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Archangelsk [ ɐrˈxangʲɪlʲsk ] ( Russian Архангельск , scientific transliteration Archangel'sk , literally "Archangel City") is a port city in Northern Russia with 348,783 inhabitants (as of October 14, 2010). It is the administrative center of Arkhangelsk Oblast and is located above the mouth of the Northern Dvina in the White Sea . The city was founded in 1584 under the name Novocholmogory with the fortification of the Archangel Michael Monastery. Arkhangelsk was the first Russian seaport to trade with England and other Western European countries in the 16th century . Today Arkhangelsk is one of the most important industrial cities in Northern Russia.
Arkhangelsk is located in the north of the European part of Russia 994 km north of the Russian capital Moscow . The city lies on both sides of the Northern Dvina, just above its confluence with the Dvina Bay of the White Sea . In this area, the Dvina flows into an approximately 900 square kilometers large delta, which means that the northern urban area of Arkhangelsk is distributed over numerous river islands . The urban area itself covers 294.42 km² and is between 1 and 10 meters above sea level. Like most of the Arkhangelsk Oblast, it is part of the North Russian Lowlands of the Eastern European Plain . Due to Arkhangelsk's proximity to the Arctic Circle , which is only 225 km to the north , the White Nights can be observed at the time of the summer solstice from mid-May to the end of July .
Arkhangelsk is the administrative center of the Arkhangelsk Oblast of the same name and at the same time the largest city in the Oblast. Nearby larger cities are Novodvinsk, about 20 km south, and Severodvinsk, about 35 km west of Arkhangelsk.
Since an administrative reform after the collapse of the Soviet Union , the urban area of Arkhangelsk has been divided into nine city rajons (Russian Городской район , transcribed Gorodskoi rajon ), which are called Okrug (Russian district ). The Okrugy Lomonossowski, Oktjabrski, Maiskaja Gorka and Varawino-Faktorija are located on the eastern bank of the Dvina. The Oktyabrsky Okrug, which also includes the southern part of the Ostrow Kego river island , forms the city center together with the Lomonossowski Okrug. To the south of these borders the Okrug Maiskaja Gorka, which also includes the Dvina island of Krasnoflotski . Further south the Okrug Varawino-Faktorija joins. In the north of the city are the Okruge Solombalski, Severny and Maimaksanski located on river islands. On the western Dwinaufer the Ziglomenski Okrug extends in the north and the Issakogorski Okrug in the south. The following table gives an overview of the population of the Arkhangelsk districts.
Arkhangelsk is located in the cold temperate climatic zone , which is characterized by short cool summers and long cold winters. The average annual temperature is 1 ° C. The mean amount of precipitation is 560 mm. The warmest months are June, July and August with average temperatures of 12.9 to 15.8 ° C. The coldest months are December, January and February with average temperatures of −9.8 to −13.5 ° C. Most precipitation falls between July and October, at 60 mm to 68 mm. The months with the lowest rainfall are February and March, each with 28 mm.
The following table shows a tabular and graphic overview of the monthly maximum and minimum temperatures as well as the amount of precipitation for the city of Arkhangelsk.
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Arkhangelsk
For the year 918 the Heimskringla tells a story of Eirik Blodøks (blood ax) who drove to Bjarmaland . The Egil saga says: “Many things happened during this journey. Eirik fought a great battle on the Dwina River, in Bjarmaland, and was victorious. ”The Heimskringla also tells how Harald Gråfell (Graufell) led his army north to Bjarmaland in the summer of 970, and plundered a great battle on the banks of the Dwina which Bjarmen (Permier) led. Harald won the battle, killed many people and made rich booty.
At Cape Pur-Navolok, the Cape of the Mists, where the delta of the Northern Dvina begins before the river branches into a multitude of arms and flows 40 km further into the White Sea , Novgorod monks founded the Archangel Michael in the 12th century - Monastery bordered by a settlement and a landing stage for fishing boats. The foundation of the monastery is attributed to Saint John, Archbishop of Novgorod.
Novgorod, next to Kiev, the second, northern center of old Russia, had expanded its sphere of influence far north to the Kola Peninsula since the 12th century , but Norway also claimed the profitable fur trade and tax sovereignty. An agreement made in 1251 to regulate the collection of taxes only lasted for a short time.
In 1411 the Novgorodian Jakow Stepanowitsch led a campaign against northern Norway. This appears to have been the beginning of a series of armed conflicts between Russians and Norwegians in the first half of the 15th century, and in 1419 Norwegian ships with 500 soldiers advanced into the White Sea. The murman , as the Norwegians were called at that time (see Murmansk ), plundered numerous Russian settlements on the coast, including the Archangel Michael Monastery at the mouth of the Northern Dvina.
In the end, the Novgorod Republic managed to defend its possessions against Norway, but in 1478 the Novgorod lands, and with them the Archangel Michael Monastery on the Dvina, fell to the expanding Grand Duchy of Moscow .
In 1553 the English Company of Merchant Adventurers sent their first expedition. The Mystery and Company of Merchant Adventurers for the Discovery of Regions, Dominions, Islands, and Places unknown was founded in 1551 by Sebastian Cabot (the son of the discoverer of Newfoundland in 1497, John Cabot ) and a group of English merchants aiming for England to find a trade route to China and India independent of Portugal. Of the three possible routes - the Northwest Passage, the Northeast Passage, and the North Pole route - Cabot chose the second. On May 10, 1553, three ships set out from London to find a northeast passage through the Arctic Ocean under the direction of Admiral Sir Hugh Willoughby and his navigator Richard Chancellor . However, near Lofoten , the small fleet got caught in a storm and Chancellor's ship was separated from the other two ships and Willoughby.
Willoughby crossed the Barents Sea with the two remaining ships and reached Novaya Zemlya . He spent some time on the coast looking for a passage to the east, and then returned to Scandinavia. On the coast near Murmansk , his ships were trapped by ice in the Warsina estuary . The expedition was not prepared for the cold, and after a few attempts to find help, Willoughby and his men died, possibly cold. A carbon monoxide poisoning is the cause of death in question. The following year, Russian fishermen found the two ships with the dead.
Richard Chancellor was luckier. He reached the White Sea, and on August 24, 1553, he anchored in the Nikolsky estuary of the Northern Dvina. They continued upriver by boat and reached Cholmogory , which, 119 km from the mouth of the river inland, had been the trading center of Novgorod merchants since the 15th century .
The English offered the Russians goods for trade, but they refused without consenting to a decree from Moscow. When Tsar Ivan IV heard of Chancellor's arrival, he invited him to Moscow. Chancellor made the more than 1000 km long journey through ice and snow with the sledge . He became the first Englishman to see Moscow. The city seemed bigger than London to him, although most of the houses were made of wood. The tsar's palace, however, was splendid and luxurious, as were the meals which he offered his English guest.
Tsar Ivan IV was pleased about the arrival of Chancellor and the opportunity to begin a direct trade with England without intermediaries. At that time, the Russian Empire had only limited access to the Baltic Sea , and the Hanseatic League dominated trade between Russia and Central and Western Europe. When Chancellor returned to England in March 1554, he brought letters from the Tsar with him inviting English merchants, geologists and other craftsmen, and promising trade privileges.
The English viewed Chancellor's journey as the discovery of a new land, equivalent to the discovery of America. On February 26, 1555, the Company of Merchant Adventurers , now called the Muscovy Company (Moscow Society), received a monopoly on Anglo-Russian trade from Queen Mary I Tudor and in the same year sent Richard Chancellor as their representative on a new expedition into the White Sea. He was again warmly received by the Tsar. Ivan IV instructed the Russian traders to trade with the English. On July 20, 1556, Chancellor set out from the port of Saint Nikolas (today's Severodvinsk ) for England together with the first Russian ambassador for England, Ossip Gregorewitsch Nepeja from Vologda, and ten merchants from Cholmogory .
However, off the Scottish coast, already on its way to London, Chancellor's ship got caught in a storm. Chancellor drowned in the sea, but Nepeja reached the coast, where he was held hostage by the Scots for a few months before he could travel on to London. He arrived in London and was received there with solemnity and honor. In April 1557, a declaration was passed on the friendly relationship between England and Russia. An intergovernmental trade agreement gave English merchants the right to trade duty free in Russia and Russian merchants the right to trade duty free in England. In May 1557, Ossip Nepeja returned to Moscow accompanied by English craftsmen.
In the following years the merchant flotillas of the English ran into the Dvina estuary every spring. In autumn they set sail again, now laden with goods. The English brought cloth, sugar, spices, precious stones, weapons, ammunition and goods from the Mediterranean to Russia; and they bought hides, leather, wax, hemp, tar, grain, candles, and wood. Over time, the landing stage for fishing boats at the Archangel Michael Monastery was first transformed into a base for Moscow society , which was dedicated to trading with English merchants. Soon, however, merchants came from all European countries and many Russian cities, and huge quantities of goods were being handled here.
The Moscow Society existed for over 300 years until the early 20th century. Until 1819 the agents of the company also held the rank of English consuls in Arkhangelsk. In 1991 a street in Severodvinsk was named after Richard Chancellor; a memorial stone in his honor was erected in 1998 on the island of Jagry .
In the years 1583–1584 the military leaders Pyotr Afanassjewitsch Naschtschokin and Zaleschanin Nikiforow Wolochow built a wooden fortress around the Archangel Michael monastery and the settlement of fishermen and merchants on Cape Pur-Navolok on the decree of Tsar Ivan IV. The date of foundation is assumed to be March 4th, 1583 - today's city of Arkhangelsk, however, celebrates the year of completion of the fortifications as its founding year: 1584. Originally the fortress was called the New City, New Cholmogor City (Russian: Новый Холмогорский город) or Novocholmogory (Новохолмогоры), after the trading center at that time Cholmogory , which soon lost its importance and is now only a small place with less than 5000 inhabitants. In 1613 the new city at the mouth of the Dvina received its current name: the Archangel City (Архангельский город). In 1667, a fire destroyed the town, which consisted mainly of wooden structures, which then had to be almost completely rebuilt.
Time of the empire
In 1693 the young Tsar Peter I , known as Peter the Great, arrived in Arkhangelsk. He moved the shipyard to the island of Solombala and founded an admiralty there as the basis for a Russian navy and merchant fleet. The first ship, the merchant ship Sankt Paul , was launched in June 1694. In the same year Peter I returned to Arkhangelsk and issued a trade monopoly for the most important export goods, which lasted until 1719.
War operations by the Swedish fleet on the White Sea forced Peter I to fortify the city further. In 1701 construction of the Novodvinsk fortress began on his orders . On June 25 and 26, 1701, the fortress withstood the first Swedish attack on Arkhangelsk . This was Russia's first victory over Sweden. Novodvinsk fortress was built within four years. The baroque decor of the gates from this period has been preserved to this day.
In 1702 Peter I transferred the administration of the Pomor region from Kholmogory to Arkhangelsk, and from December 18, 1708, Arkhangelsk was the capital of the Arkangelgorod governorate ( province of the city of Arkhangelsk ), one of eight provinces into which the Russian state was then divided.
After Saint Petersburg was founded on May 16, 1703, and especially after it became the new capital in 1712, Arkhangelsk gradually lost its pre-eminent importance as a foreign trade port. In the first all-Russian census of 1897 , Arkhangelsk, which was the center of the Arkhangelsk governorate at the time , had a population of 20,882. In 1916, after the devastating explosion of the ammunition ship Baron Driesen (see also article: Earl of Forfar ) on November 9, 1916, the city lost its importance as a northern sea port, as Murmansk , another ice-free port with rail links, had become usable. According to official information, this catastrophe left 650 dead and 839 wounded. Unofficially, however, more than 2000 deaths are assumed. The Bakaritsa district was completely destroyed. Another explosion by the steamer Tscheljuskin on January 13, 1917 in the outer port of Ekonomija with 284 official deaths and 229 missing accelerated the decline of the port of Arkhangelsk during the First World War .
After the October Revolution
In August 1918, British and French troops landed at the Dvinam Estuary and occupied Arkhangelsk as part of the anti-Bolshevik intervention of the Entente in the Russian Civil War . The British general Frederick Poole commanded the force. They were reinforced by a US contingent of 5,000 men from the Polar Bear Expedition . It was not until 1920 that the Red Army succeeded in retaking the city.
In the early days of the Soviet Union there were efforts to change the name of the city because of its Christian reference. However, they were unsuccessful.
After the dissolution of the Arkhangelsk Governorate in 1929, Arkhangelsk was the capital of the Northern Krai until 1936 and the Northern Oblast in 1936/37 . In 1937, the Arkhangelsk Oblast , which still exists today, was formed.
During the Second World War , Arkhangelsk was the final destination for the German Wehrmacht ( Army Group North ), which however could not be achieved. During the German-Soviet War from 1941 to 1945, the Archangelsk port served as an important supply port for the northern sea convoys , through which the USA delivered war goods and food to the Soviet Union in accordance with the Lending and Lease Act .
In the city there was a prisoner of war camp 211 for German prisoners of war of the Second World War.
According to calculations by the State Statistical Office of the Russian Federation, 348,399 inhabitants lived in Arkhangelsk on January 1, 2010. Thus, Arkhangelsk ranks 50th among the largest cities in Russia . The population structure is ethnically very homogeneous. In the 2002 All-Russian census, the proportion of ethnic Russians in the oblast population was calculated at 94.2% (including 0.5% pomors ). Ukrainians are also the largest national minority with 2.1%. Other nationalities represented include Belarusians (0.8%), Nenets (0.6%) and Komi (0.4%). The majority of the population professes the Russian Orthodox faith .
The following table shows the development of the population of Arkhangelsk from 1678 to the present day. What is noticeable here is a strong increase from the second half of the 19th century. The main reasons for this lie in industrialization in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The city recorded a particularly strong population increase in the early 1930s as a result of forced collectivization and the resulting rural exodus in the Soviet Union. The largest population reached Arkhangelsk in 1989 with 415,921 inhabitants. With the economic crisis at the beginning of the 1990s, the population fell steadily.
(*) All-Soviet and All-Russian census data.
Unlike many other Russian cities, Arkhangelsk does not have a city flag . The only heraldic symbol is the city coat of arms .
The Arkhangelsk coat of arms was officially introduced on October 2, 1780. It shows the conquest of Satan by the Archangel Michael . Depicted is the flying archangel in blue robe with sword and shield , who falls on a black devil .
The depiction of the Archangel Michael meeting the devil was used as a regimental banner in the Archangelgorod Governorate (from 1780 Archangelsk Governorate ) at the beginning of the 18th century . During the reign of Peter the Great , a professional army was established at this time. The army regiments stationed in the various governorates and provinces should bear the emblems of the respective city. However, since most of the Russian cities at that time did not have coats of arms, new emblems were created. A first pencil sketch of the Archangel banner can be found in a notebook of Peter the Great from 1701. It is unclear whether the idea for the banner came from Peter the Great himself. It is assumed that the banner of the Archangel Regiment, used for the first time in 1712, was created by the Italian heraldic artist Count Francesco Santi (1683–1768). This original version showed the archangel rider on a horse. In 1730 the banner was changed and from then on it was displayed without a horse. In the course of the administrative reform of Catherine the Great in 1780, which stipulated that every city should bear a city coat of arms, the regimental banner was adopted as the city coat of arms.
Since religious themes were not allowed on official symbols during the Soviet Union, the coat of arms only showed a ship at that time. The motif was supposed to depict Arkhangelsk as an important seaport. In October 1989, the Arkhangelsk City Council decided to reintroduce the original coat of arms. The historical version of the coat of arms from 1780 was adopted except for minor changes.
The city of Arkhangelsk is the administrative seat of the Arkhangelsk Oblast and forms its own urban district within this Oblast (Russian Городской округ , Gorodskoi okrug ). The Arkhangelsk district is an independent administrative unit - roughly equivalent to the district in Germany - which is equal to the Rajon . In addition to the Arkhangelsk administrative center, the Arkhangelsk district also includes the settlements of Bory, Lesnaja Rechka , Nowy Turdejewsk, Turdejewsk and Talaschski Aviagorodok .
The Arkhangelsk city administration consists of the mayor's office (Russian мэрия , merija ). This takes on the function of the executive within the local self-government of the city. At the head of the mayor's office is the mayor (Russian мэр ; mer ). He is the political head of the urban district and is directly elected by its residents in local elections every four years. Igor Viktorovich Godsisch has held the office of mayor since December 2015 .
The legislature is provided by the city soviet ( Городской Совет , Russian Gorodskoi soviet ). The city council is the city's representative body and, like the mayor, is directly elected every four years in local elections. It consists of 30 members and oversees the function of the mayor. An audit office (Russian контрольно-счетная палата , kontrolno-stschetnaja palata ) has a control function over the actions of the city council.
The city of Arkhangelsk is also the administrative seat of the Primorsk district surrounding the city .
Arkhangelsk has twinned cities with the following eleven foreign cities:
- Portland ( USA ), since November 18, 1988
- Vardø ( Norway ), since February 23, 1989
- Stolp / Słupsk ( Poland ), since June 26, 1989
- Emden ( Germany ), since November 22, 1989
- Mulhouse ( France ), since March 13, 1992
- Oulu ( Finland ), since June 3, 1993
- Piraeus ( Greece ), since February 28, 1995
- Kiruna ( Sweden ), since August 9, 1999
- Ljusdal ( Sweden ), since October 27, 2004
- Sukhumi ( Abkhazia / Georgia ), since June 5, 2011
- Tromsø ( Norway ), since July 7, 2011
- Ashdod ( Israel ), since June 25, 2012
The town twinning with Emden mainly affects the cultural and social area. Among other things, there are school and student exchanges as well as exchanges between emergency services and hospitals. Since 1993 there has also been a cooperation between the Ostfriesland University of Applied Sciences and the Pomorian State University and the Archangelsk State Technical University .
Economy and Transport
The economy is largely determined by the port. There are also paper mills in Arkhangelsk. There is also the Arkhangelsk power plant on the banks of the Kuznetschikha , which supplies the city with electricity and district heating.
In the 1990s, planning began for the BelKomUr project (Beloje More (White Sea) - Komi - Urals), the aim of which is to build a new transport route from Arkhangelsk via Syktyvkar and Kudymkar to Perm . To this end, the Arkhangelsk - Syktyvkar - Gainy - Solikamsk railway line , which is currently under construction, is to be extended. The new, 1,252 km long main line is intended to shorten the freight train routes from the Urals to the ports of the White Sea by around 800 km and at the same time open up previously inaccessible areas. Mainly wood, coal, mineral resources, metal products and petroleum products from north-west Russia, the Urals, Siberia and states of Central Asia would be transported on the route. The project includes the construction of a deep-water port in Arkhangelsk, which is to relieve the Saint Petersburg port. The deep-sea port should have an annual freight turnover of 28 million tons and be able to handle ships with a carrying capacity of 75,000 tons. As part of a development program, bulk goods are to be transported from the Solikamsker transport hub via Arkhangelsk to ensure full utilization of the port. The 330 billion ruble (8.25 billion euros) project is part of the Russian Railways' development strategy until 2030 and is to be largely privately funded as a public-private partnership.
The interregional operating company BelKomUr was founded in 1996 to implement the project . The shareholders are the Russian Federation, Arkhangelsk Oblast, the Komi Republic, the Perm region and some larger companies in these regions. In 2009, BelKomUr was approved by the Russian Ministry of Transport. The realization of BelKomUr has so far failed due to a lack of investment. In addition, some experts doubt whether the desired freight volume will be achieved and thus the project will be profitable.
The city is located on the M8 highway , which starts from Moscow, runs through Vologda , Yaroslavl and Arkhangelsk to Severodvinsk. The M8 is also the only trunk road connection between Central Russia and Arkhangelsk. The urban area of Arkhangelsk, located on river islands, is connected by several car and railway bridges. Both the three-kilometer-long Krasnoflotsky Bridge ( Краснофлотский мост ) and the 800-meter-long Severodvinsk Bridge ( Северодвинский мост ), which cross the Northern Dvina, are lift bridges that are open to shipping at night.
Arkhangelsk is connected to the route network of the Severnaya schelesnaja doroga ("Northern Railway"). The city received its first railway connection in 1897 with the construction of a 634 km long narrow-gauge line from Vologda to the Arkhangelsk-Hafen station ( Архангельск-пристань ).
As a result of this extension of the existing railway line from Moscow to Vologda, Arkhangelsk became the end point of the important 1132 km long north-south connection from Moscow to the White Sea . The narrow-gauge line was converted to broad- gauge by 1916 and gradually electrified in the 1980s and 1990s. To date, the last 130 km long section from Oboserski to Arkhangelsk has not been electrified, so that diesel locomotives are used from there . Before the Severodvinsk Bridge ( Северодвинский мост ) was completed in 1964, Issakogorka station south of Arkhangelsk was the only long-distance railway station in the city. With the construction of the railway bridge, the city center was connected to the railway line and in 1965 the Arkhangelsk Central Station ( Arkhangelsk-Gorod ) opened as another long-distance train station. In addition to the two long-distance train stations, there are two other train stations in Arkhangelsk, Bakariza ( Бакарица ) and Sharovicha ( Жаровиха ), which serve freight traffic. In 1969 the construction of a second railway line to Karpogory began, which was completed in 1975. Already at the time of the Soviet Union, plans were made to extend the route from Karpogory to Wendinga (in the Komi Republic) in order to create a main line from the Urals via Komi to Arkhangelsk. However, the project did not materialize for financial reasons. In the context of Belkomur the route is planned, Archangelsk - Karpogory to extend up to Perm.
Today there are daily train connections from the main train station and Issakogorka in the direction of Konoscha - Vologda - Yaroslavl - Moscow and Konoscha - Vologda - Cherepovets - Saint Petersburg . There are also daily direct connections to Kotlas , Karpogory, Maloschuika , Nyandoma and Onega , as well as every two days to Murmansk . There are also seasonal long-distance connections to Adler , Anapa , Evpatorija , Mineralnyje Vody , Novorossiysk and Stavropol .
Due to its location on the Northern Dvina, which connects central Russia with the White Sea, Arkhangelsk was Russia's most important trading port until the founding of Saint Petersburg . Even today, the naval trading port ( Морской торговый порт ) is one of the most important ports in northwestern Russia with a cargo handling volume of 4.5 million tons and provides an important link between maritime shipping, inland shipping and railways. While in the years 1960 to 1990 wood products still accounted for about half of the cargo handling, 37.4% of the cargo handling in 2009 consisted of metals, 18.6% of coal, 14.4% of containers, 9.7% Wood products, paper and pulp, as well as 15.3% from other goods combined. The commercial port consists of three piers Ekonomija ( Экономия ) in the north, and Lewy Bereg ( Левый берег ) and Bakariza ( Бакарица ) south of the city. The landing stages are each connected to the railroad network via train stations or stops. In order to enable ship transport even in the winter months, icebreakers keep a fairway on the Dvina free from December to April.
The ferry port ( Морской-Речной Вокзал ) is located in the center of the city and serves as a passenger port for both inland and seagoing vessels. On the one hand, the port is used for transport to the inhabited river islands in the Dvina delta, and on the other hand, it is the starting point for tourist destinations such as the Solovetsky Islands .
Arkhangelsk has two airports, both of which are outside the urban area. Talagi International Airport, opened in 1963, is located about eleven kilometers northeast of the city center. Talagi is the seat of the Russian airline Nordavia , which was a subsidiary of Aeroflot until 2009 . In addition to some international flights to Helsinki , Riga , Tromsø and Antalya , Talagi mainly handles domestic flights. The smaller inland airport Waskowo, founded in 1981, is located about twelve kilometers south of the city center. Waskowo mainly serves regional destinations within the Arkhangelsk Oblast and the Nenets Autonomous Okrug, which are served by smaller planes and helicopters .
The most important means of public transport in Arkhangelsk is the omnibus . The route network comprises 50 bus routes and has been continuously expanded in recent years. A single trip within the city in mid-2013 cost 16 rubles (about 0.40 euros). The travel tickets are, as usual in Russia, during your cruise at a conductress bought. The two bus stations at the seaport and at the main train station are the central nodes for the bus routes . There are also regular taxis ( marshrutkas ) in the city and ferries from the island of Solombala - in the northern part of the city - to the inhabited river islands in the Dvina Delta. From the bus station at the seaport, there are connections to the nearby cities of Severodvinsk, Novodvinsk and the dacha settlements surrounding Archangelsk via regional bus and marshrutka lines.
Originally there was a tram and trolleybus network in the city in addition to the bus routes . The tram network created in 1916 was for a long time the northernmost tram system in the world. At the end of the 1990s, five tram lines operated on the 79 km long route network. From 2000 the lines were gradually discontinued due to lack of profitability and the poor condition of the tracks and replaced by bus lines. In 2004 the last tram line was taken out of service and the tracks of the line network removed. The operation of the trolleybus lines, which had been in use since 1974, was also gradually discontinued from the 1990s onwards due to a lack of profitability. The first complete decommissioning of the trolleybus network took place in 2006. After a change of operator, from the end of 2007 to November 2008 another trolleybus line operated in the city. Since the lines were discontinued, the city administration has made efforts to bring some trolleybus lines back into operation in the course of improving local transport. However, these plans have so far failed for financial reasons.
250 kilometers from Arkhangelsk in the White Sea are the Solovetsky Islands with world-famous Orthodox monasteries, which are a UNESCO World Heritage Site . A well-known regatta takes place every year from the city to the islands.
In the city itself there is a monument to Peter the Great known in Russia, which is also depicted on the 500 ruble banknote . There is also other wooden architecture that is well worth seeing, including the Malyje Korely open-air museum , which is around 25 kilometers southeast of the city center. The wooden architecture competes in the cityscape with prefabricated buildings from the Soviet era. In recent times, however, the city center has been increasingly building and modernizing. For example, the pedestrian areas of Pomorskaya Street ( Поморская улица ) and the Chumbarowa – Luchinsky Prospect ( Проспект Чумбарова-Лучинского ) in the center of the city have been modernized and expanded. In addition, several shopping centers were built near the center of the city.
A striking building in the city is the 151-meter-high Archangelsk television transmission mast, erected in 1964, a guyed tubular steel mast of an unusual design, because it has six cross members with a catwalk, which lead in two levels from the mast construction to the guy ropes and also carry some antennas.
- Northern Arctic Federal University (formerly Arkhangelsk State Technical University and Pomorus State University )
- State Medical University of the North
- Branch of the State Academy of Oceanography
- Branch of the All-Russian Remote Institute of Finance and Economics
- Branch of the Saint Petersburg State University for Culture and Art
- International Institute of Administration
- Branch of the Modern Academy for Humanities ( Современной гуманитарной академии )
- Institute of the new forms of training
Sporty flagship of the city is the Bandyklub HK Wodnik Arkhangelsk . The city was one of the venues for the 1965 World Bandy Championships . The Bandy World Cup in 1999 and Bandy World Championship 2003 also took place in Arkhangelsk.
sons and daughters of the town
- Magdalena Pauli (1757-1825), German philanthropist
- Piter Poel (1760–1837), diplomat and later editor of the Altonaic Mercurius
- Ilja Schumow (1819–1881), chess master and composer
- Wilhelm Greiffenhagen (1821–1890), Baltic German politician and journalist
- Otto Konrad Roller (1871–1936), German historian, genealogist and numismatist
- Stepan Pissachow (1879–1960), painter, writer, ethnographer and traveler
- Stepan Balmaschow (1881–1902), Social Revolutionary
- Michail Kalik (1927–2017), Soviet-Israeli director and screenwriter
- Boris Schilkow (1927–2015), speed skater and Olympic champion in 1956
- Wladimir Resizki (1944–2001), alto saxophonist and founder of the avant-garde jazz group Arkhangelsk
- Vladimir Tarasov (* 1947), drummer of avant-garde jazz, composer and visual artist
- Michail Pletnjow (* 1957), pianist, conductor and composer
- Anatoly Snigirev (* 1957), Russian-French physicist
- Artur Ullrich (* 1957), German soccer player
- Lyudmyla Denissowa (* 1960), Ukrainian lawyer and politician
- Jelena Schupijewa-Vjasowa (* 1960), Ukrainian long-distance runner
- Aleksandrs Kerčs (* 1967), Latvian ice hockey player and coach
- Victor Ferin (* 1969), actor and filmmaker
- Alexander Donskoi (* 1970), politician and former mayor of the city of Arkhangelsk
- Alexander Kravchenko (* 1971), professional poker player
- Konstantin Kassatkin (* 1976), Kazakh-Russian ice hockey player
- Gleb Pissarewski (* 1976), weightlifter
- Andrei Teljukin (* 1976), ice hockey player
- Jelena Panowa (* 1977), actress
- Julija Fomenko (* 1979), middle-distance runner
- Dmitri Afanassenkow (* 1980), ice hockey player
- Ivan Perschin (* 1980), judoka
- Yevgeny Lobanov (* 1984), ice hockey goalkeeper
- Konstantin Glasatschow (* 1985), ice hockey player
- Nadeschda Kossinzewa (* 1985), chess master
- Yevgeny Lagunow (* 1985), swimmer
- Andrei Pervyshin (* 1985), ice hockey player
- Tatjana Kossinzewa (* 1986), chess master
- Ivan Podjomow (* 1986), oboist
- Alexander Rumjanzew (* 1986), speed skater
- Alex Gilbert (* 1992), New Zealand attorney
Arkhangelsk in the media
Georges Simenon wrote a novel Le petit homme d'Archangelsk (German The Little Man of Arkhangelsk ).
The novel Aurora (English original title: Archangel ) by Robert Harris is set in part in Arkhangelsk and was filmed in 2005 as The Red Conspiracy with Daniel Craig .
In James Bond 007 - Goldeneye , the opening credits also play in Arkhangelsk. A huge dam is shown as part of a Soviet chemical plant. However, the film was shot in Switzerland, on Lago di Vogorno ; In addition, the real Arkhangelsk is neither in the mountains, nor is there a dam or chemical industry worth mentioning.
The French jazz trumpeter Erik Truffaz named an album released by EMI France in 2007 and the title 7 after the city (Arkhangelsk).
The Swedish metal band Dark Tranquility dedicated a song (Arkhangelsk) to the city on their album We Are the Void .
In the framework of Mary Shelley's book Frankenstein , the adventurer Robert Walton writes a letter to his sister from the Russian port city. He will go on an expedition from Archangel (sk) to explore the North Pole. During this time he will later find the half-frozen Frankenstein in the ice desert, who chases after his creature.
Daniel Defoe lets his protagonist Robinson Crusoe in the novel of the same name, Volume 2, reach “Archangel” during his Asia trip, in order to embark from there via Hamburg to England (last trip, 1704).
The plot of the episode Deceptive Peace (English original title: Star Crossed ; Season 5, Episode 21) of the television series Outer Limits - The Unknown Dimension takes place in the City of Archangel (Arkhangelsk) .
- Rudolph Richter: Attempt of a medical topography of the governorate and port city of Arkhangelsk . Dissertation, Dorpat 1828 ( digitized as PDF )
- ↑ a b c Itogi Vserossijskoj perepisi naselenija 2010 goda. Tom 1. Čislennostʹ i razmeščenie naselenija (Results of the All-Russian Census 2010. Volume 1. Number and distribution of the population). Tables 5 , pp. 12-209; 11 , pp. 312–979 (download from the website of the Federal Service of State Statistics of the Russian Federation); Čislennost 'naselenija po municipal'nym obrazovanijam i naselennym punktam Archangel'skoj oblasti, vključaja Neneckij avtonomnyj okru Itogi Vserossijskoj perepisi naselenija 2010 Goda (population number of municipal structure and places the Arkhangelsk including the Autonomous circles Nenets results of the All-Russian census 2010.) Table (Download from the website of the Federal Service for State Statistics of Arkhangelsk Oblast)
- ↑ Article Severnaya Dvina in the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (BSE) , 3rd edition 1969–1978 (Russian)http: //vorlage_gse.test/1%3D100524~2a%3DSewernaja%20Dwina~2b%3DSewernaja%20Dwina
- ^ Website of the city of Arkhangelsk; Page Passport Goroda ( Passport of the City ) (Russian); Reviewed October 29, 2011.
- ^ Website of the city of Arkhangelsk; Page Klimat ( climate ) (Russian); Reviewed October 29, 2011.
- ↑ Leanora C. Gordon: The Fate of Sir Hugh Willoughby and His Companions: A New Conjecture . In: The Geographical Journal 152 (2), 1986, pp. 243-247.
- ↑ a b Census result of the first all-Russian census of 1897 (Russian); Reviewed October 29, 2011.
- ↑ http://www.cnrs-scrn.org/northern_mariner/vol21/tnm_21_377-405.pdf
- ↑ Maschke, Erich (Ed.): On the history of the German prisoners of war of the Second World War. Verlag Ernst and Werner Gieseking, Bielefeld 1962–1977.
- ^ Official website of the Russian Census of 2002; Residents by nationality and proficiency in Russian. (Russian; MS Excel ; 884 kB); Reviewed October 29, 2011.
- ^ Internet lexicon mojgorod.ru (Russian); Reviewed October 29, 2011.
- ↑ a b Pomorskaja ėnciklopedija: Tom 1 Istorija Archangel'skogo Severa. Pomorskij gosudarstvennyj universitet, Arkhangelsk 2001, ISBN 5-88086-147-3 , p. 42.
- ↑ Совиет Унион. Центральное статистическое управление: Итоги Всесоюзной переписи населения 1959 года , Краус Репринт, 1966, 30.
- ↑ 1959 Soviet census on the Eearth portal of the Institute for Geography ( Memento from November 20, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) of the RAN (Russian); Reviewed October 29, 2011.
- ↑ 1970 Soviet census on the Eearth portal of the Institute for Geography of the RAN ( Memento of November 20, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) (Russian); Reviewed October 29, 2011.
- ↑ Soviet census 1979 on the portal Eearth of the Institute for Geography of the RAN ( Memento of February 10, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) (Russian); Reviewed October 29, 2011.
- ↑ 1989 Soviet Census on Demoscope Weekly ; Institute of Demography of Moscow State University / School of Economics (Russian); Reviewed October 29, 2011.
- ↑ 2002 Russian Census on the Official Census Website (Russian); Reviewed October 29, 2011.
- ↑ a b c d Official website of the city of Arkhangelsk; Page Istorija gerba goroda Archangel'ska ( History of the coat of arms of the city of Arkhangelsk ) (Russian); Reviewed October 29, 2011.
- ↑ a b website geraldika.ru ; Page Položenie O gerbe goroda Archangel'ska ( provision on the coat of arms of the city of Arkhangelsk ) (Russian); Reviewed October 29, 2011.
- ↑ a b c Official website of the city of Arkhangelsk; Page Ustav municipal'nogo obrazovanija “Gorod Archangel'sk” ( The Statute of the Municipal Formation “City of Archangelsk” ) (Russian); Reviewed October 29, 2011.
- ^ Official website of the city of Arkhangelsk; Page Mėr Archangel'ska ( Mayor of Arkhangelsk City ) (Russian); Reviewed October 29, 2011.
- ^ Official website of Primorsk Raion; Page Administrativno-territorial'noe ustrojstvo ( The administrative-territorial structure of Rayon Primorsk ) (Russian); Reviewed October 29, 2011.
- ^ Official website of the city of Arkhangelsk; Page Города-побратимы Архангельска ( Archangelsk Twinning ) (Russian); Reviewed October 29, 2011.
- ^ City of Emden: History of the twinning between Emden and Archangelsk ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 37 kB); checked on August 11, 2012.
- ↑ a b Official website of the Belkomur project; Page BELKOMUR Project History (English); Reviewed October 29, 2011.
- ↑ Official website of the project Belkomur; Project Stages page ; Reviewed October 29, 2011.
- ↑ Official website of the project Belkomur; Page Northern Deepwater Site of Arkhangelsk seaport (English); Reviewed October 29, 2011.
- ↑ a b Vladimir Terletzkij: The north street ends in the dead end , Rus. Business news, February 24, 2011 ; Reviewed October 29, 2011.
- ↑ Sergej Sevruk: "Belkomur" priznan antikrizisnym proektom, Respublika, February 4, 2009 (Russian); Reviewed October 29, 2011.
- ↑ a b Official website of the Russian Northern Railway; Page Istorija Severnoj železnoj dorogi ( History of the Northern Railway ) ( Memento from January 19, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) (Russian); Reviewed October 29, 2011.
- ↑ Irina Skryleva: Železnodorožnoj stancii Archangel'sk-gorod segodnja ispolnjaetsja 40 let ... , Dvina-Inform, January 25, 2005 (Russian); Reviewed October 29, 2011.
- ↑ railway Arkhangelsk - Karpogory on the website of Sergei Bolaschenko (Russian); Reviewed October 29, 2011.
- ↑ Gruzooborot porta Archangel'sk za 2010 god vyros na 38.1% - do 4.5 mln tonn ( The cargo throughput of the port of Arkhangelsk increased by 38.1% to 4.5 million tons in 2010 ), PortNews.ru, 13 January 2011 (Russian); Reviewed October 29, 2011.
- ↑ Official website of the OAO Архангельский морской торговый порт; Composition of cargo handling (Russian); Reviewed October 29, 2011.
- ↑ Official website of the OAO Архангельский морской торговый порт; Side Morskoj vokzal ( sea port ) (Russian); Reviewed October 29, 2011.
- ^ Official website of Talagi Airport; Flight plan ( memento of October 11, 2011 in the Internet Archive ); (Russian); Reviewed October 29, 2011.
- ↑ Official website of the city of Arkhangelsk; Page Perečen 'maršrutov ( list of bus lines ) (Russian); Reviewed October 29, 2011.
- ↑ a b Gennadij Belen'kij: Samyj severnyj v mire tramvaj teper 'uže ne v Archangel'ske , Ėlektrotransport N 3/4 2005 (Russian); Reviewed October 29, 2011.
- ↑ Pomorskaja ėnciklopedija: Tom 1 Istorija Archangel'skogo Severa . Pomorskij gosudarstvennyj universitet, Arkhangelsk 2001, ISBN 5-88086-147-3 , p. 408.
- ↑ Andrej Guleckij: Poslednij tramvaj , Archangel'sk May 13, 2003 (Russian); Reviewed October 29, 2011.
- ↑ Ol'ga Sergeeva: Rogatyj transport chotjat vernut 'v Archangel'sk , Dvina-Inform, March 5, 2010 (Russian); Reviewed October 29, 2011.
- ↑ Konstantin Gorčakov: Perspektivy vozobnovlenija trollejbusnogo dviženija v Archangel'ske obsudili v oblastnom parlamente , June 17, 2010 Message on the official website of the Arkhangelsk Oblast (Russian); Reviewed October 29, 2011.
- Arkhangelsk on mojgorod.ru (Russian)
- White Nights in Arkhangelsk in the Internet newspaper Russland Aktuell (German)
- Interactive city map (Russian)