ku St. Stephen's Order

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Star for the Grand Cross of the Order

The Royal Hungarian Order of Saint Stephen ( hu : Magyar királyi Szent István lovagrend ), the highest-ranking civil merit order of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy until 1918, was founded by Maria Theresa as a counterpart to the Military Maria Theresa Order on May 5, 1764 and the Dedicated to Saint Stephen . The full name is the Royal Hungarian Order of the Holy Apostolic King Stephen . The statutes were dated May 6, 1764. Grand Master was the King of Hungary.

Order classes

The order consisted of three classes. The number of members was originally regulated to 100:

Appearance and wearing style

Crown Prince Rudolf with star and shoulder ribbon of the Grand Cross of the Order of St. Stephen


The decoration consists of a green enamelled, gold-rimmed paw cross crowned with the Hungarian crown of St. Stephen , the red enameled central shield of which shows the double cross known from the Hungarian coat of arms ( patriarchal cross, Hungarian cross) over a crown and three green hills, flanked by the letters of the monogram M T (Maria Theresa) and surrounded by the motto of the order Publicum meritorum praemium(Public award for merit). On the lapel , surrounded by an oak wreath, saysSTO.ST.RIAP.( Sancto Stephano Regi Apostolico - The Holy Apostolic King Stephen).


The ribbon of the Order of St. Stephen was green with a red stripe in the middle.

Carrying method

Holders of the small cross wore the insignia on a looped, later triangularly folded ribbon on the left side of the chest, commanders on the ribbon around their necks. Holders of the Grand Cross wore the insignia on a wide shoulder band from the right shoulder to the left hip. The Grand Cross included an embroidered, later metallic silver star with the medallion of the order in the middle and a chain , the links of which alternate with the crown of St. Stephen and the monogramsSS (Sanctus Stephanus) and MTshowed. The center piece is a wreath of clouds in which an eagle hovers, surrounded by the motto:STRINGIT AMORE.

Order costume


The clothing of the order was a green velvet coat with crimson taffeta lining and ermine trimmings. The hat, also in crimson red with ermine trim, was adorned with heron feathers in a red-green agraffe. This included a petticoat made of red velvet with gold embroidery . The feast day of the order was that of Saint Stephen, Apostolic King of Hungary (August 20th).


The grand crosses as well as the particularly deserving commanders were granted the real secret council dignity , the small crosses the dignity of counts depending on the circumstances , the baronate, however, if they requested it, tax-free.

Grand crosses and commanders were allowed to enter the secret council chamber at any time (minor crosses only on religious days), and they were allowed to appear at court parties and apartments regardless of their status .

Grand Crosses were addressed by the Grand Master as “Our cousins” in the decrees issued to them in order to “show the most high grace and affection”. With regard to birth and dignity, the candidates for the Grand Cross had to prove that they had belonged to the nobility and sex for at least four generations.


See Bearers of the Royal Hungarian Order of Saint Stephen

History after 1918

St. Stephen's Order (1938)

In 1938, an Order of Saint Stephen (with regal insignia in the form of 1764) was created in the titular kingdom of Hungary by Reich Administrator Miklós Horthy as the highest-ranking civil merit order, but only awarded four times until 1944: on September 26, 1940 to Count Pál Teleki , August 1940 to Joachim von Ribbentrop ( Second Vienna Award ), on February 12, 1943 to István Uray and in 1944 to the Hungarian Primate Serédi .

St. Stephen's Order (2011)

St. Stephen's Order (2011), Grand Cross insignia for men (left: breast star and miniature; center: cross with sash ; right: ribbon buckle , small decoration and rosette)
St. Stephen's Order (2011), Grand Cross insignia for women (left: breast star and miniature; center: cross with sash; right: ribbon buckle, small decoration and rosette)

In 2011, an Order of Saint Stephen (with insignia in the form of 1764) was founded under Prime Minister Viktor Orbán with the name of the Hungarian Order of Saint Stephen . So far only the Grand Crosses of the Order have been awarded to:

See also


  • Christian Ortner , Georg Ludwigstorff: Austria's medals and decorations. Part I: The imperial-royal orders until 1918 , Verlag Militaria , Vienna 2017, ISBN 978-3-902526-81-6
  • Roman Freiherr von Procházka : Austrian Order Handbook. 2nd, revised and significantly increased edition, "Large Edition". Volume 4: Appendices 2nd to 8th section: Hungary - Knights of Malta - Other international orders and awards - Ranking orders - Wearing regulations - Order manufacturer list, literature - Errata & addende - Name and subject index. Klenau, Munich 1979, OBV .
  • Dominus: The Order of St. Stephen and its history. Vienna 1873.
  • Ferdinand Petrossi: The army of the Austrian imperial state. Volume 2: Internal Service and Tactics. Braumüller, Vienna 1865, OBV , p. 153 f. - text online .
  • Gustav Adolph Ackermann: Order book of all in Europe flourishing and extinct orders and decorations. 2nd edition. Rudolph & Dieterici, Annaberg 1864, OBV .

Web links

Commons : Ku Sankt Stephans-Orden  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. a b Petrossi: Das Heerwesen , p. 153.
  2. dt. "He (the order) binds through love"
  3. ^ Constitutiones Insignis Ordinis Equitum S. Stephani Regis Apostolici, Vienna MDCCLXIV, cap. VIII
  4. a b c Petrossi: Das Heerwesen , p. 154.
  5. ^ Controversial honor for author Imre Kertész. In: derStandard.at. August 20, 2014, accessed December 4, 2017 .
  6. http://index.hu/belfold/2016/08/20/marton_eva_enekes_es_makkai_adam_kolto_kapta_a_szent_istvan_rend_kitunteteset/
  7. http://www.origo.hu/itthon/20170820-erdo-peter-es-vasary-tamas-vehette-at-a-szent-istvan-dijat.html