Parliament of the Reichsland Alsace-Lorraine

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Parliament of the Reichsland Alsace-Lorraine
Country flag State coat of arms
flag State coat of arms
Basic data
Seat: Strasbourg
Elective system : Majority vote
Number of votes
( Federal Council ):
Calculation method: ./.
Number of constituencies : 60
Eligible voters : 378.036
Legislative period : 3 years
First session:

The Landtag of the Reichsland Alsace-Lorraine was the state parliament and thus the legislature of the Reichsland Alsace-Lorraine in the German Empire .

State Committee

Meeting building of the state committee

After the Franco-Prussian War , Alsace-Lorraine was directly assigned to the Reich as a state and had no statehood of its own. It was not until an imperial decree of October 29, 1874 that a representative body of the Reich was established, the state committee.

The members of the state committee were not elected by the people, but appointed by the district assembly . The three district days for Lorraine , Upper Alsace and Lower Alsace each determined ten members.

In 1879 the state committee was expanded. The now 58 members were elected indirectly by the district assemblies (Lothringen 11, Oberelsass 10, Unterelsass 13), the independent cities (1 member each from Strasbourg , Mulhouse , Metz and Colmar ) and the counties (20 members).

The state committee initially only had an advisory role. In 1877 the state committee received a legislative function and budgetary law. From 1879, the state committee received a legislative initiative right. However, its decisions required the approval of the Federal Council.

Legal basis and structure

With the constitution of the realm of Alsace-Lorraine on May 31, 1911, the state committee was replaced by a directly elected state parliament.

A meeting of the Provincial Committee for Alsace-Lorraine
Seal mark Bureau des Landtag for Alsace-Lorraine

First chamber

The introduction of a first chamber was criticized across parties in the Reichsland. While the first chambers in the other parts of the empire had historical reasons, there was no aristocratic class to be included in the empire through a first chamber. So the First Chamber was a pure dignitaries parliament . The emperor's appointment rights were particularly criticized.

The first chamber consisted of:

as well as other members who were appointed by the emperor on the proposal of the Federal Council.

The first chamber elected its presidium at its session on November 22, 1911.

Second chamber

The second chamber consisted of 60 MPs who were elected on the principle of majority voting in 60 constituencies for a term of three years. In contrast to the first chamber, which consisted of dignitaries, it was also called the “People's Parliament”. The minimum age for eligibility was 25 years. Citizens aged 25 and over had the right to vote. The modalities for the constituency boundaries were regulated by an ordinance of July 3, 1911.

State election 1911

The first and only state elections for the 2nd Chamber took place on October 22, 1911 (on October 29, 1911 a single seat was determined in a by-election).

Voting behavior was very much determined by nationality. In Lorraine, the eight constituencies west of the language border fell to the French-speaking Lorraine Bloc with large majorities. The German parties renounced candidacies here. The exception was the SPD, which was only a splinter party here. On the German-speaking side, most of the mandates went to the Center (8 mandates) and the Liberals (4 mandates). Also to compensate for the fact that the German candidates in the French-speaking parts of the country did not have the opportunity to get into parliament due to the majority vote, there are two members of this population group appointed by the emperor among the members of the first chamber with Albert Grégoire and Johann Josef Rech.

State election 1911
Political party Voting share in% Seats
Alsace-Lorraine Center Party 31.0% 24 seats
SPD Alsace-Lorraine 23.8% 11 seats
Alsace-Lorraine 16.3% 10 seats
Liberal Democrats 15.9% 7 seats
Independent - Liberal 6.9% 5 seats
Independent - center 1.4% 1 seat
Independently progressive 1.1% 1 seat
Various rights 0.8% 1 seat

(To 100% missing votes = nominations not represented in the state parliament)

Explanations of the parties and electoral lists:

  • ELZ: Alsace-Lorraine Center Party
  • Independent - Liberal: Independent candidates supported by the Liberal Democrats
  • Independent Center: Independent candidates supported by the Center
  • Independent progressive: independent candidates close to the SPD
  • Various rights: independent candidates close to the ELZ
  • Alsace-Lorraine: Various francophone parties (mainly from Lorraine)

List of members of the Second Chamber

List of the members of the Diet of Alsace-Lorraine
image Surname Political party district Constituency Constituency number annotation
Joseph Heinrich, 1911.JPG Joseph Heinrich center Upper Alsace Constituency Pfirt Hirsingen
( Canton Pfirt and Canton Hirsingen )
Eugen Ricklin, 1911.JPG Eugene Ricklin center Upper Alsace Constituency Altkirch-Dammerkirch
( Canton Dammerkirch and Canton Hirsingen )
2 president
Charles Hindelang, 1911.JPG Charles Hindelang SPD Upper Alsace Constituency Colmar-Stadt
(City of Colmar without the district west of the Strasbourg-Basel railway line and the municipality of Hausen )
Jacques Immer, 1911.JPG Jacques Always Liberal Democrats Upper Alsace Constituency Colmar-Münster-Winzenheim
(the district of Colmar west of the Strasbourg-Basel railway line, the canton of Münster and the municipalities of Türkheim , Walbach , Winzenheim and Zimmerbach )
4th Secretary
Joseph Kübler, 1911.JPG Joseph Kubler center Upper Alsace Constituency Neubreisach-Andolsheim
municipality ( Heiligkreuz , canton Neubreisach , canton Andolsheim without the municipality Hausen and the canton Wintzenheim without the municipalities Türkheim , Walbach , Winzenheim and Zimmerbach )
Gustav Robert Schlumberger, 1911.JPG Gustav Robert Schlumberger Liberal Democrats Upper Alsace Constituency Gebweiler-Sulz
( canton Gebweiler and the communities Sulz and Jungholz )
Joseph Rudolf, 1911.JPG Joseph Rudolf center Upper Alsace Bollweiler-Ensisheim-Rufach constituency
( canton Ensisheim and canton Rufach as well as canton Sulz excluding the communities Sulz and Jungholz )
Leopold Emmel, 1911.JPG Leopold Emmel SPD Upper Alsace Mulhouse I constituency
(Police stations I and VI of the city of Mulhouse )
Joseph Schilling, 1911.JPG Joseph Schilling SPD Upper Alsace Mulhouse II constituency
(Police stations II and III of the city of Mulhouse)
Eduard Drumm, 1911.JPG Eduard Drumm Liberal Democrats Upper Alsace Mulhouse III constituency
(Police stations IV and V of the city of Mulhouse)
Jean Martin, 1911.JPG Jean Martin SPD Upper Alsace Mulhouse-Land constituency
( Canton of Mulhouse-North and Canton of Mulhouse-South excluding the city of Mulhouse)
Joseph Brom, 1911.JPG Joseph Brom center Upper Alsace Hüningen-Sierenz constituency
( canton of Hüningen and the communities of Bartenheim , Kembs , and Sierenz )
Médard Jules Brogly, 1911.JPG Médard Jules Brogly center Upper Alsace Habsheim-Landser constituency
( canton of Habsheim and canton of Landser excluding the municipalities of Bartenheim , Kembs , and Sierenz )
Emile Wetterlé, 1911.JPG Emile Wetterlé Center, NB Upper Alsace Constituency Rappoltsweiler-Kaysersberg
( Canton Rappoltsweiler and Canton Kaysersberg )
Laurent Meyer, 1911.JPG Laurent Meyer SPD Upper Alsace Markirch-Schnierlach constituency
( Canton Markirch and Canton Schnierlach )
Joseph Remy, 1911.JPG Joseph Remy center Upper Alsace Sennheim-Masmünster constituency 16
Eugène Müller, 1911.JPG Eugène Müller center Upper Alsace Constituency of Thann-St. Amarin 17th
Georg Wolf, 1911.JPG Georg Wolf (Strasbourg) Liberal Democrats Lower Alsace Strasbourg I constituency 18th 2nd Vice President
Karl Burger, 1911.JPG Karl Burger Liberal Democrats Lower Alsace Strasbourg II constituency 19th
Eugen Imbs, 1911.JPG Eugene Imbs SPD Lower Alsace Strasbourg III constituency 20th
Georg Wolfer, 1911.JPG Georg-Wilhelm Wolfer SPD Lower Alsace Strasbourg IV constituency 21st Secretary
Bernhard Böhle, 1911.JPG Bernhard Böhle SPD Lower Alsace Strasbourg constituency V 22nd 1st Vice President
Jacques Peirotes, 1911.JPG Jacques Peirotes SPD Lower Alsace Strasbourg VI constituency 23
Richard Fuchs, 1911.JPG Richard Fuchs SPD Lower Alsace Schiltigheim constituency 24
Laurent Fischer, 1911.JPG Laurent Fischer center Lower Alsace Brumath constituency 25th
Franz Joseph Fix, 1911.JPG Franz Joseph Fix non-attached Lower Alsace Truchtersheim-Hochfelden constituency 26th
Alphonse Gilliot, 1911.JPG Alphonse Gilliot center Lower Alsace Erstein-Benfeld constituency 27 Secretary
Franz Xaver Martz, 1911.JPG Franz Xaver Martz center Lower Alsace Geispolsheim-Oberehnheim constituency 28
Karl Hauss, 1911.JPG Karl Hauss center Lower Alsace Hagenau constituency 29
Georg Atzel, 1911.JPG Georg Atzel non-attached Lower Alsace Bischweiler constituency 30th
Johannes Michel, 1911.JPG Johannes Michel Liberal Democrats Lower Alsace Niederbronn constituency 31
Michel Heysch, 1911.JPG Michel Heysch SPD Lower Alsace Schirmeck-Saales-Rosheim constituency 32
Nicolaus Delsor, 1911.JPG Nicolaus Delsor Center, NB Lower Alsace Molsheim-Wasselnheim constituency 33
Joseph Pfleger, 1911.JPG Joseph Pfleger center Lower Alsace Schlettstadt-Markolsheim constituency 34
Alphons Schott, 1911.JPG Alphons Schott center Lower Alsace Barr hamlet constituency 35
Heinrich Wiltberger, 1911.JPG Heinrich Wiltberger center Lower Alsace Weissenburg-Lauterburg-Selz constituency 36
Alfred Wolf, 1911.JPG Alfred Wolf (Hunspach) Liberal Democrats Lower Alsace Sulz constituency under Walde-Wörth 37
Louis François Marie Auguste Knoepffler, 1911.JPG Louis François Marie Auguste Knoepffler center Lower Alsace Zabern-Maursmünster constituency 38
Georg Wehrung, 1911.JPG Georg Wehrung Liberal Democrats Lower Alsace Saarunion-Drulingen constituency 39
Eduard Meyer, 1911.JPG Eduard Meyer Liberal Democrats Lower Alsace Buchsweiler-Lützelstein constituency 40
Max Donnevert, 1911.JPG Max Donnevert Liberal Democrats Lorraine Metz I constituency 41
Nikolaus Jung, 1911.JPG Nikolaus Jung Lothringer Block Lorraine Metz II constituency 42
Louis Pierson, 1911.JPG Louis Pierson Lothringer Block Lorraine Gorze-Verny-Pange constituency 43
Adolf Heinrich Karl Steinmetz, 1911.JPG Adolf Heinrich Karl Steinmetz Liberal Democrats Lorraine Montigny-Sablon constituency 44
Johann Norbert Hinsberg, 1911.JPG Johann Norbert Hinsberg Liberal Democrats Lorraine Vigy-Rombach constituency 45
Alexis Weber, 1911.JPG Alexis Weber Lothringer Block Lorraine Bolchen-Falkenberg constituency 46
Joseph Bourger, 1911.JPG Joseph Bourger Lothringer Block Lorraine Busendorf-Teterchen constituency 47
Johann Labroise, 1911.JPG Johann Labroise Lothringer Block Lorraine Constituency of Château-Salins-Delme-Vic 48
Maurice Barthélémy, 1911.JPG Maurice Barthélémy Lothringer Block Lorraine Albesdorf-Dieuze constituency 49
François Zimmer, 1911.JPG François room Lothringer Block Lorraine Diedenhofen-Großhettingen constituency 50 Secretary
Fernand Schuman, 1911.JPG Fernand Schuman Lothringer Block Lorraine Kattenhofen-Sierck-Metzerwiese constituency 51
François Fick, 1911.JPG François Fick Lothringer Block Lorraine Constituency of Fentsch-Algringen 52
Nicolas Engel, 1911.JPG Nicolas Engel Lothringer Block Lorraine Hayingen-Großmoyeuvre constituency 53
Joseph Collet, 1911.JPG Joseph Collet center Lorraine Forbach constituency 54
Louis Hackspill, 1911.JPG Louis Hackspill Liberal Democrats Lorraine St. Avold constituency 55
Victor Michel Heymès, 1911.JPG Victor Michel Heymès center Lorraine Großtännchen-Saaralben constituency 56
Georg Clemens Müller, 1911.JPG Georg Müller center Lorraine Saarburg-Lörchingen constituency 57
Louis Meyer, 1911.JPG Louis Meyer (Walscheid) center Lorraine Pfalzburg-Finstingen-Rixingen constituency 58
Franz Xaver Hoën, 1911.JPG Franz Hoen center Lorraine Saargemünd constituency 59
Jacques Hessemann, 1911.JPG Jakob Hessemann center Lorraine Bitsch-Rohrbach-Wolmünster constituency 60


According to the electoral law, a fixed number of one-person constituencies per district was determined by imperial ordinance in such a way that the population of the administrative district is distributed as evenly as possible across the individual constituencies and the constituencies are locally connected. The following constituencies were allocated to the districts:

circle Number of MPs
Altkirch (district) 2 MPs
Colmar (district) 3 MPs
Gebweiler (district) 2 MPs
Mulhouse (district) 6 MPs
Rappoltsweiler (district) 2 MPs
Thann (circle) 2 MPs
Strasbourg (urban district) 6 MPs
Strasbourg (district) 3 MPs
Erstein (circle) 2 MPs
Hagenau (district) 3 MPs
Molsheim (district) 2 MPs
Schlettstadt (district) 2 MPs
Weißenburg (district) 2 MPs
Zabern (circle) 3 MPs
Metz (urban district) 2 MPs
Metz (district) 3 MPs
Bolchen (circle) 2 MPs
Château-Salins (district) 2 MPs
Diedenhofen-Ost (district) 2 MPs
Diedenhofen-West (district) 2 MPs
Forbach (district) 3 MPs
Saarburg (district) 2 MPs
Saargemünd (district) 2 MPs

In the first World War

With the beginning of World War I , the German-conservative Reich leadership had doubts about the loyalty of the inhabitants of the Reichsland to the German Reich. This also applied to a number of members of the state parliament. The military leadership in Alsace-Lorraine feared a critical debate about the war. Instead of the discussed dissolution of the state parliament, it was decided that the state parliament was allowed to meet in order to pass the state budget and pending laws, but that the resolution had to be passed without political debate. Under these conditions, the 1915 session of the state parliament took place from April 8 to 15, 1915. In the following year, the members of parliament ensured that an open debate could take place at least in a closed session of the budget commission. There was no debate in the Landtag in the 1916 session from April 26 to May 26, 1916, in the 1917 session (June 5 to July 12, 1917) and in the last regular session from April 12 to 30, 1918 more.


On November 11, 1918, the Alsace-Lorraine Landtag declared itself a National Council and thus the sole authority of the Reichsland. A day later, a sovereign Alsace-Lorraine was proclaimed and all the tasks of the ministry and the Reich governor were taken over. However, this independence was not recognized by the French occupying power. On December 6, 1918, the state parliament voted for annexation to France. The realm of Alsace-Lorraine, and with it the state parliament, was dissolved on October 17, 1919 and from then on administered by a general directorate in Paris.


The building of the Parliament, today's Théâtre National de Strasbourg
Construction plan of the parliament building

The state parliament building was built between 1888 and 1892 by the architects August Hartel and Skjøld Neckelmann for the state committee in neoclassical style. During the First World War it was used as a military hospital. The building is now the seat of the Théâtre national de Strasbourg and its address is Place de la République .

See also


  • Elections in Germany
  • State Statistical Office for Alsace-Lorraine: The regional elections of 1911 in Alsace-Lorraine. Special issue of the news of the National Statistical Office for Alsace-Lorraine. Printing house of the Straßburger Neuesten Nachrichten AG, Strasbourg 1911, pp. 5–37.
  • Hermann Hiery: Elections and voting behavior in the realm of Alsace-Lorraine 1871-1914. In: Ara and Kolb: Border regions in the age of nationalisms - Alsace-Lorraine / Trient-Triest. 1998
  • Government and Parliament of Alsace-Lorraine 1911–1916. Biographical-statistical manual. Mulhouse 1911
  • Negotiations of the second chamber of the state parliament for Alsace-Lorraine. (12 volumes), Strasbourg printing and publishing house, formerly R. Schultz u. Comp., 1912-1917
  • Constitution of May 31, 1911 Online

Web links

Commons : Landtag of Reichsland Elsaß-Lothringen  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Reichsgesetzblatt 1874, p. 492, Gesetzblatt für Elsaß-Lothringen 1874, p. 37, text of the decree
  2. ^ Law on Wikisource; here: § 12 ff.
  3. ^ Text of the 1911 constitution
  4. Sophie Charlotte Preibusch: Constitutional developments in the Alsace-Lorraine 1871-1918: Integration by constitutional law ?, 2010, ISBN 3-8305-2047-6 , page 417 ff. Online
  5. ^ Ernest Hamburger: Jews in public life in Germany, 1968, ISBN 3-16-829292-3 , page 392 online
  6. ^ Fritz Bronner: The constitutional efforts of the regional committee for Alsace-Lorraine 1875-1911, 1926, pp. 142-143
  7. ^ Ordinance on the division of the regional electoral districts for Alsace-Lorraine from July 3, 1911 ( Reichsgesetzblatt p. 267)
  8. ^ Roth, François: Le personnel politique de la Lorraine pendant l'annexion à l'empire Allemand 1871-1918. De la France vers l'Allemagne - De l'Allemagne vers la France. In: European History Thematic Portal (2007), online
  9. ^ Government and Parliament of Alsace-Lorraine 1911–1916. Biographical-statistical manual. Mulhouse 1911
  10. Wilhelm Heinz Schröder : Social Democratic Parliamentarians in the German Reich and Landtag 1876-1933 (BIOSOP) ( Memento of the original from September 25, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  11. Election regulations for the elections to the second chamber of the Landtag for Alsace-Lorraine on July 3, 1911 (RGBl. Pp. 267–273)
  12. [1]
  13. [2]
  14. [3]
  15. Electoral Law
  16. ^ Fritz Bronner: The Constitutional Efforts of the State Committee for Alsace-Lorraine 1875-1911, 1926, page 344
  17. BNU image