis vu par ses contemporains . Trad. de l'allemand by Vincent Choisnel. Préf. de Paul-Henri Bideau. Postface de Heinz Ritter, Ed. Novalis, Montesson 1994, ISBN 2-910112-08-X .
- Sophie von Hardenberg : Friedrich von Hardenberg, called Novalis. Avox Verlag, Leipzig 2010, ISBN 978-3-936979-02-2 (most authentic Friedrich von Hardenberg biography, written by his niece Sophie von Hardenberg) (with a complete register of persons, extensive biographies and a detailed foreword).
- Manfred Heim: Novalis (Friedrich von Hardenberg). In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Volume 6, Bautz, Herzberg 1993, ISBN 3-88309-044-1 , Sp. 1043-1046.
- Hermann Hesse, Karl Isenberg (ed.): Novalis. Documents of his life and death. Insel, Frankfurt / M. 1976 (contains, among other things, Ludwig Tiecks Das Leben des Novalis. And the Novalis biography of Tennstedt district administrator August Coelestin Just).
- Alexander Knopf: Enthusiasm for the language. Friedrich von Hardenberg (Novalis): Heinrich von Afterdingen. Critical edition and interpretation. Stroemfeld, Frankfurt / Main, Basel 2015, ISBN 978-3-86600-246-3 .
- Hermann Kurzke : Novalis. 2nd Edition. C. H. Beck, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-406-45968-4 .
- Hans Joachim Mähl: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 7, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1966, ISBN 3-428-00188-5 , pp. 652-658 ( version ). In:
- Sergej O. Prokofieff : Novalis and Goethe in the intellectual history of the West. Verlag am Goetheanum, 2003.
- Sergej O. Prokofieff: Novalis. Eternal individuality. 2nd, revised and supplemented edition. Verlag am Goetheanum, Dornach 2008.
- Heinz Ritter-Schaumburg : The Spiritual Songs of Novalis. Their dating and origin . In: Yearbook of the German Schiller Society, 4. Wallstein, Göttingen 1960, , pp. 308–342.
- Heinz Ritter-Schaumburg: The Unknown Novalis. Friedrich von Hardenberg in the mirror of his poetry. Sachse & Pohl, Göttingen 1967.
- Heinz Ritter-Schaumburg: Novalis' Hymns to the Night - Their interpretation of content and structure on a text-critical basis. 2nd significantly expanded edition. C. Winter, Heidelberg 1974, ISBN 3-533-02348-6 and ISBN 3-533-02349-4 (with the facsimile of the hymn manuscript).
- Heinz Ritter-Schaumburg, Gerhard Schulz (Ed.): Novalis: Writings. The works of Friedrich von Hardenberg. 3rd supplemented and expanded edition. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1977, ISBN 3-17-001299-1 .
- Heinz Ritter-Schaumburg: Novalis and his first bride. Urachhaus, Stuttgart 1986, ISBN 3-87838-480-7 .
- Gabriele Rommel , Ludwig Stockinger (ed.): Novalis and the Enlightenment: "Just be patient, it will, it must come the holy time of eternal peace". Catalog for the exhibition in the Novalis-Schloß Oberwiederstedt and in the Romantikerhaus Jena. Wiederstedt 2004, ISBN 3-9808594-2-8 .
- Gerhard Schulz: Novalis. With testimonials and photo documents . 16th edition. Rowohlt, Reinbek 2005, ISBN 3-499-50154-6 .
- Gerhard Schulz: Novalis. Life and work of Friedrich von Hardenberg. CH Beck, Munich 2011, ISBN 978-3-406-62781-1 .
- Eckhard Siepmann: Navigating Novalis. Texts by Friedrich von Hardenberg on the art of floating. Anabas, Frankfurt am Main 2001, ISBN 3-87038-332-1 .
- Rudolf Steiner: The Christmas Mystery / Novalis, the seer and herald of Christ. Four lectures. Berlin 1908/1909, Cologne 1912 (1995, ISBN 3-7274-5115-7 ).
- Martina Steinig: "Wherever you sing, just sit down ..." song and poetry interludes in the romance novel. An exemplary analysis of Novalis' Heinrich von Ofterdingen and Joseph von Eichendorff's Awareness and Present . With notes on Achim von Arnim's poverty, wealth, guilt and penance by Countess Dolores . Frank and Timme, Berlin 2006, ISBN 3-86596-080-4 .
- Herbert Uerlings: Friedrich von Hardenberg, called Novalis: work and research. Metzler, Stuttgart 1991, ISBN 3-476-00779-0 .
- Herbert Uerlings: Novalis and the sciences. Niemeyer, Tübingen 1997, ISBN 3-484-10741-3 .
- Herbert Uerlings: Novalis (Friedrich von Hardenberg). (Universal Library, 17612). Reclam, Stuttgart 1998, ISBN 3-15-017612-3 .
- Herbert Uerlings: Novalis - Poetry and Poetics. Niemeyer, Tübingen 2004, ISBN 3-484-10858-4 .
- Herbert Uerlings: Pollen. Reception and impact of Novalis's work. Niemeyer, Tübingen 2005, ISBN 3-484-10827-4 .
- Berbeli Wanning: Novalis for the introduction. Junius Verlag, 1996, ISBN 3-88506-924-5 .
- Mario Zanucchi: Novalis. Poetry and historicity. The poetics of Friedrich von Hardenberg. Schöningh, Paderborn / Munich / Vienna / Zurich 2006, ISBN 3-506-71795-2 .
- Works by Novalis at Zeno.org .
- Works by Novalis in the Gutenberg-DE project
- Novalis on the Internet Archive
- Novalis International Bibliography - comprehensive, internationally sorted bibliography 1791–2003/2007
- Link collection ( memento from March 6, 2016 in the web archive archive.today ) of the University Library of the Free University of Berlin
- Aquarium - Novalis online . Multilingual website for Novalis reception
- International Novalis Society (with Novalis Museum, Novalis Foundation and Oberwiederstedt Castle Memorial)
- Weissenfels Novalis Memorial
- Heinrich von Ofterdingen - Elevators with illustrations (mostly paintings by Caspar David Friedrich)
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Hardenberg, Georg Philipp Friedrich Freiherr von|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||German poet of early romanticism|
|DATE OF BIRTH||May 2, 1772|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Oberwiederstedt|
|DATE OF DEATH||March 25, 1801|
|Place of death||Weissenfels|