Georgi I. Terter

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Georgi I. Terter (also Georg I. Terter , Bulgarian Георги I Тертер ) was Tsar of Bulgaria from 1280 to 1292 . He is the founder of the House of Terter . Until 1279 he was despot of Tscherwen . The despot of Kran , Eltimir was his brother.


In 1279 Iwan Assen III. Become a Bulgarian tsar with Byzantine help. The powerful Boljar Georgi Terter then not only became his first adviser, but also his brother-in-law by marrying Kira-Marija . For this, his first marriage to Maria, daughter of the Russian prince Jakow Swetoslaw was declared null and void. His son from his first marriage, Todor Swetoslaw and his wife were taken hostage to Constantinople ( Nicaea ).

When Iwan Assen III. then had to flee himself, Georgi I Terter became Bulgarian tsar. One of his first acts was to annul his marriage to Ivan's sister, Kira-Maria, and to bring his first wife and son back from captivity. He also tried to fight the political turmoil in Bulgaria. In captivity around 1284/85 the young Todor Swetoslaw was betrothed to the daughter of the Thessalian Sebastokrator Johannes I. Dukas . In 1284, thanks to an agreement, his mother, Maria Terter, returned from captivity.

In the case of Todor Swetaslav, the Bulgarian Patriarch Ioakim III could not . , who accompanied a delegation to Constantinople in 1285, achieve success. The young Todor was to marry the daughter of the Byzantine nobleman Sinadin at a later date, but he did not. After returning to the Bulgarian capital, Todor was appointed Mitzar (co-emperor) by his father.

In the same year Georgi Terter came under Khan Nogai's dependence on the Golden Horde and became its vassal . To hedge Georgi Terters daughter was with Nogais son Chaka married and Todor Svetoslav sent to the Tatar captivity. He stayed there for about 15 years. When the Bulgarian tsar lost support around 1292 and lost his throne after a Boljar conspiracy, he fled to Byzantium. With the approval of Khan Nogai, the new Bulgarian tsar became the Boljar Smilez .


  1. Georgi I. Terter († after 1304), Tsar of Bulgaria (1280–1292) ⚭ Maria, daughter of the Russian prince Jakow Swetoslaw
    1. Theodor II. Svetoslav , Tsar of Bulgaria (1322-1323)
    2. Anna Terter ⚭ 1284 Stefan Uroš II Milutin , King of Raska
    3. unknown ⚭ Chaka Nogai , Tsar of Bulgaria (1299–1300)
  2. Georgi I. Terter ⚭ Kira-Marija Assenina , daughter of Tsar Mizo Assen


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  • John VA Fine, Jr .: The late medieval Balkans. A critical survey from the late twelfth century to the Ottoman conquest. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor 1987, ISBN 0-472-10079-3 .
  • Detlef Kulman: Georgi I. Terter . In: Biographical Lexicon on the History of Southeast Europe . Volume 2. Munich 1976, p. 32 f.
  • Gerhard Podskalsky : Theological literature of the Middle Ages in Bulgaria and Serbia 815-1459. Beck, Munich 2000, ISBN 3-406-45024-5
predecessor Office successor
Ivan Assen III. Tsar of Bulgaria