Bhagavad Gita

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Krishna gives Arjuna a philosophical instruction ( upadesha ) in a chariot ( ratha ) on the mythological battlefield of Kurukshetra . Cement cast plastic in Tirumala

The Bhagavad Gita ( Sanskrit , f., भगवद्गीता, gītā - song, poem, bhagavan  - the exalted, God; "the song of the exalted"), also only abbreviated Gita , is one of the central scriptures of Hinduism . It is in the form of a spiritual poem . Probably between the 5th and the 2nd century BC. The text that was created in BC is a merger of several different schools of thought in India at that time on the basis of the older Vedas (early Vedic writings approx. 1200 BC to 900 BC), the Upanishads ( late Vedic writings approx . 700 BC to 500 B.C.), Orthodox Brahmanism (approx. 800 B.C. to 500 B.C.), Yoga etc. a. m., but is conceptually closest to the Upanishads.

The Bhagavad Gita is part of the Mahabharata (Sanskrit, महाभारत, Mahābhārata [mʌhaːˈbʱaːrʌtʌ] "the great story of the Bharatas" in the sense of the epic about the struggle of the Bhāratas), the writing about the Bharata family (Sanskrit भारत bhārata [ˈbʱɑːɻət̪ə]) and their Descendants ( Battle of Kurukshetra ). The seer Saṃjaya describes in the overall epic to the blind king Dhritarashtra (Sanskrit धृतराष्ट्र, dhṛtarāṣṭra) the struggle of the two Bhārata families, the (“good”) Pandavas and the (“bad”) Kauravas for power.

In the Bhagavad Gita there is a dialogue between Krishna , an earthly manifestation of Vishnu , the teacher, and Arjuna , the disciple. At the time the work was written, Vishnu advanced to become one of the main gods of Hinduism alongside Shiva . Krishna, the protagonist of the Bhagavad Gita, is considered the avatara (Sanskrit अवतार avatāra, "incarnation, coming down, manifestation of God"), the incarnation of the god Vishnu on earth. In the framework of the Bhagavad Gita, Krishna, as a manifestation of the divine, explains the basic ideas about life to the young warrior and prince Arjuna on the battlefield. He shows him his divine nature and instructs him in the rules of conduct for recognizing the divine.

Hindus traditionally consider the teachings of the Bhagavad-Gita to be the quintessence of the Vedas. Apparent contradictions often arise during study: while some passages seem to teach a dualism - the duality of nature and spirit, of God and man - others teach unity. Due to these different interpretations, the poem is the focus for the most varied of faiths.

The Bhagavad Gita was written down as a religious-philosophical didactic poem in 18 chapters with 700 verses and incorporated into the national epic Mahabarata around the 2nd century AD. The typical meter is the shloka - meter , which recited or sung can be better, therefore Gita. It is one of the Smriti (Sanskrit, f., स्मृति, smṛti, "what is remembered"), these are the epics (poetry) Itihasa (Sanskrit: इतिहास itihāsa m .; lit .: "so (Iti) verily (ha) it was (āsa) ”), to which the Ramayana is also included in addition to the Mahabharata .

Formal aspects

Four 19th century manuscripts of the Bhagavad Gita

The Gita, as it is shortened in India, consists of 700 stanzas, which are divided into 18 chants or chapters. It is part of the approximately 100,000 stanzas epic Mahabharata and includes chants 25 to 42 of the 6th book.

Most of the work consists of two lines of verse that are related to each other. Each line of verse is made up of two eight-syllable rows. Example (1st chant, verse 47):

evam uktvārjunaḥ saṅkhye   (eight syllables)
rathopastha upāviśat , (eight syllables)
visṛjya sa śaraṁ cāpaṁ , (eight syllables)
śokasaṁvignamānasaḥ . (eight syllables)

And Arjuna sank back
on the seat of his car , unfortunately filled ,
The bow slipped from his hand,
And grief swirled around his gaze.

Some stanzas deviate from this meter for no apparent reason.

According to the Indologist Helmuth von Glasenapp , the accuracy of the expression and the touch of the sacred that are inherent in the original text cannot be fully transferred. Another difficulty with the translation is staying true to the original while still preserving the meter and rhyme.

Krishna the teacher

It is a self-revelation of Krishna who, before the start of a great war, which the Mahabharata describes in detail, reveals himself to prince Arjuna on the battlefield of Kurukshetra as a divine or cosmic self.

According to Hindu mythology , we now live in Kali-Yuga , the "dark, black age" that began after Krishna's death (3102 BC). There is another tradition according to which we are already in the next age, the Dvapara-Yuga . It is said of Krishna that he came to give people the ethical and philosophical teachings that are necessary for the time of this Yuga . In Chapter IV, 7–8, Krishna promises to incarnate over and over again:

“O son of Bharata, whenever there is a decline in Dharma (righteousness, virtue) and injustice and vice prevail in the world, I create myself among creatures. So from period to period I incarnate for the preservation of the righteous, the destruction of the wicked and the establishment of the Dharma. "

In the Bhagavadgita, Krishna has different meanings, depending on the context: Firstly, he is viewed as the cosmic self that pervades all living things; another aspect is the meaning as inner divinity, which is a reflection of the cosmic self in every living being. A third function is that of the spiritual teacher.

Krishna reveals himself to Arjuna


The Bhagavada Gita is based on the foundations of the older Vedas, so the Frühvedische writings , orthodox Brahminism , writings of yoga but especially the Upanishads, as Spätvedische writings , the latter dealt with the essence of the four Vedas and thus formed the basis of Vedanta . Originally, schools corresponding to the individual Vedas developed, so that different Veda schools ( Shakhas , Sanskrit ś śākhā) existed. The Upanishads came from one of these schools or doctrines. In them the terms Brahman and Atman are further developed. Everything that exists is a delusion, an illusion ( Maya ) in relation to the absolute . Maya of the deluded ego who understands reality as only psychic and mental and does not recognize the true self , the atman, which is one with Brahman. In order to achieve moksha (salvation), the state of the Maya must be overcome.

The Maurya Empire with its historical starting point in Magadha during its expansion between 600 and 180 BC Chr.

In the Upanishads, the true self of man, the Atman, is seen as identical with the Absolute, the actually real, the unnameable (Brahman). Brahman is an apersonal concept of the divine that contains no creator and no demiurge ; it is presented as the primordial ground of being, without beginning and without end. Brahman is not definable in space and time. However, the self of the Upanishads is not the ego, the ego of everyday consciousness. In chapters 1-6 of the Bhagavad Gita, action will be the topic ( Karma Yoga Sanskrit: कर्मयोग karmayoga m.), Which in turn is based on the knowledge of the reality of the Atman so that the adept can advance in the realization of the true self. In the Bhagavadgita, Krishna described Brahman to the hero Arjuna as follows:

“Unrestricted by sense bonds, it shines as if through sensory power. It carries the universe and, untouched, it enjoys every 'quality'. Is in and outside the world, fixed and mobile, Arjuna, so fine that no one notices it. It is both distant and close at the same time. It permeates the beings divided and in truth remains undivided. Preserves its being through its power, creates and destroys it instantly. It is called the 'light of lights', which is enthroned beyond all darkness, knowledge and goal of knowledge; in every being's heart it dwells. "

- Bhagavad-Gita (13.14-17)

Krishna distinguishes between real and non-real. The real is Atman, being itself, the awareness, pure consciousness that is unknowable, unmanifest and indestructible. The non-real is the commonly perceived world. As identification with the body, which is evoked by the ego, the illusion (Maya) arises that the world is real. Atman is contained in all beings, in all beings and thus everything is divine. Atman is in everything, but it is not part of it. The difficulty lies in distinguishing between the world, the non-real, and the divine, the real. Bliss is achieved through the wisdom of distinguishing between the real and the non-real.

The teachings of the Bhagavad-Gita are embedded in an extensive epic-dramatic context, in the epic Mahabharata. The sons of Prince Pandu are cheated of their rightful claim to the throne by their uncle Dhritarashtra from the Kurus tribe and his sons and are repeatedly subjected to persecution. Finally, there is a great battle on the battlefield of Kurukshetra, the "place of the Kurus". Arjuna, the third of the sons of Pandu, finds himself in a personal conflict between the affection for his relatives on the other side and his duty as prince and the rightful claim of his family to land and throne. He is "overwhelmed by fear" and refuses to fight. On his chariot (Sanskrit: Ratha ) there is Krishna as a charioteer. Arjuna tries to free Arjuna from his conflict through religious and philosophical instruction and to get him to fight.

Even if there is a historical background for this battle, the text of the Bhagavadgita is not to be considered historical. Many Hindus see it as an allegory . A possible and widespread view is that it is a dialogue between the inner divinity, embodied by Krishna, and the human soul that Arjuna represents: the battlefield is life, and the hostile armies against which Arjuna must fight, embodied the human weaknesses that must be conquered and overcome. In addition to this interpretation relating to the individual, it is possible to give the Bhagavadgita an interpretation that relates to humanity as a whole. In this evolutionary view the battle is a clash of the asuran , egoistic forces with those of the divine order. Arjuna and his colleagues are led and supported in this endeavor by Krishna , the Avatar .

The image of the carriage with Krishna as a charioteer and the desperate Arjuna is a well-known and widespread motif of the performing arts and can be found as wall decoration in many Hindu households. The Katha Upanishad (II.3–4) contains a popular interpretation of this spiritual image:

“Know the Atman as the master of the carriage. The body is the chariot, buddhi (reason) is the charioteer and the mind is the reins. The senses are the horses, the objects the paths. "

Spiritual tradition

The Gita is based on a spiritual tradition that extends from the oldest Indian assemblies, the Rig-Veda, to the Upanishads. In principle, she accepts the spiritual traditions; but also criticizes certain ideas and goes beyond past knowledge in their highest spiritual inspirations. In particular, it gives Bhakti Yoga and Karma Yoga a new, previously undisclosed appreciation.

In the second chant of the Gita, an attitude of mind is criticized that wants to acquire a better life in the now and in the later hereafter through ritual sacrifices to the gods. It says:

And foolishly entrusts himself to the floral word of
the holy Vedas,
Whoever strives for pleasure full of delusion
And heavenly bliss,
never arrives, O Pritha's son,
To rest and stability.

Instead, she insists on the truth that is gained through self-knowledge.

The use that a well has,
When the land is flooded around it,
Scripture has only such use for him who has found the
highest wisdom.

Formulations from the Upanishads, which in turn criticized the older layers of the Vedas, are instead reproduced almost verbatim. She quotes passages from the Svetasvatara Upanishad and the Katha Upanishad.

The Gita allows the way of asceticism to apply; but on her part gives preference to being active in the world. So it says in verse 5.2:

Renunciation and activity,
they both lead to salvation,
but before the renunciation
the price is awarded to the active.

Brief overview

  • 1. Singing depression . Arjuna asks Krishna to drive him between the two armies. When he sees most of his relatives on the side of the Kurus, he considers it unjustified to fight against them.
  • 2. Singing Yoga of Knowledge . Arjuna doesn't want to fight. Krishna speaks to him as a teacher. Only the bodies are perishable; but the imperishable, unborn, eternal spirit in man cannot be killed. He then continues to appeal to his honor as a warrior and that it is his duty to fight a fair battle. More generally, he states that an act should be done with equanimity and devotion and without speculating on the success of the act. He should tame his senses and look to the highest ( Samkhya philosophy)
  • 3. Singing Yoga of Action . Arjuna wants to know why he should fight when knowledge is important. Krishna says that he must act because nature within us compels us to act. A person who forces himself to do nothing and yet thinks of things of the sense would be distracted from the right path. It is better to do the deed imposed free of self-interest. He must also act with regard to the order of the world; because what the best does, other people do too.
  • 4. Singing Divine Knowledge . Krishna, the avatar , explains that he has already lived through many births and that he repeatedly proclaims this immortal teaching of yoga for the protection of good people and for the evil's downfall. And whoever has really recognized this truth will not be born again and come to him. He goes on to say that there are many ways to make sacrifices to Brahman , but the best sacrifice is the sacrifice of knowledge. Because through this knowledge one knows all beings in the self and then in him.
  • 5. Singing Renunciation or Yoga of Works . Arjuna asks what is better now to abstain from the act or to practice the act. Krishna replies that both ways bring salvation, but the yoga of action is to be valued higher than renunciation of action. Both paths lead to the goal, but true renunciation is difficult to achieve without yoga. But whoever has conquered his senses while living in yoga and is one with all beings soul will not be entangled by his actions. And whoever recognized Brahman as the Lord of the world, who gladly accepts all sacrifices and efforts, attains true peace.
  • 6. Singing Yoga of Reflection . Krishna describes the right posture for Arjuna for meditation and tells him the right way of life for working, eating and sleeping. He says that through the right posture of devotion, thoughts and sensory excitement gradually calm down. Then through the constant, mindful life in the Self, Brahman Nirvana can be attained and therewith unlimited happiness can be attained.
  • 7. Singing Yoga of Knowledge and Wisdom . Krishna proclaims to Arjuna how, by practicing yoga, with his heart and mind focused on him, he can attain knowledge completely (which only a few succeed in). He says that in his lower nature he represents the material world, but in his higher nature everything comes from him, is preserved by him and all being is in him; but he is not in her. Whoever strives for a deity is given what he wants. But whoever turns to him overcomes the illusion of nature and arrives at him, the unborn, eternal - even in death.
  • 8. Singing The Supreme Divine . Krishna answers the corresponding questions from Arjuna: Brahman is the eternal, highest being, his essence is the highest self, and the creation which brings about the origin of beings is called the work. Whoever leaves his body and goes on thinking of me at the time of his end, attains my state of being. Whoever has practiced this thinking at all times enters into my being; there can be no doubt about it.
  • 9. Singing The royal knowledge . Krishna asks Arjuna to listen carefully and says: The world is stretched out through me, all beings are in me. Practicing the way to me is very easy; but it is necessary to believe, otherwise one will miss me. I am the same to all people; but those who adore me lovingly are in me and reach the highest course. Even a great sinner who worships me soon becomes a pious man and enters into eternal peace. Anyone who turns to me with love will once come to me regardless of their birth, gender or caste .
  • 10. Chant Yoga of Revelation . Arjuna is deeply impressed by the revelations of Krishna and wants to know in which state of being he should know the "glorious". Krishna replies that the “Most High” has no limits and therefore he only lists the most important things. Then he enumerates the names of gods, mythical figures and famous people of the past. He says that the “heavenly” is the soul of the world and that the heart is to be found in all beings. He also names the names of plants and animals and mentions terms from art and science. He concludes with the statement that he, with a part of himself, created this universe and that whenever a wonderful creature is in the world or a being of knowledge, strength and beauty shows itself, this is a special expression of his greatness and be strength and his light. (Theory of vibhutis )
  • 11. Singing Sight of the divine form . Arjuna wishes Krishna to see the Eternal with his own eyes. The Blessed One then “gives” him a “heavenly” eye so that he can recognize the figure of the highest God. And Arjuna looks at the divine figure, with his face turned everywhere, as if the light of a thousand suns suddenly broke out in the sky. And he sees neither the end, the middle nor the beginning. And he sees the gods and the host of beings contained in him. He also sees the Lord of Gods and All as the Lord of time , who devours his creatures in his "jaws". And he sees how the people hurry to doom. And the Blessed One says that the fighters too have all died. And he, Arjuna, is his tool to kill those who have already been "killed" by him. Arjuna clasps his hands trembling and worships the Most High.
  • 12. Singing Yoga of loving devotion . Arjuna asks which believers would be favored by God - those who regard and worship God as shapeless, or those who worship God Almighty in a revealed form? Krishna declares both kinds of worship to be equally good, but it takes more effort to devote oneself to the invisible. It is easier for those who sink their thoughts completely into them. If he cannot do this, he should diligently practice devotion; if he is too weak for that, he should dedicate his actions to him; if he cannot do this either, he should devoutly renounce the fruits of all deeds.
  • 13. Singing The field and the connoisseur of the field . Body and all of nature are referred to by Krishna as the field. The field expert is the spirit that animates this body. Krishna says of himself that he knows all the fields here. The field changes at all times, and only through equanimity towards external things and complete devotion to it can the beginningless, highest Brahman be achieved. This highest Brahman is inside and outside the world, at the same time far and near, and yet so fine that nobody (with their senses) perceives it. It resides in the heart of every being and yet in truth remains undivided.
  • 14. Singing About the Three Gunas . All thoughts, words and actions are filled with sattva (truthfulness, purity, clarity), rajas (movement, energy, passion) or tamas (darkness, indolence, stability). Whoever understands everything that exists as the interaction of these three states of being can gain knowledge. When Arjuna asked how he recognized the person who had defeated the three Gunas, Krishna replied: Whoever remains calm and collected when a Gunas 'appears', always maintains equanimity, is steadfast in joy and sorrow, whoever remains the same, if one insults or admires him who renounces every act (from the ego), he releases himself from the power of the Gunas. The one who searches for me in unswerving love also succeeds. He too gets beyond the three gunas and can become Brahman.
  • 15. Chant Yoga of the Supreme Spirit . What follows is the picture of a tree with roots in the sky, with no beginning and no end. It is necessary to cut down its instincts (sensory things), branches and the firm root with the ax of equanimity and "non-attachment" and to attain the immobile mind (Brahman). Later it is said that the highest self ( Purushottama ) is greater than this immutable mind (akshara) and is also greater than the mind that became things (kshara). For it is he who carries this whole three worlds and as Lord rules and embraces it. Whoever truly recognizes this has achieved the ultimate goal.
  • 16. Chant yoga of discernment . Krishna names the qualities of people with "divine nature" and the qualities of people with "demonic nature". People of demonic ( asuran ) nature say there is no moral law. Lust alone rules the world. Shaken by greed and anger, they scorn the God who lives in them and in others. They sink to the deepest place and never find me. But you, Arjuna, are of a divine nature. Therefore always act as the Dharma requires.
  • 17. Singing tripartite belief . In addition to Shastra (law, order, science) it is belief that determines a person's life. Faith, like nourishment, sacrifice and penance in its form, is also dominated by the nature of the Gunas . Krishna counts self-tormenting asceticism as part of the demonic nature.
  • 18. Singing Yoga of Renunciation . Arjuna asks what the difference is between renunciation ( sannyasa ) and renunciation of work ( tyaga ). Krishna answers that man cannot do without any activity. In no case should sacrifice, donation and asceticism be dispensed with. Anyone who renounces the fruits of their actions and trusts in me is rightly said to be a renunciate. Whoever honors him through the fulfillment of his duties, who pervades this universe and is the source of all beings, achieves perfection, and whoever follows the law of his soul ( Svadharma ) comes to me (the Purushottama ).

Arjuna says that he has come to terms and wants to act on Krishna's words.


These eighteen chapters of the epic influenced the entire Indian spiritual life. No text in Hindu literature is read so often, memorized so often, and quoted so often as these verses. Many Hindus use the book as an important guide, and it was also of considerable importance to Mahatma Gandhi :

“In the Bhagavadgita I find a consolation that I myself miss in the Sermon on the Mount . When disappointment sometimes stares me in the face, when I leave, when I see no ray of light, I resort to the Bhagavadgita. Then I find a verse here and there and I start smiling amidst all the tragedies and my life has been full of tragedies. If none of them have left any visible wounds on me, I owe this to the teachings of the Gita. "

Gandhi wanted to make this work accessible to even more people. That is why he wrote a translation into his native Gujarati , although he was not a scribe, and wrote his own brief comments. He dedicated this issue to the poor who have little money to spend on books and to those who rarely have time to read; in their own words the women, businessmen and craftsmen.

The meaning of the Bhagavad Gita does not only extend to India , for many non-Hindus it is also one of the great religious-philosophical poems in world literature. Al Biruni , a Persian polymath, studied it around 1000 in his famous book on India, Kitab-al-Hind. Around 1600 Abul Fazl , the historiographer of the Mughal ruler Akbar I the Great, translated the work into Persian prose. In 1785 the Bhagavad Gita, translated by the orientalist Charles Wilkins , came to Europe. August Wilhelm Schlegel , who held the first professorship for Indology in Germany at the University of Bonn , had letters made for the sentence of the Indian Devanagari alphabet in Paris in order to print the first Sanskrit texts in Europe. The first book was the Bhagavad Gita in 1823 with a Latin translation by August Wilhelm Schlegel. It was enthusiastically received and many contemporary scholars spread it among their students. Wilhelm von Humboldt wrote two treatises on this in the writings of the Berlin Academy from 1825 to 1826 . He described the Bhagavad Gita as "... the most beautiful, perhaps the only true philosophical poem that all of the literatures known to us have to offer". Arthur Schopenhauer quotes the Schlegel translation in the second edition of his major work The World as Will and Idea from 1844.

The Bhagavad Gita was translated in verse by Robert Boxberger (1870), Franz Hartmann (1904) Theodor Springmann (1920), and Leopold von Schroeder (1937) (into German) and by Friedrich Rückert (into Latin ). Among the numerous prose translations, according to the Indologist Helmuth von Glasenapp, those by Richard Garbe (1905), Paul Deussen (1906) and Rudolf Otto (1935) are of particular scientific value.

It exerted a great influence on theosophy . The translation and commentary of Bhagavad-gītā, as it is of the ISKCON (“Hare Krishna”) founder Prabhupada , who regards the teachings in the light of the monotheistic Gaudiya Vaishnavatum , is widespread worldwide today .

She also had a great influence on the thinking and acting of the physicist Robert Oppenheimer .

The American writer Steven Pressfield wrote the novel The Legend of Bagger Vance , based on the Bhagavad Gita , which was filmed in 2000 with Will Smith , Matt Damon and Charlize Theron .


Traditionally, the commentators belong to a spiritual tradition or school and to certain guru lines , each claiming to reproduce the original text most reliably. The various translators and commentators also have widely differing views on the meaning of certain Sanskrit words and expressions. As a result, interpretations of entire sections in Western literary studies are often inconsistent with traditional views.

The oldest and most influential commentary of the Middle Ages comes from Shankara , the most important philosopher of the Vedanta school of Advaita-Vedanta (non-duality). According to him, the teachings of the Gita also point to the knowledge of a differentiated reality of sensual and intellectual experience that manifests itself as a pure appearance ( Maya ). Ramanuja , who lived and taught in the eleventh century, is of a different opinion that the world that can be experienced is not a deception or illusion, but real in all its diversity, but that this reality nevertheless depends on the Most High. Consequently, Ramanuja describes the way of devotion ( Bhakti -Yoga) as the most important message of the Gita. There is also a detailed commentary on the Bhagavad Gita by Madhva (1199–1278), the founder of the school of duality (Dvaita- Vedanta ).

In the 20th century, notable commentaries were written by the greats of the Indian independence movement, Bal Gangadhar Tilak (during his time in prison in 1910-11), Mahatma Gandhi, and Sri Aurobindo . Other modern commentators were Swami Vivekananda and Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan . Radhakrishnan writes that, according to the Bhagavad Gita, “there is a struggle between good and evil in the world in which God takes an intimate part”. Radhakrishnan sees in the figure of Krishna as it appears in the Gita, "an illustration of the spiritual sources and the hidden divinity of man". Paramahansa Yogananda , author of a yogi's autobiography , wrote an extensive commentary for yogis and specifically for his kriya yoga . AC Bhaktivedanta , founder of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness ( ISKCON ), wrote a commentary on the Gita from the perspective of the Gaudiya Vaishnava school , a Vishnuitic teaching that teaches the worship of the divine couple Radha - Krishna and the chanting and recitation of their names puts at the center of worship.


Albert Schweitzer , in his work on the worldview of Indian thinkers, written in 1935, comes to a very critical assessment of the ethical values ​​that can be found in the Gita. He writes:

“Because it contains such wonderful sentences about inner detachment from the world, about the hateful and benevolent attitude and about loving devotion to God, the non-ethical it contains is usually overlooked. It is not only the most widely read but also the most idealized book in world literature. "


Web links

Commons : Bhagavad Gita  - collection of images, videos and audio files
Wikisource: भगवद् गीता  - Sources and full texts (Sanskrit)

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Bhagavad Gita. With a spiritual commentary by Bede Griffiths. Translated from Sanskrit, introduced and explained by Michael von Brück. Kösel-Verlag, Munich 1993 ISBN 3-466-20373-2 , University of Munich, accessed on October 13, 2018 [1]
  2. Eckard Wolz-Gottwald: Yoga-Philosophy-Atlas. Experience of primordial awareness. Via Nova, Petersberg 2006, ISBN 978-3-936486-04-9 , p. 71 f.
  3. ^ S. Radhakrishnan: The Bhagavadgita. R. Löwit, Wiesbaden, p. 17.
  4. Werner Scholz: Hinduism. A crash course. Dumont, Cologne 2008, ISBN 978-3-8321-9070-5 , p. 40
  5. ^ Robert Boxberger, revised by Helmuth von Glasenapp, Reclam 1955, Bhagavadgita 2.42 and 2.43
  6. ^ Robert Boxberger, revised by Helmuth von Glasenapp, Reclam 1955, Bhagavadgita 2,46
  7. Helmut Glasenapp: The philosophy of the Indians. P. 171.
  8. Robert Boxberger, revised Helmuth von Glasenapp, Reclam 1955, Bhagavadgita 5.2
  9. Quoted from the German translation of the Bhagavad Gita by S. Radhakrishnan from the publisher R. Löwit
  10. ^ Mahatma Gandhi: The Bhagavadgita according to Gandhi , North Atlantic Books, Introduction
  11. Volker Zotz : On the blissful islands . Theseus, 2000, p. 67f.
  12. a b Bhagavadgita . Reclam. Foreword by Helmut von Glasenapp, 1955, p. 9.
  13. ^ The Gita of J. Robert Oppenheimer , Proceedings of American Philosophical Society, Published 2000, text on the influence of the Gita on Robert Oppenheimer
  14. Helmuth v. Glasenapp: The philosophy of the Indians . A. Kröner, pp. 185/186
  15. Kuno Lorenz: Indian Thinkers , pp. 233-240.
  16. Ronald Sequeira: The Philosophies of India , p. 197.
  17. Paramahansa Yogananda: God Talks with Arjuna, The Bhagavad Gita. An new translation and commentary, Self-Realization Fellowship, 2001, ISBN 0-87612-031-1 (paperback) ISBN 0-87612-030-3 (hardcover, also in German), Introduction.
  18. Albert Schweitzer: The world view of the Indian thinkers (reprint of the 3rd edition, based on the English edition of 1935, revised edition 1965). Beck, Munich 1987, ISBN 3-406-32272-7 .