First World War in East Africa

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
War in East Africa
Part of: First World War
March of the main part of the Schutztruppe from April 1916 to the armistice in November 1918
March of the main part of the Schutztruppe from April 1916 to the armistice in November 1918
date August 3, 1914 to November 25, 1918
place Burundi , Kenya , Mozambique , Rwanda , Zambia , Tanzania
output Transfer of the protection force to Germany
consequences End of German colonial rule
Peace treaty Versailles Peace Treaty
Parties to the conflict

United Kingdom 1801United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland United Kingdom

BelgiumBelgium Belgium

PortugalPortugal Portugal

German EmpireThe German Imperium The German Imperium


Jan Christiaan Smuts
Jacob van Deventer
Charles Tombeur

Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck

Troop strength
250,000 15,500

approx. 10,000
(plus at least 100,000 carriers)

approx. 2,000
(plus approx. 6,000–7,000 carriers)

The fighting in East Africa during World War I continued for the entire duration of the war. These battles were mainly fought on the soil of what was then the colony of German East Africa , but also in British Kenya , Portuguese Mozambique and other neighboring countries.

On the one hand the German protection force and on the other hand allied forces of the British Empire as well as Portugal and Belgium faced each other. The majority of those involved on both sides were Africans who fought as colonial soldiers under the orders of European officers or were used as carriers for supplies. A large number of white South Africans and soldiers from the British-Indian Army were also temporarily deployed.

initial situation

The armed forces in East Africa were poorly developed on all sides when the war began. The agreements of the Congo Conference as international law provided for the neutrality of the colonial areas in the event of war. The purpose of the colonial armies was to secure rule over the subject population, not to wage war against other colonial armies.

At the beginning of the war there was a Schutztruppe in German East Africa with around 2,500 local askaris and 200 white officers and non-commissioned officers who were distributed in 14 field companies across the country. In addition, there was a police force with 2,100 askaris and 45 white police officers. The armament was light - three companies had modern K98 carbines , the remaining 11 companies were equipped with outdated Mauser rifles . All companies were armed with machine guns and the artillery consisted of a few field guns .

The British essentially had the battalions of the King's African Rifles with 2,300 Africans and 70 British officers, which were distributed in Kenya, Uganda, Zanzibar and Nyassland .

The Force Publique in the Belgian Congo counted around 16,000 Askaris, but was mainly stationed as police over the entire huge area.

Portugal and its colony Mozambique were neutral until 1916.

At the beginning of the war, naval forces also played an independent role. The British were able to fall back on a group of cruisers stationed in South Africa, which was moved to East Africa before the start of the war. On the German side there was the small cruiser SMS Königsberg stationed in Dar es Salaam and the lightly armed survey ship SMS Möwe .

During the war, the European warring parties relied on local auxiliary troops ( rugaruga ) and up to 1,000,000 African porters. Rugaruga were different z. B. the Askaris , not part of the regular colonial armies such as the protection force for German East Africa. Their armament generally consisted of older rifles, sometimes just spears and bows and arrows. They wore uniform parts or only colored ribbons and patches to identify them.

Course of war

August 1914 to March 1916 - beginning of the war up to the Allied offensive

Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck (left) and Heinrich Schnee

On August 2, 1914, the governor Heinrich Schnee received the news of the German mobilization in Europe. The Congo Acts passed by the colonial powers in Berlin in 1884 obliged the warring parties to remain neutral in Africa in the event of a European conflict. But the War Office in London feared that German-East African ports could be used by the Imperial Navy as bases to hunt British cargo and supply ships in the Indian Ocean. Schnee tried to keep the colony out of the war and declared the coastal towns to be "open cities". However, the commander of the protection force, Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck , planned to make his own contribution to the warfare with the protection force and to tie as many British forces as possible to the East African arena by attacking the Uganda railway . At first he followed the governor's orders and withdrew his troops from the city.

German soldiers with field gun in German East Africa, 1914

The acts of war themselves were eventually started by the warships on both sides. The cruiser Königsberg received orders in July to attack British merchant ships in the Indian Ocean in the event of war. The Königsberg left the port of Dar es Salaam on July 31, 1914 and was able to shake off the older and slower British cruisers that had already taken position here to guard them. After the British declaration of war (August 5th), the Königsberg sank the British steamer City of Winchester off the coast of Oman on August 6th . On the night of August 5th to 6th, the Dar es Salaam floating dock was sunk by the German governorate to block the port. On August 8, the British cruiser HMS Pegasus appeared off Dar es Salaam and took fire on the radio mast, whereupon the governor raised the white flag and took a train to Morogoro . When Lettow-Vorbeck and his soldiers returned to Dar es Salaam that same day in the absence of the governor, all he saw was the British ships going out to sea.

In the following months, the fighting was limited to smaller skirmishes, as the troop strengths were low on all sides. Initial fighting took place against British units along the Kenyan border and against Belgian troops on the Congolese border. There were individual forays by the German side to the areas of Northern Rhodesia, initially only held by British police forces, but which did not lead to an occupation. Against the British Kenya, the goal of patrols was again and again the interruption of the Uganda railway, which runs parallel to the border from the supply port Mombasa to Nairobi .

German customs cruiser Kingani with gun
raft on Lake Tanganyika

The Schutztruppe deployed armed ships on Lake Victoria and Lake Tanganyika in August, initially paralyzing British and Belgian shipping. Their advance on the important station and port of Kisumu was repulsed by the British at Kisii . Boats brought in quickly across the Indian Ocean were transported by train to Kisumu and soon switched off the German boats on Lake Victoria. On Lake Tanganyika, on the other hand, the protection force created a small war fleet with the help of two cargo steamers and the marines from the SMS Möwe , which held supremacy on the lake until 1916. With the arrival of the speedboats Mimi and Toutou , which were transported overland from Cape Town, the tide turned in favor of the British and Belgians.

On August 15, the protection force occupied the border town of Taveta in British East Africa against little resistance . In September the Königsberg returned to the colony, on September 14th sank the Pegasus , which was lying in Zanzibar for repairs, and then hid in the delta of the Rufiji River , for which the British had no cards, for a machine repair . The Royal Navy initiated the occupation of the Mafia Island and a sea blockade of the delta.

Battle of Tanga, painting by Martin Frost
The small cruiser Königsberg off the coast of German East Africa

On the British side, the occupation of Taveta led to the decision to bring 4,000 Indian soldiers to Mombasa, who arrived in September. In October another 8,000 men were embarked from India to join forces to break up Lettow-Vorbeck's units. The landing at Tanga on November 2, 1914 was a disaster for the British side. Lettow-Vorbeck had learned of the landing through spies and in the battle of Tanga it was possible to force the poorly managed British-Indian troops to retreat to their ships. The next day, November 3, the other part of the British offensive was repulsed at Longido on the Kilimanjaro massif . Another British defeat followed the surrender of Indian units in the battle for Jassini , who had occupied the border town of Jassini directly on the coast and were attacked by Lettow-Vorbeck with strong forces before they could receive reinforcements.

The British achieved minor successes with the capture of Bukoba on June 21, 1915. It also succeeded in gaining supremacy on Lake Victoria after armed motorboats had been brought by train to Port Florence (today: Kisumu ).

Airplane of the protection force (after the conversion)

The only aircraft on the German side was a petrol Double Decker Company Palatinate with pusher propeller . The pilot Bruno Büchner and his airplane arrived in German East Africa on August 5, 1914. The machine was immediately requisitioned by the Schutztruppe. Büchner and his fitter reported for duty. A makeshift airfield was built near the Dar es Salaam radio tower . Büchner was shot at and injured by enemy gunboats during a reconnaissance flight to Zanzibar. He managed an emergency landing on the beach near Dar es Salaam. After the aircraft had been repaired, Lieutenant Ernst Ludwig Henneberger was supposed to fly the machine in order to take it off to the combat area on Kilimanjaro . But he had a fatal accident during a test flight on November 15, 1914. The plane was then reassembled again in a forge near Dar es Salaam, this time as a seaplane with floats. It still completed flights on the Rufiji Delta. Due to a lack of petrol, the engine was removed shortly afterwards. For a short time it served as a drive for a rail trolley on the Dar es Salaam-Morogoro route.

On July 11, 1915, after using around 20 ship units, aircraft and monitors suitable for shallow waters, the British Navy managed to seriously damage the Königsberg, which is enclosed in the Rufiji Delta . Your crew blew up the ship and joined the protection force. She brought her 10.5 cm naval guns with her, which were placed on mounts and helped the German side with the heaviest artillery of the East African campaign.

Blockade breakers A ( Rubens ) and 15 ( Marie ), who brought urgently needed material, above all ammunition, to the beleaguered protection force also brought some relief on the German side . The Rubens , a 6000 GRT cargo ship, set sail from Wilhelmshaven on February 18, 1915. The command led Oberleutnant Carl F. Christiansen. The ship reached German East Africa in April 1915, but was so badly damaged near the coast by the British cruiser Hyacinth that it was aground in the Mansa Bay near Tanga and finally went up in flames. However, a large part of the cargo could be recovered and the wet ammunition could be used by the protection force after laborious drying. A second attempt to strengthen the protection force at sea was made in March 1916 with the auxiliary ship Marie , which led Lieutenant Conrad Sörensen to sea. The ship reached the Sudi Bay in the south of German East Africa undamaged . The cargo could be unloaded and the ship could set sail again for Southeast Asia.

Until 1916, the protection force was able to hold the territory of German East Africa for the most part, as the British had decided to bring together larger associations after the debacle at Tanga. The Belgians in the Congo also needed time to build up military units from the scattered police forces in their Force Publique. After the German declaration of war on March 9, 1916, Portugal increased its troops in Portuguese East Africa and agreed to participate in the upcoming Allied offensive.

March to September 1916 - Allied Offensive

With the intervention of a large armed force under South African leadership in January 1916, the withdrawal of the German units began.

  • The united British-Indian-South African forces advanced from Kenya.
  • A column under General Edward Northey with 5,000 African, British and South African soldiers penetrated from the British Nyassaland into the south-west of the colony.
  • The Belgian troops moved into Rwanda and Burundi from the Congo and then advanced along the railway towards Tabora .
  • The Portuguese initially successfully occupied the Kionga triangle on the coast. Their ongoing attack on the south was repulsed with losses in 1916 and the occupation of the Makonde plateau in 1917 also ended in defeat.

The allied armed forces were numerically far superior, they were able to lead a total of 100,000 soldiers into the field, to which there were many times more non-combatants. Lettow-Vorbeck had prepared himself well for this situation and entangled the numerically superior enemy in a mixture of movement and partisan warfare ( hit and run ). The advance of the Allied side could not be stopped, but the mobility of the German troops enabled them to inflict losses on the enemy and mostly to withdraw in time. The Allied troops suffered more losses than fighting from tropical diseases, which killed thousands. The German side was much less affected here, as the majority of their fighters were Africans who were used to the climate and immune to many diseases. On the Allied side, they were mainly confronted by South African and Indian soldiers who were neither used to climate nor disease.

In August 1916, the Allied forces took most of the important places in the colony except Dar es Salaam. Moshi on Kilimanjaro had already fallen in March. From Kigoma via Tabora, Dodoma to Morogoro , the Mittellandbahn was under the control of the Allies. Dar es Salaam was not occupied until September, as the British suspected forces here that Lettow-Vorbeck had long since moved. The protection force withdrew to the area south of the Dar es Salaam-Morogoro- Iringa line .

September 1916 to November 1917 - Bush War in the south

The advance of the Allies gradually pushed the protection force back to the impassable southeast of the colony. The decisive factor was a change in British strategy . Initially, they relied exclusively on Indian, British and South African troops . Africans were underestimated and only used as porters, admittedly in very large numbers, since the European soldiers and, to a lesser extent, the Indian soldiers were granted extensive luggage. From the beginning, the protection force consisted for the most part of Africans who were used to the climate and did not need personal porters, although many of them brought women and children with them. It was not until 1916 that the expansion of African units such as the King's African Rifles from Kenya and Uganda began, which had previously been used to protect the railway line in Kenya. In 1917 half of the British troops consisted of Africans, who made a more difficult opponent for Lettow-Vorbeck than the white and Indian units with their huge entourage .

The losses of the protection force increased. A large association under Captain Tafel with 2000 soldiers had to surrender in October 1917. An association under the command of Max Wintgens broke away from Lettow-Vorbeck's main body in February 1917 and began autonomous guerrilla operations in the west and north of the German colony. The remnants of this association capitulated on October 1, 1917 near Luitaberg, southeast of Kondoa . The remaining forces of Lettow-Vorbeck were increasingly crowded near the Mozambican border. The last radio of the protection force was destroyed, so that there was no longer any communication with Germany. A big problem was the sufficient supply of quinine for the troops fighting under tropical conditions. This essential substance for the prophylaxis and therapy of malaria was only available as the foul-tasting quinine brew ("Lettow schnapps") towards the end of the war.

In November 1917 there was another attempt to supply the protection force with supplies from Bulgaria using the airship LZ 104 / L 59 . After listening to British reports about the withdrawal of the protection force in Germany, the decision was made to terminate the operation as there were no longer any safe landing areas in East Africa. LZ 104 turned back over Sudan and only set a long-distance record (6757 kilometers in 95 hours) for early aviation.

Transition to Mozambique until the end of the war

The breakthrough of the German East Africa protection force over the Rowuma at the end of November 1917. Illustration by Carl Arriens . In fact, there was no combat activity when the German troops crossed the river.

From April to September 1917 a division of the German protection force operated under the command of Major von Stuemer in Niassaland in Portuguese East Africa.

In November 1917, Lettow-Vorbeck made the decision to cross the border river Rovuma with 280 German and 1,600 African soldiers and a train of 5,000 porters and women and go to Portuguese East Africa , leaving the wounded and incapacitated . On November 25, he defeated Portuguese troops in the Battle of Ngomano and secured the passage across the border river.

His calculation worked insofar as the British forces had difficulties in tracking him down in the impassable northern Mozambique and the Portuguese colonial troops were not a strong opponent. In northern Mozambique, Lettow-Vorbeck's troops were able to take several bases and depots, from which he was able to replenish food, weapons and ammunition, which however remained scarce. The British moved their regional headquarters to Porto Amelia (today: Pemba ) and went in search of the protection force.

For the next few months the protection force moved around in search of food and to avoid major fighting. It came close to Quelimane . There he received news that strong British associations were being brought together in the area. Lettow-Vorbeck decided to move north again. Constantly pursued by British units, which were never able to confront him, the Schutztruppe crossed the Rovuma again on September 28 and returned to the area of ​​German East Africa.

The protection force surrenders its weapons in Abercorn (contemporary drawing)

Along Lake Nyassa via Songea and Mbozi , the troops moved to Northern Rhodesia , which, according to Lettow-Vorbeck, was largely free of British troops, who suspected that he would remain in the German colony. In Northern Rhodesia, the Schutztruppe intercepted a British motorcyclist on November 13, 1918 , who was supposed to convey the news of the armistice in Compiègne to a troop leader . Lettow-Vorbeck, who immediately contacted the British side, was deliberately misinformed by her about Article 17 of the armistice relating to Africa. He stipulated that his troops were to be transferred to Germany. This was one of the few concessions made to the German side in Compiègne. On site, Lettow-Vorbeck was informed that he had to hand over the protection force to the Allies unconditionally. When Lettow-Vorbeck protested, later knowing the truth, he was only able to get the militarily undefeated German soldiers back on board the transport ships after their internment , which they had deposited on November 25, 1918 in Abercorn south of Lake Tanganyika . From January 17, the transfer of the protection force and 216 civilians to Germany began from Dar es Salaam on ships of the neutral Netherlands . There, Lettow-Vorbeck, Schnee and their people were celebrated as heroes as they entered the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin on March 2, 1919.

The human cost of war

The Allies had deployed 210,000–240,000 soldiers, half of them Africans. The British lost 3,443 dead and 6,558 deaths due to illness. The Belgian casualties were 683 and 1,300 deaths from illness. On the Portuguese side, Europeans and an unknown number of Africans died in 1734. The Schutztruppe lost 734 Europeans and 1,798 Africans. A German list from 1932 names 732 dead.

Losses of British troops according to the statistics of the Military Effort of the British Empire:

Force Like died of injury died of illness Total deaths wounded missing TOTAL LOSSES
British 247 102 911 1,260 689 188 2,067
Colonials 96 22nd 104 222 271 16 509
South African 319 145 1,210 1,674 1,071 110 2,855
Indian natives 1,000 137 952 2,089 1,781 534 4,404
African natives 1,029 348 2,923 4,300 4,035 456 8,791
Sum of soldiers 2,691 754 6,100 9,545 7,777 1,304 18,626

Of the missing, 467 were reported as German prisoners. Of these, 33 soldiers died in German custody. Africans have not been reported as prisoners. What this means is unclear.

Followers Fallen / died of injury died of illness Total deaths wounded missing TOTAL LOSSES
Indian natives 10 276 286 11 13 310
African natives 366 41,952 42,318 1,322 622 44,262
Total followers 376 42,228 42,604 1,333 635 44,572

Losses of the German protection force according to the information in the Statistical Yearbook of the German Reich 1922:

dead wounded total
white 745 892 1,637
Colored ones approx. 13,400 ? > 13,400
total approx 14,145 > 892 > 15.037

During the First World War, these military losses were manageable, as the first day of the Battle of the Somme in 1916 alone cost 20,000 British soldiers their lives. Far more serious were the consequences of the war on the African civilian population, who suffered much higher losses of human life. With a population of 7.6 million, the African population of German East Africa suffered hundreds of thousands of deaths.

The porters came from the villages and were used by all warring parties for supplies and material transport in the poor country. The British Colonial Office estimated that a total of around 750,000 carriers were in use on the Allied side, including 100,000–200,000 on the German side. In 1917 the British Commander-in-Chief counted 125,000 porters, 80,000 of them from DOA. The British Carrier Corps had a total of 400,000 "official" carriers on duty, half each from Kenya and half from DOA (these numbers are obtained by adding up the carriers committed during the war). In addition, there were large numbers of locally obliged carriers. General Northey deployed around 200,000 carriers for the supply of his Nyasa-Rhodesia Field Force, which operates from the British Nyassaland . The Belgian Force Publique had signed 260,000 porters. Together with the porters of the Germans (at the top approx. 45,000 including auxiliary workers) it is estimated that around one million porters were used during the war. At the beginning of the campaign, they were recruited and conscripted, later they were forced into the transport service under threat of violence. Hunger, disease and the rigors of their forced labor cost the lives of 100,000-300,000 porters on all sides. The porters were also the younger men, whose labor was then lacking in the fields. The trains of the fighting armies ravaged the country since 1916, food and cattle were requisitioned. The protection force often burned the fields behind them so as not to leave any supplies behind for the advancing enemy.

When the Schutztruppe crossed the Rovuma in November 1917, they left a great famine in the south of the colony. In 1918 the consequences of the devastation, along with a period of drought, became catastrophic. There is no overview of how many people starved to death in East Africa at that time. A population loss of 20% was reported in the Dodoma district for 1917/1918. It is estimated that the war cost the colony around 650,000 lives, almost a tenth of the population at the time. From 1918 the international epidemic of the Spanish flu spread among the weakened population and claimed another 50,000–80,000 victims.

Ultimately, the costs of the European war had to be borne by the Africans.

See also


  • Thomas A. Crowson: When elephants clash. A critical analysis of Major General Paul Emil von Lettow-Vorbeck in the East African Theater of the Great War . (Fort Leavenworth, Kan., Faculty of the US Army Command and General Staff College, Master's thesis, 2003). Washington, DC: Storming Media, 2003. NTIS, Springfield, Va. 2003. ( Microfiche PDF edition )
  • Byron Farwell: The Great War in Africa, 1914-1918 , WW Norton & Company, 1989, ISBN 0-393-30564-3 .
  • Edwin Palmer Hoyt: Guerilla: Colonel Von Lettow-Vorbeck and Germany's East African Empire . New York: Macmillan, ca.1981 . ISBN 0-02-555210-4 .
  • Isabel V. Hull : Absolute Destruction: Military Culture And the Practices of War in Imperial Germany. Cornell University Press, 2006, ISBN 978-0-8014-7293-0 .
  • Charles Miller: Battle for the Bundu: The First World War in German East Africa . London: Macdonald & Jane's, 1974
  • Thomas Morlang: Askari and Fitafita "colored" mercenaries in the German colonies. Chr. Link Verlag, 2008, ISBN 978-3-86153-476-1 .
  • Leonard Mosley: Duel for Kilimanjaro. An Account of the East African Campaign, 1914-1918 , Ballantine Books, New York 1964
  • Edward Paice: "Tip and Run". The untold tragedy of the Great War in Africa . London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2007. ISBN 978-0-297-84709-0 ; ISBN 0-297-84709-0 .
  • Michael Pesek: The end of a colonial empire. East Africa during the First World War . Campus, Frankfurt a. M./New York 2010, ISBN 978-3-593-39184-7 .
  • Uwe Schulte-Varendorff: Colonial hero for emperors and leaders. General Lettow-Vorbeck - Myth and Reality. Berlin: Ch. Links Verlag, 2006. ISBN 3-86153-412-6 .
  • Hew Strachan: The First World War in Africa . Oxford University Press, 2004, ISBN 0-19-925728-0 .
  • John C. Stratis: A Case Study in Leadership. Colonel Paul Emil von Lettow-Vorbeck . Springfield, Va .: NTIS, 2002. Microfiche Edition
  • Ludwig Boell: The operations in East Africa , Hamburg (private print) 1951.
  • Ross Anderson: The Forgotten Front: The East African Campaign 1914-1918 . History Press, 2014, ISBN 978-0-7509-5836-3 .
  • J. Roger Sibley: Tanganyika guerilla: East African Campaign 1914-18 . Ballantine Book, 1971.

Web links

Commons : First World War in East Africa  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Crowson: p. 2.
  2. ^ John Iliffe: A Modern History of Tanganyika. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1969; digitally printed version 2008 ISBN 978-0-521-10052-6 (paperback), p. 246
  3. Michael Pesek: The end of a colonial empire . Frankfurt a. M./New York 2010, ISBN 978-3-593-39184-7 , p. 184.
  4. Michael Pesek: The end of a colonial empire . Frankfurt a. M./New York 2010, ISBN 978-3-593-39184-7 , p. 123.
  5. ^ Karl Weule: Rugaruga , in: Heinrich Schnee (Ed.); German Colonial Lexicon . Volume III, Berlin: Quelle & Meyer, 1920, p. 192.
  6. Reinhard K. Lochner: Battle in the Rufiji Delta - The end of the small cruiser "Königsberg". The German Navy and Schutztruppe in East Africa during World War I. Heyne Verlag, Munich 1987, ISBN 3-453-02420-6 , p. 72.
  7. Detailed description of the British occupation action (English)
  8. ^ Karl-Dieter Seifert: German aviators over the colonies . Zweibrücken: VDM, 2007, p. 101 ff. ISBN 978-3-86619-019-1
  9. Otto Mielke: crawl to East Africa: "SM 'Speerbrecher A'". (SOS Fates of German Ships, No. 56) Moewig, Munich, 1955.
  10. Peter Eckart: Blockade breaker "Marie". Captain Sörensen's adventure trips during the World War. Ullstein, Berlin, 1937.
  11. Michael Pesek: The end of a colonial empire . Frankfurt a. M./New York 2010, ISBN 978-3-593-39184-7 , pp. 98ff.
  12. ^ Wolfgang U. Eckart : Medicine and War. Germany 1914–1924, Chapter 5.2 Medicine and Colonial War: China, Pacific, Africa, Schöningh Paderborn 2014, pp. 326 + 327.
  13. detailed description in "Some aspects of the Africa voyage of the naval airship L 59" by Dr. Karl-Wilhelm Schäfer (PDF file, 13 pages, 99 kB)
  14. ^ Heinrich Schnee : German East Africa in the World Wars . Verlag Quelle & Meyer, Leipzig 1920, pages 388–389
  15. ↑ On this and the following: Robert Gerwarth : The greatest of all revolutions: November 1918 and the dawn of a new era . Siedler, Munich 2018, ISBN 978-3-8275-0036-6 , pp. 170–177.
  16. ^ John Iliffe : A Modern History of Tanganyika . London 1979, ISBN 0-521-29611-0 , p. 246. (Title on Google Book Search)
  17. Bremen, Kolonial-Ehrenmal, memorial book, part of German East Africa (at, accessed November 18, 2017)
  18. ^ The War Office: Statistics of the Military Effort of the British Empire during the Great War, London 1922, p. 302 f.
  19. ^ The War Office: Statistics of the Military Effort of the British Empire during the Great War, London 1922, p. 329 f.
  20. Statistical Yearbook of the German Empire 1922 p. 25
  21. ^ John Iliffe: A Modern History of Tanganyika . London 1979, ISBN 0-521-29611-0 , p. 249.
  22. ^ Estimate John Iliffe: A Modern History of Tanganyika . London 1979, ISBN 0-521-29611-0 , p. 250
  23. Oliver Janz: 14 - The great war. Campus-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 2013, ISBN 978-3-593-39589-0 , p. 165.
  24. ^ John Iliffe: A Modern History of Tanganyika . London 1979, ISBN 0-521-29611-0 , pp. 269f.