A répétiteur (also repetitor or solo repetitor ) plays the piano instead of the orchestra when singers , choirs , instrumentalists , dancers or actors learn or repeat a piece, rehearse their roles or rehearse scenes ( opera , operetta , ballet , etc.), and In addition, gives corrective musical notes in individual samples. The répétiteur of a theater who coordinates the rehearsal plans and is responsible for rehearsing the singers and assigning the other répétiteurs is called the director of studies .
A professional répétiteur should - like a conductor - be able to read extensive orchestral scores including historical clefs and transposing instruments and at the same time to implement them technically. In today's theater practice, however, playing the score is only necessary to a limited extent because piano reductions are usually available for the pieces to be rehearsed . In exceptional cases, however, the répétiteur must also be able to transpose . The tonal representation of the respective orchestral part in the piano reduction takes place with an inevitable reduction of the musical text, which must, however, be handled flexibly according to the respective rehearsal situation - therefore basic knowledge in the areas of music theory , composition and improvisation is very helpful.
While the sound result should be as authentic as possible in the professional field, the type of selection or reduction in the layman's field is an important methodical rehearsal tool (see: choir rehearsal ). The répétiteur often also takes on partial tasks of the conductor or choirmaster , for example by coordinating the singers and his colleagues at the piano during a scenic opera rehearsal or by giving performances from the piano on the stage. In addition, the ability to vocal mark the singing parts and thus knowledge of the pronunciation of the Italian and French languages (from time to time also of English , Russian or even rarer languages such as Czech ) is necessary - on the one hand, in order to be able to musically listen to fellow singers who are missing at a rehearsal Replace and sing keywords, on the other hand, to sing problematic passages to a singer when rehearsing his own part and thus to bring them closer musically or in terms of pronunciation.
The entrance requirement for the profession of répétiteur is usually a degree in conducting or choir conducting , which includes extensive training in the subject of score playing. Some conservatoires also offer a special "accompaniment" course. As a minor subject of score playing , accompaniment is also included in the course for full-time church musicians ( cantors ) and school musicians. A purely pianistic training is usually not sufficient, as the flexibility and improvisation skills required for the profession are usually not imparted there. Exceptions to this, however, are employment at a music college (see below) and, of course, specially gifted pianists who bring these qualities with them from the start.
A répétiteur is usually at a theater or a musical training facility, e.g. B. a music college , employed. A position as a répétiteur at a theater is often seen as a preliminary stage or even a prerequisite for a career as a conductor and conductor . Therefore, in many (especially smaller) theaters, the tasks of répétiteur and conductor are combined in one place; The practical situation of church musicians looks similar. Since, as mentioned above, all common works are now available as a piano reduction , more and more ambitious pianists can be found in the semi-professional area in an honorary position or a part-time job. In principle, however, it is also possible to work as a freelance répétiteur, which pianists and amateur choirs like to use. In the case of employment at a music college to supervise prospective instrumentalists, even a purely pianistic training is often the only academic requirement.
- Michele Rovetta: accompanist. In: Christoph Kammertöns , Siegfried Mauser (Hrsg.): Lexikon des Klaviers. Building history, performance practice, composers and their works, performers. With a foreword by Daniel Barenboim . Laaber Verlag, Laaber 2006, ISBN 3-89007-543-6 , pp. 440-442.
- Wolfram Goertz: "The all-rounders". Répétiteurs are the secret heroes of opera . Die Zeit, January 12, 2009