Johann Peter Emilius Hartmann

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Johann Peter Emilius Hartmann

Johan Peter Emilius Hartmann (* 14. May 1805 in Copenhagen ; † 10. March 1900 ) was a Danish composer of Romantic music .


Hartmann came from a German family of musicians. His father was a court musician in Copenhagen and received his first music lessons from him. But he was also largely self-taught . At his father's request, he devoted himself to the study of law and also held state offices from 1829 to 1870. After working as an organist at the Copenhagen Garrison Church from 1824 , he made his debut as a composer in 1832 with the opera Ravnen (Eng. Der Rabe or Die Bruderprobe ), based on a libretto by Hans Christian Andersen . In 1836 he went on his first study trip to Germany and France , during which he made contacts with Frédéric Chopin , Gioachino Rossini , Luigi Cherubini and Louis Spohr . In addition to the Danish composer Christoph Ernst Friedrich Weyse , Spohr became Hartmann's most important mentor. Further trips - again mainly to Germany - followed in the following years. Also in 1836 Hartmann founded the Danish Music Association, of which he remained chairman until the end of his life. In 1843 he moved from the garrison church to the Frauenkirche in Copenhagen , where he received the post of organist and held it until his death. In the same year he became head of the student choir. He also held this office until the end of his life. Hartmann, who had studied under Giuseppe Siboni at the Royal Singing School of the Court Theater - the previous institution - from 1827 onwards , became director of the newly founded Copenhagen Conservatory of Music in 1867, together with Niels Wilhelm Gade and the conductor Holger Simon Paulli .


His sons-in-law were the composers Niels Wilhelm Gade and August Winding , his son the composer Emil Hartmann . A great-grandson of Hartmann is the composer Niels Viggo Bentzon and the Belgian composer Jean-Pierre Waelbroeck (* 1954). The Danish director Lars von Trier (born 1956) learned from his mother shortly before her death in 1995 that he was also a descendant of Johann Peter Emilius Hartmann, as his biological father was the former employer Fritz Michael Hartmann.

Family tree of the Hartmann family


Hartmann's memorial in Copenhagen

Almost all of Hartmann's works are distinguished by their artistic seriousness, dramatic vitality and, in particular, by their national coloring, and have consequently been widely acclaimed in the artist's fatherland. The Nordic intonation manifests itself particularly in folk song-like themes, modal expressions and a rather dark sound. These properties become more and more apparent from around the 1830s. He is a master at composing; Both form and thematic work reveal a great deal of sovereignty. Hartmann's characteristic is a more classicistic attitude that sometimes reminds us of Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy . The quality of his works is high overall. His influence on the following generation of composers should not be underestimated.

Works (selection)

  • Orchestral works
    • Symphony No. 1 in G minor, Op. 17 (1835) HartW 28
    • Symphony No. 2 in E major, Op. 48 (1847/48) HartW 29
    • Overtures to tragedies by Adam Oehlenschläger :
      • Axel and Valborg op.57 (1856) HartW 40
      • Corregio op.59 (1858) HartW 41
      • Yrsa op. 78 (1883) HartW 22
    • Stage music, etc. a.
      • Undine op.33 (Carl Borgaard) (1842)
      • Hakon Jarl op.40 (Adam Oehlenschläger) (1844/57)
      • Dante op.85 (1888)
  • Operas
  • Ballets
    • Valkyrien (Die Walküre) op.62 (1860/61)
    • Thrymskviden op.67 (1867/68)
    • Arcona op. 72 (1873–75)
  • Other vocal music
    • numerous cantatas
    • Guldhornene (Die Goldhorns), Melodrama op.11 after Adam Oehlenschläger (1832)
    • Choirs
    • Songs
  • Chamber music
    • Violin Sonata No. 1 in G minor, Op. 8 (1826)
    • Violin Sonata No. 2 in C major, Op. 39 (1844)
    • Violin Sonata No. 3 in G minor, Op. 83 (1886)
    • Flute Sonata in B flat major, Op. 1 (1825)
  • Piano music
    • Sonata No. 1 in D minor op.34 (1841)
    • Sonata No. 2 in F major (1853)
    • Sonata No. 3 in A minor, Op. 80 (1876–83)
    • smaller pieces
  • Organ music
    • Sonata in G minor, Op. 58 (1855)
    • Fantasy in F minor, Op. 20 (1837)
    • Fantasy in A minor
    • Funeral march for Thorvaldsen (organ and brass)
    • Funeral march for Oehlenschläger (1850) organ and brass
    • Opening music for the university anniversary in 1879 (organ and brass)

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. a b c d e f g Clive Unger-Hamilton, Neil Fairbairn, Derek Walters; German arrangement: Christian Barth, Holger Fliessbach, Horst Leuchtmann, et al .: The music - 1000 years of illustrated music history . Unipart-Verlag, Stuttgart 1983, ISBN 3-8122-0132-1 , p. 113 .
  2. Lars von Trier in the Munzinger Archive , accessed on May 19, 2011 ( beginning of article freely accessible)