Kinkaku-ji in Kyoto, Japan,
is built as the retirement home of Ashikaga Yoshimitsu .
|1397 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||845/846 (turn of the year July)|
|Aztec calendar||8. Feuerstein - Chicuei Tecpatl (until the end of January / beginning of February 7th pipes - Chicome Acatl )|
|Buddhist calendar||1940/41 (southern Buddhism); 1939/40 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||68th (69th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||759/760 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||799/800 (turn of the year 23/24 September)|
|Jewish calendar||5157/58 (September 21/22)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1707/08 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1708/09 (New Year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1453/54|
Politics and world events
- February 27 : Five months after the devastating defeat in the Battle of Nikopolis , King Sigismund of Luxembourg summons the Croatian Sabor (assembly / state parliament) in the town of Križevci , accusing the Croatian Ban Stjepan II. Lacković , a follower of Karlo II. Drački to have caused the defeat and has him and his supporters murdered on the spot.
Holy Roman Empire
- June 7th : Count Dietrich II von der Mark and his brother Count Adolf II von Kleve defeat Duke Wilhelm II von Berg in the Battle of Kleverhamm , after the latter together with his cousin, Duke Wilhelm von Jülich and Geldern in the spring County Kleve has invaded. Wilhelm II is taken prisoner. He can buy himself and his followers free, but has to pledge large parts of his dominion. His sons Adolf , Gerhard and Wilhelm see their inheritance threatened and openly rebel against their father.
On June 17th, 67 people from the clerical and secular nobility of Denmark , Norway and Sweden signed a draft treaty in Kalmar under the leadership of Margaret I , who was elected ruler of both Denmark-Norway and Sweden , which was never ratified, but Scandinavia for around de facto united in the Kalmar Union for a century and a half . Each empire retains its imperial council and structure of government. Margaret's great-nephew Erik VII is crowned the common king of the three northern kingdoms. Margaret I receives the general power of attorney for the imperial administration and holds the de facto power in her hands.
King Richard II , who with the help of his uncle John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster , has re-established his power in the Kingdom of England , begins, despite a recent reconciliation, with the persecution of the Lords Appellant , who disempowered and imprisoned him in 1387 . The first to face Richard's vengeance is Richard FitzAlan, 11th Earl of Arundel , who will be executed on September 21st .
First documentary mentions
- The tax book of the city of Munich mentions a brewer for the property at Neuhausergasse 4 for the first time, Hans Welser, the later Spatenbräu .
- The barber's profession is mentioned for the first time in an official letter from Cologne .
Culture and religion
- The Kinkaku-ji Buddhist temple in Kyoto , Japan, is being built as the retirement home of Ashikaga Yoshimitsu . The entire architecture combines different Japanese styles and is at the same time influenced by Chinese building elements. The fragile pavilion essentially consists of three floors of different styles, surrounded by round balconies.
- In the Grand Duchy of Moscow is Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery founded.
- The Ahrensbök monastery in Holstein is built.
- During the course of the year, between 80 and 100 men and women, most of whom belong to the Waldensian faith , are executed in the course of the Inquisition under the Inquisitor Petrus Zwicker in Steyr / Austria . Children are also summoned to the Inquisition Court and sentenced.
- January: John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster , marries his longtime mistress Catherine Swynford . This caused a social scandal, especially when the Duke had the Pope legitimize their four children in February.
- The patrician society for donkeys is founded in Ravensburg under the leadership of Johannes II von Waldburg .
nature and environment
Date of birth saved
- January 22 : Louis de Valois, duc de Guyenne , French heir to the throne, Dauphin of Vienne († 1415 )
- February 21 : Isabel de Portugal , Portuguese Infanta and Duchess of Burgundy († 1471 )
- August 16 : Albrecht II , Duke of Austria, Roman-German King and King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia († 1439 )
- September 16 : Bāisonqur , Prince of the Timurids, patron of the arts and architecture († 1433 )
- November 15 : Nicholas V Pope († 1455 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Albrecht V , Duke of Mecklenburg († 1423 )
- Elisabeth von Eitzing , Austrian nobleman († 1466 )
- Heinrich IV. , Count of Holstein and pretender to the Duke of Schleswig († 1427 )
- Nōami , Japanese monk painter († 1471 )
- Paolo dal Pozzo Toscanelli , Florentine physician, mathematician, astronomer and cartographer († 1482 )
- Paolo Uccello , Florentine painter and mosaic artist († 1475 )
Born around 1397
- Katherine Neville , English nobleman, Duchess of Norfolk and Baroness Beaumont († after 1483)
- Wenzel II , Duke of Troppau and Leobschütz († between 1445 and 1447)
- Johann Westphal , Mayor of Lübeck († 1474 )
First half of the year
- January 11 : Skirgaila , Prince of Polotsk and Trakai, Regent of Lithuania, Prince of Minsk, Swislotsch and Kiev (* around 1354 )
- January 21 : Albrecht II , Duke of Straubing-Holland, governor of the Lower Bavarian part of the Duchy (* 1368 )
- January 22nd : Everhard von Muisgen , auxiliary bishop in Cologne
- January 25 : Ruprecht Pipan , Elector Palatinate (* 1375 )
- January 26 : Heinrich V. von Werdenberg-Sargans , Count of Vaduz (* around 1345 )
- February 11 : Heinrich von Langenstein , German theologian, church politician and astronomer, Vice Chancellor of the Sorbonne and Rector of the University of Vienna (* 1325 )
- February 16 : Henry VI. , Count of Waldeck (* around 1340 )
- February 18 : Enguerrand VII. De Coucy , Count of Soissons, Peer of France and English peer (* around 1339 )
- February 27 : Stjepan II. Lacković , Ban of Croatia and Dalmatia
- March 14 : Henry VIII. , Duke of Sagan and Glogau and Duke of Freystadt, Grünberg and Sprottau (* 1357 / 63 )
- April 25th : Thomas Holland , English nobleman and military man in the Hundred Years War (* 1350 )
- May 8 : Nikolaus , Count of Holstein-Rendsburg (* 1321 )
- May 12 : Heinrich Totting von Oyta , German theologian and philosopher (* around 1330 )
- June 3 : William Montagu , English military man and magnate (* 1329 )
- June 6th : Nikolaus von Riesenburg , Bishop of Konstanz and Olomouc
- June 11th : Stefan Poduška von Martinitz , royal councilor and favorite of the Bohemian King Wenzel IV as well as governor von Glatz and governor von Frankenstein
- June 16 : Philippe d'Artois, comte d'Eu , French nobleman and Connétable of France (* around 1358 )
Second half of the year
- July 7th : Jean Le Mercier , notary and secretary from Scotland, adviser to the French kings Charles V and Charles VI.
- before July 14: Jacobello Alberegno , Italian painter
- July 15 : Katharina von Henneberg , Margravine of Meißen (* around 1334 )
- July 18 : Henry III. , Count of Saar Werden
- July 26th : Erich , Duke of Mecklenburg
- August 16 : . Philip II of Alençon , French Cardinal (* 1338 / 39 )
- August 27th : Ralph de Cromwell , English nobleman
- August 28 : Heinrich Kuwal , priest of the Teutonic Order and Bishop of Samland
- September 2 : Francesco Landini , Italian composer, organist, singer, multi-instrumentalist and poet (* around 1325 )
- September 8th : Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester , English nobleman (* 1355 )
- September 11th : Pernelle Flamel , Parisian benefactress and alchemist (* 1320 or 1340 )
- September 21 : Richard FitzAlan , English nobleman and member of the Lords Appellant (* 1346 )
- October 6 : Vuk Branković , Serbian nobleman and territorial prince (* 1345 )
- December 22nd : Guido II , Count of Blois, Dunois and Soissons, and Lord of Chimay and Avesnes
- December 27 : Robert Waldby , English clergyman (* around 1335 )
Exact date of death unknown
- February or March: al-Achlātī , Islamic occultist and author
- between February 11 and July 15 : Albrecht I , Duke of Mecklenburg-Stargard, Canon of Schwerin and coadjutor of the Bishop of Dorpat
- May: Anthony IV , Patriarch of Constantinople
- between June 14th and July 1st : Johann II , Duke of Bavaria-Munich (* around 1341 )
- August: Helena Kantakuzene , Empress of the Byzantine Empire (* 1333 / 34 )
- November: Heinrich von Bar , French nobleman (* 1362 )
- Johann , Infante of Portugal, Duke of Valencia de Campos and Lord of Alba de Tormes (* around 1349 )
- John II , Lord of Beauvoir and Richebourg, and Count of Brienne and Conversano
- Ludwig Krafft von Balzheim , Mayor of Ulm (* around 1330 )
- Otto von Bubenberg , mayor of Bern (* 1360 )
- Puta the Elder from Častolowitz , Bohemian nobleman
- Johannes Walteri von Sinten , Archbishop of Riga
- Johannes von Thienen , Truchsess and Drost of the Schauenburg Count Nikolaus (* 1342 )
Died around 1397
- Volmer in St. Jacobstrasse , aldermen and mayor of Aachen