The November Group was an artists' association founded in Berlin on December 3, 1918 , which mostly had more than 120 members. It was named after the November Revolution of 1918. After the transfer of power to Hitler in 1933, the group of artists had to stop their work. In 1935, its end was sealed with the deletion from the city's register of associations.
History of the artist group
In the first few months, 170 artists joined the newly founded November group: 49 of them came from the editorial team of Herwarth Walden's magazine Sturm . At the beginning, the artist group was joined by Italian futurists , important DADA artists and important Bauhaus members, some of whom belonged to the older Werkbund .
The artists of the Novembergruppe described themselves as radical and revolutionary . Their work, similar to that of the Arbeitsrat für Kunst , to which they were closely related, was intended to support the social revolution in Germany. The main goal of the artists was the union of art and people . In addition, the group tried to influence public cultural tasks.
In 1921, especially artists from the left wing of the November group formulated an appeal against the bourgeoisisation of the artists' association. The appeal was signed by Otto Dix , George Grosz , Raoul Hausmann , John Heartfield , Hannah Höch , Rudolf Schlichter and Georg Scholz and published in the Opponent .
In 1922, the November group's decentralized work with the local groups was given up. The November group was integrated as an important part of the cartel of progressive artist groups in Germany .
A style syncretism , which is often referred to as Kubofuto expressionism , is characteristic of the artists of the November group . The word creation relates to cubism , futurism and expressionism . The November group was known for the diversity of its styles and disciplines, but has also been criticized for this inconsistency and the difficult stylistic classification associated with it.
In addition to the painters, artists from the fields of architecture and music were represented. The music section, led by Max Butting (later replaced by Hans Heinz Stuckenschmidt ) with its workshop work, was one of the most productive forces.
The November group organized regular artist festivals, costume parties, studio visits, literary and musical events.
As the most important means of self-expression, exhibitions were organized regularly. Every year the members of the artist group were represented at the Great Berlin Art Exhibition with their own November group room . In addition, they exhibited together with the artists of their local groups scattered across the republic (Halle artist group, forces, Die Kugel , Gruppe Rih , Üecht , Dresdner Sezession Gruppe 1919 , Das Junge Rheinland , De Stijl ).
The November Group invited major international artists or representatives of artist groups to its exhibitions. In 1919 Marc Chagall , in 1920 Georges Braque , Fernand Léger and Marie Laurencin , 1922 Henryk Berlewi and 1923 El Lissitzky (with his legendary Proun room) were represented in the November Group department at the Great Berlin Art Exhibition. Also in 1923 Iwan Puni and László Péri were among the exhibitors.
One of the most important international exhibition collaborations was the collaboration with the Italian Futurists in Rome in 1920, which was arranged by Filippo Tommaso Marinetti and the November group member Enrico Prampolini .
In 1925, a closed group of Prague architects took part in the November Group exhibition at the Great Berlin Art Exhibition. In 1926 more than 30 architects from the November group took part in the Berlin architecture exhibition. The Kasimir Malewitsch Show in 1927, organized by the November Group, was one of the highlights of its exhibition history.
Women in the November group
As in other revolutionary artists' associations, there were only a few women on the November Group membership list. Of the 49 founding members from the Sturm circle, Hilla Rebay was only one woman, although a large number of women were active in the Sturm area . It was different with exhibitions of the November group. Several women in art took part here , in addition to Hannah Höch and Marie Laurencin, for example, Emy Roeder and Emmy Klinker .
The November Group was called the Red November Group by the National Socialists . Because of their commitment to abstraction and atonality , its members were insulted as Bolsheviks . In 1933, in the early days of National Socialism , the November group had to stop its work. According to Oskar Schlemmer , the artist group began to disband as early as 1932.
The initiators of the establishment were mainly the painters Max Pechstein and César Klein , as well as Georg Tappert , Moriz Melzer and Heinrich Richter-Berlin , who had been active in the New Secession in Berlin, which was dissolved in 1914 . At the first meeting on December 3, 1918, at which the foundation was sealed, also took part: the painters Karl Jakob Hirsch, Bernhard Hasler , Richard Janthur, Rudolf Bauer (artist) , Bruno Krauskopf, Otto Freundlich , Wilhelm Schmid , the sculptor Rudolf Belling and the architect Erich Mendelsohn . The first working committees of the November Group were formed in this way.
An exact determination of the members is almost impossible due to fluctuation and the lack of documents. A list with the membership of the November Group was printed in the 1925 catalog. A second list of members from 1930 was drawn up by the November Group manager Hugo Graetz. The mostly more than 120 members included architects, painters, musicians and art theorists. They included: Jankel Adler , Lou Albert-Lasard , Peter Alma, Fred Antoine Angermayer, George Antheil , Hans Arp , Rudolf Ausleger , Willi Baumeister , Herbert Behrens-Hangeler , Rudolf Belling , Róbert Berény , Henryk Berlewi , Xenia Boguslawskaja , Hans Brass , Nikolaus Braun, Marcel Breuer , Max Butting , Heinrich Campendonk , Franciska Clausen , Heinrich Maria Davringhausen , Walter Dexel , Otto Dix , Carl Döbel , Kinner von Dressler, Friedrich Peter Drömmer , Max Dungert , Josef Eberz , Heinrich Ehmsen , Hanns Eisler , Conrad Felixmüller , Lyonel Feininger , Oskar Fischer , Fred Forbát , Peter Foerster , Hans Freese , Otto Freundlich , Theodor Fried, Ernst Fritsch , Heinz Fuchs , Alfred Gellhorn , Paul Goesch , Arthur Goetz , Gottfried Graf , Otto Griebel , George Grosz , Paul Grunwaldt , Bernhard Hasler , Emil van Hauth , Erwin Hahs , Gustav Havemann , John Heartfield , Wilhelm Heckrott , Hans-Siebert von Heister, Wieland Herzfelde , Oswald Herzog, Karl Jakob Hirsch , Leon Hi rsch , Hannah Höch , Lothar Homeyer , Jascha Horenstein , Johannes Itten , Philipp Jarnach , Alexej Jawlensky , Walter Kampmann , Wassily Kandinsky , Bernhard Klein, César Klein , Fritz Klein, Issai Kulvianski, Otto Lange , El Lissitzky , Alfred Lomnitz , Thilo Maatsch , Hans Mattis-Teutsch , MH Maxy , László Moholy-Nagy , Ewald Mataré , Ludwig Meidner , Moriz Melzer , Carlo Mense , Ludwig Mies van der Rohe , Otto Möller , Rudolf Möller , Johannes Molzahn , Georg Muche , Albert Mueller , Otto Nagel , Jacobus Johannes Pieter Oud , László Péri , Felix Petyrek , Enrico Prampolini , Iwan Puni , Anne Ratkowski, Franz Radziwill , Hilla von Rebay , Heinrich Richter-Berlin, Joachim Ringelnatz , Christian Rohlfs , Elisabeth Ronget, Kurt Hermann Rosenberg, Walter Ruttmann , Hermann Scherchen , Rudolf Schlichter , Wilhelm Schmid , Paul Schmolling , Georg Schrimpf , Kurt Schwerdtfeger , Arthur Segal , Lasar Segall , Walter Spies , Mart Stam , Heinrich Stegemann , Fritz Stuckenberg , Hans Heinz Stu ckenschmidt , Georg Tappert , Bruno Taut , Heinz Tiessen , Niko Wassiliew, Kurt Weill , Ines Wetzel , Gustav Wiethüchter , Carel Willink , Gert Wollheim , Stefan Wolpe , Wladimir Rudolfowitsch Vogel and Karl Völker .
- Call to all artists. 47 p. Berlin 1919. Contributions by Johannes R. Becher, Kurt Eisner, Konrad Haenisch, Walter Hasenclever, Bernhard Kellermann , Ludwig Meidner, Max Pechstein and Paul Zech. Various picture additions. Envelope Max Pechstein.
- The artificial pot. Monthly. 1st edition. July 1920. Only 6 issues appeared. 6th issue December 1920.
- Paul Bekker : essential forms of music. Publication of the November group. B. Lachmann, Berlin 1925.
- Will Grohmann (Ed.): 10 years Novembergruppe. Special issue of the art of time. Klinkhardt & Biermann, Berlin March 1928, 1–3.
- Hans Heinz Stuckenschmidt : Music and musicians in the November group. In: 10 years Novembergruppe. 1928, pp. 94-101. (Reprinted in: Werner Grünzweig , Christiane Niklew (Hrsg.): Hans Heinz Stuckenschmidt: The German in the Concert Hall . (= Archives for the music of the 20th century. Volume 10). Wolke Verlag, Hofheim 2010, ISBN 978-3-936000- 27-6 , pp. 52-56)
- Max Butting : Music history that I witnessed. Henschel, Berlin 1955.
- Helga Kliemann: The November Group . Gebr. Mann, Berlin 1969.
- The November Group (Part 1. The Painters). Cat. Of the 15th European Art Exhibition Berlin 1977, September 15 - November 15, 1977 in the Wedding Town Hall, Berlin.
- Galerie Nierendorf : Artists of the November group. Exhibition catalog. Galerie Nierendorf, Berlin 1985.
- Galerie Bodo Niemann: The November Group. Exhibition catalog. Galerie Niemann, Berlin 1993, ISBN 3-926298-21-9 .
- Christoph Wilhelmi: Artist groups in Germany, Austria and Switzerland since 1900. A manual. Stuttgart 1996.
- Nils Grosch: Between Expressionism and the Public - The Composers of the November Group. In: The music of the New Objectivity. Metzler, Stuttgart 1999, pp. 21-99.
- Participation of artists and architects in exhibitions of the November group 1919–1932 . Berlinische Galerie - Museum of Modern Art (as of October 29, 2019).
- Helga Kliemann: The November group. Gebr. Mann, Berlin 1969.
- Christoph Wilhelmi: Artist groups in Germany, Austria and Switzerland since 1900. A manual. Stuttgart 1996, pp. 274-284.
- Helga Kliemann: The November group. Gebr. Mann, Berlin 1969, pp. 22-24.
- Ingrid Pfeiffer: Storm women. In: Max Hollein (ed.): Sturm-Frauen. Schirn Kunsthalle Frankfurt, Cologne 2015, p. 20.
- Wolfgang Willrich: The cleaning of the art temple, Munich 1938.
- Lexicon of Art. Volume V: Mosb-Q. EA Seemann Verlag, Leipzig 2004, p. 224.
- Helga Kliemann: The November group. Gebr. Mann, Berlin 1969, pp. 50-51.