Pyotr Alexeyevich Kropotkin

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Kropotkin, photo taken by Nadar around 1900.Kropotkin's signature

Prince Peter Kropotkin ( Russian Пётр Алексеевич Кропоткин , scientific. Transliteration Pëtr Alekseevic Kropotkin ; born November 27 . Jul / 9. December  1842 greg. In Moscow , † 8. February 1921 in Dmitrov ) was a Russian anarchist , geographer and writer .

He left behind many writings, including the revolutionary book The Conquest of Bread and his scientific work Mutual Aid in the Animal and Human Worlds . Kropotkin fought for a society free of violence and domination and is considered one of the most influential theorists of communist anarchism . Because of his aristocratic origins and his notoriety as an anarchist of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Kropotkin was also called the anarchist prince .


Childhood and Adolescence (1842–1862)

Peter Kropotkin, 1861 in the uniform of the page corps

Pyotr Kropotkin was born in Moscow in 1842 as the son of Prince Alexei Petrovich Kropotkin into a family of the highest degree of the Russian aristocracy . Pyotr Kropotkin was such a descendant of the famous Rurikid dynasty , and the family held the title of Prince of Smolensk . 1,200 male serfs worked on the large estates of the family, which the father managed with a strict hand. In son Pyotr Alexejewitsch and his brother Alexander this aroused a feeling of injustice from an early age. His mother, the daughter of a general in the Russian army , had comparatively liberal views and a keen interest in literature for her time. However, she died of tuberculosis when Kropotkin was just four years old. His childhood was further shaped by his authoritarian father and stepmother, who treated their stepchildren very strictly and distantly. In addition, he received extensive instruction from various private tutors who brought him closer to the critical Russian literature of Gogol and Pushkin as well as French history and literature. Under this influence, Pyotr Kropotkin made attempts in the literary field in his early years and wrote stories, journalistic articles and also poems, which he and his brother Alexander collected in their own small magazine.

At the age of fifteen, the contemplative life in an intimate circle ended with the entry into the St. Petersburg page corps. The school was regarded as a place of training where the Russian nobility prepared their children for future careers in the military and administration. However, Kropotkin largely followed his own broad interest. He studied the French encyclopedists and French history, especially the French Revolution . He was interested in the liberal and republican tendencies that emerged in the Russian upper class especially in the period after the death of Tsar Nicholas I in 1855. After the abolition of serfdom by the successor Tsar Alexander II , Kropotkin worked enthusiastically as a teacher in Sunday schools, which were founded for the education of former serfs and the fight against illiteracy. As the best of the year in the page corps, he was named the Tsar's personal page de chambres and thus got to know life in the palace and the Tsar personally. Kropotkin's initial enthusiasm for the liberator of serfs soon gave way to disillusionment with the character of the tsar. Kropotkin saw that while the reforms the serfs in itself brought personal freedom, but economically blew a large financial dependency, benefited from especially the landlords. In 1862, Kropotkin finished his training in the page corps as one of the best in his class.

Stay in Siberia (1862–1867)

The map that Kropotkin made for his work on the orography of Asia shows eastern Siberia. It is based on records made by Kropotkin on expeditions during his five-year stay in the region.

After joining the Imperial Russian Army , Kropotkin was transferred to a Siberian Cossack regiment in the newly conquered Amur region, which was extremely unusual for his social class. Kropotkin made the decision against the will of the father. He hoped to escape the reactionary atmosphere of St. Petersburg and pursue his own geographic interests. In the service of the liberal general Boleslaw Kukel, Kropotkin had the opportunity to deal with radical Russian literature, as this among other things. had a complete collection of the works of Alexander Herzen .

Pyotr Kropotkin was commissioned by the administration in St. Petersburg to write a report on the prison and penal camp system in Siberia and another report on local self-government in the Transbaikalia province, where he worked out comprehensive ideas for reform and proposed solutions. The reports, however, went largely unnoticed in the reactionary atmosphere following the crushing of the Polish uprising of 1863. He was first introduced to the ideas of anarchism by the exiled radical writer Michail Larionowitsch Michailow and became a socialist through the works of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon - above all the system of economic contradictions .

Disappointed by the failed reform projects, Kropotkin then led extensive research trips to unknown parts of eastern Siberia. He undertook five major expeditions and other smaller trips in Transbaikalia and the Amur region to neighboring China. His first scientific paper, a treatise for the Siberian Geographical Society , was later used in the planning of the Transmanjurian Railway . His expeditions provided a lot of new knowledge and formed the basis for his geographical theories about northeastern Asia. In addition, Kropotkin increasingly doubted the importance of competition, which Charles Darwin represented in his theory of evolution . Through his own experiences with the animal world and human coexistence in the region, Kropotkin came to the insight during this time that mutual help is a much more important factor. He wrote in his memoirs about the experience in Siberia:

“The five years I spent in Siberia were for me an education in real life and human character. […] I had ample opportunity to observe the farmers, their way of life and their habits, in their daily life, and even more opportunities to see how little the state administration, even if it was animated with the best of intentions, could offer them. "

- Peter Kropotkin : Memoirs of a Revolutionary .

After the brutal suppression of the uprising of Polish exiles in Siberia in 1866, he recorded their trial in writing and forwarded the transcript of a St. Petersburg newspaper for publication. The report also made its way into the European press and resulted in prominent figures in public correspondence protesting the arbitrariness of the Russian government.

Kropotkin's Geographic Research (1867–1872)

A drawing by Kropotkin for his work on Finland and the Ice Age of 1876. It shows Vallisaari and the Suomenlinna fortress .

In 1867 Kropotkin returned to St. Petersburg and resigned from the military, disaffected. He enrolled at the University of St. Petersburg in order mathematics and physics to study, and earned his living with translations of the works of Herbert Spencer . At the same time, Kropotkin became secretary of the physical geography section of the Russian Geographical Society . In his role as secretary, he still had enough time to pursue his own research, and he also benefited from the experience of many of the expedition reports sent to him by other researchers for the Geographical Society.

Kropotkin's most important contribution to science was the revision of the assumptions of the time about the orographic structure of northeast Asia. Kropotkin's discoveries represented a revolutionary advance in the field of geography and influenced the ideas of other geographers about the orographic structure of the entire planet. The renowned German geographer August Petermann was the first to recognize the value of this knowledge and took over Kropotkin's revision of his map of Asia in Stieler's hand atlas , which was subsequently adopted by other cartographers. Later, through his theoretical research, Kropotkin suspected that unknown land was near Novaya Zemlya in northern Russia, and planned an expedition to the area. However, the Russian government denied him the funds because it was much more interested in exploring the geopolitically interesting south. Two years later, an Austrian expedition team followed the route, probably on the basis of Kropotkin's work, and discovered the Franz-Joseph-Land archipelago there .

Pyotr Kropotkin developed two more important contributions to geographic research: his new glacier theories and another theory about drying out and lake formation. Kropotkin wrote two volumes on the new glacier theories, of which the first volume was published in 1876 and sparked a debate about the validity of the glacier theories of the time. The second volume was confiscated by the tsarist secret police and only returned to the Russian Geographical Society in 1895 . At that time, however, Kropotkin's ideas in geographic research were already generally accepted.

In the following years Kropotkin undertook expeditions to Finland , Sweden and the Baltic States . The Russian Geographical Society offered him the post of secretary, where he would have time for research and a secure income. But in Kropotkin the conviction had already matured that it was his duty to use his knowledge to help the suffering people. So he joined revolutionary circles and gave up geographic research for the rest of his life.

Activism in the anarchist movement (1872-1886)

Kropotkin, photo taken by Nadar around 1880.

In 1872, Pyotr Kropotkin's father Alexei Petrovich died. This legacy made it possible for Pyotr Kropotkin to fulfill his long-cherished dream of a trip to Western Europe. He then traveled to Switzerland in the same year and quickly became acquainted with the Russian socialist students in Zurich . Kropotkin then traveled to Geneva and became a member of the Geneva section of the International Workers' Association . But he quickly began to doubt the honesty of the section leaders and joined the libertarian Jura Federation in Neuchâtel . During his short stay in the Jura, he made the acquaintance of many fugitive Communards and befriended James Guillaume and Adhémar Schwitzguébel . The time with the watchmakers in the Jura left a lasting impression on Kropotkin. He professed anarchism and decided to devote his life to the revolutionary cause from then on. After a three-month stay in Switzerland and a short trip to the liberal sections in Verviers , Belgium , Kropotkin returned - on the advice of James Guillaume - to Russia to work for socialism there.

After his return to Russia, he joined the Tchaikovsky Circle , whose members mainly dealt with popular education and propaganda. The Tchaikovsky Circle united many progressive members who later joined the more radical Narodnaya Volja , such as Stepniak , Sophia Perovskaya and Lev Alexandrovich Tichomirow . In 1873, the tsarist police began a series of arrests that increasingly weakened the Tchaikovsky circle and the entire Narodniki movement . Kropotkin was arrested in 1874 after being betrayed by one of the participants in his secret discussion group for workers. The arrest of Kropotkin caused a great stir in public and also unsettled the Tsar and his entourage, since with Kropotkin a high-ranking nobleman and personal servant of the Tsar had also participated in the anti-Tsarist movement for the first time. Kropotkin was held in the Peter and Paul Fortress in St. Petersburg and fell ill with rheumatism and scurvy due to the poor prison conditions . When his condition deteriorated life-threateningly after two years, he was taken to a smaller prison at the St. Petersburg Military Hospital for recovery. Kropotkin's health improved rapidly there. A short time later - with the support of twenty helpers - he managed a spectacular escape from prison. Kropotkin then fled from Vaasa in Finland by ship to Sweden, from there to Hull in Great Britain .

Title page of the first French edition of Kropotkin's Words of a Rebel . It was published in 1885 by Élisée Reclus and consists of articles by Kropotkin from his magazine Le Révolté .

After his escape in 1876, Kropotkin first lived in Edinburgh and then went on to London to work for the scientific journal Nature . In December 1876 he decided to continue his journey to the Swiss Jura region, as he could not find a satisfactory field of activity in the weak English labor movement. He began a brisk activity in what was then the ideological center of European anarchism, and during this time he turned into a communist anarchist .

He was a co-author in L'Avant-Garde of Paul Brousse active, the international in the years 1876/77 the most important anarchist magazine became. At the same time, together with Brousse and the German anarchists Otto Rinke and Emil Werner, he founded a German-speaking anarchist group that published the workers' newspaper in Bern and smuggled it to Germany. In the same year Kropotkin took part as a delegate at the last congress of the Anti-Authoritarian International in Verviers , Belgium , and shortly afterwards also at the World Socialist Congress in Ghent . When friends warned him about an arrest by the Belgian police, Kropotkin had to flee before the end of the congress and went back to London. There he began his research on the French Revolution, which he continued after a short time in Paris. But only small, secret workers' meetings were possible there, and when the police tried to break the circles with arrests in 1878, Kropotkin returned to Geneva in April. Kropotkin spent six weeks in Spain to learn more about anarchism in Spain , and in October 1878 married Sophie (Sofija) Grigoryevna Ananiev-Rabinowitsch, a Russian-born woman from Kiev. After the prohibition of the magazine L'Avant-Garde and the withdrawal of Paul Brousse from the anarchist movement, Kropotkin founded the newspaper Le Révolté , which appeared for the first time on February 22, 1879 with a circulation of 2,000 copies in Geneva. In 1880 the health of Kropotkin's wife Sophia worsened and they decided to move to Clarens , where Pyotr Kropotkin worked on Élisée Reclus ' Géographie universelle . From June to August the series of articles Appell an die Jugend was published in Le Révolté , which was later printed as a brochure in 1881.

After the assassination attempt on Tsar Alexander II on July 1 . / March 13, 1881 greg. and the brutal execution of those responsible - among them Sophia Perovskaya from the Tchaikovsky circle - Kropotkin organized a protest and distributed a pamphlet La vérité sur les exécutions en Russie (English: The truth about the executions in Russia ). Although he found himself in a difficult financial situation with the publication of his own magazine, Kropotkin was able to attend the anarchist congress in London of 1881 with the help of friends. After his return to Switzerland, Kropotkin was expelled under pressure from the Russian government and from then on lived in Thonon-les-Bains, France, on Lake Geneva. The publication of Le Révolté was done by long-time employees George Herzig and François Dumartheray von Kropotkin, who still wrote articles for the magazine. After Pyotr Kropotkin was warned by Pyotr Lavrov, on the basis of information from a high-ranking officer in Russia, that a conservative Russian organization was planning an assassination attempt on him, he went back to London in November 1881. There he wrote articles for The Nineteenth Century , The Times , Nature and the Fortnightly Review and was a contributor to the Encyclopædia Britannica .

Towards the end of 1882, strikers carried out a series of minor dynamite attacks in Montceau-les-Mines, France . Since Kropotkin returned to Thonon in the fall of 1882 and this crossed with the attacks, he was seen by a large part of the French newspapers as one of the responsible. Kropotkin, who had nothing to do with the incidents, was arrested after a few weeks with about 60 other anarchists. The prosecution failed to produce evidence in court, but the defendants were still convicted of membership of the International, even though the International had not existed for five years. Kropotkin was severely punished, five years in prison and a fine of 1,000 francs, but the French public and the vast majority of the French press condemned the trial. During his imprisonment in Lyon and Clairvaux , Kropotkin was able to continue his literary activity, and from his collected works from Le Révolté , Élisée Reclus compiled the book Paroles d'un révolté (English: words of a rebel ), which was published in Paris in 1885. Kropotkin fell ill with malaria and one more time with scurvy in prison . Meanwhile, public opposition to Kropotkin's unjustified imprisonment was formed, which was also joined by many renowned British and French scholars, including Alfred Russel Wallace and Victor Hugo , who petitioned the French government to request his release. The government gave in to public pressure in January 1886 and released Kropotkin and the rest of the convicts.

After his release, Kropotkin went to Paris and wrote articles about his experiences in French prisons. From these articles and previous articles about Russian prisons, the book was written in Russian and French Prisons (dt .: In Russian and French prisons ), which was published in 1887 in London. The book appeared in a second edition shortly afterwards, as the first edition was almost completely bought up by Russian agents and destroyed. In 1886 Kropotkin decided to move to London, where he stayed for a longer period of time. Before leaving, he gave a lecture at his farewell event in Paris entitled Anarchism and its place in socialist evolution , which was attended by several thousand listeners.

Writing activity (1886–1914)

Leaflet about a lecture by Kropotkin

After his arrival in London, Kropotkin founded the Freedom Group with English anarchists , which from October 1886 published its own magazine Freedom . He gave lecturing tours in various cities in Great Britain where the socialist movement was on the rise. Beyond anarchist circles, Kropotkin was quickly welcomed by British writers and political activists. He was friends with William Morris , Patrick Geddes , Keir Hardie , Philip Snowden , Edward Carpenter and Henry Walter Bates , among others .

In the same year, however, he was hit hard by the news of his brother Alexander's suicide. His brother had been an exile in Siberian exile for many years and left behind his wife and children who subsequently lived with the Kropotkins in England. Pyotr Kropotkin then concentrated more on his scientific articles, as the poor financial situation worsened by the newcomers. With the move to Harrow and the birth of his daughter Alexandra in 1887, Kropotkin's time as an activist in anarchist groups practically ended. From then on he concentrated on writing articles for anarchist magazines, on lecture tours about anarchism and - due to his prominence - as the "mouthpiece" of the movement. He was also characterized by a universal interest: Kropotkin wrote on a wide range of sociological, historical and scientific topics and, for example, wrote articles for the English-language magazines The Speaker , The Forum , The Atlantic Monthly , North American Review and The Outlook .

In the course of the worldwide protest against the execution of the Chicago anarchists , a protest movement also formed in Great Britain in 1887, which was supported by anarchist, radical and liberal elements. Together with Oscar Wilde and George Bernard Shaw, Kropotkin was particularly active in the movement in favor of the convicted Chicago anarchists. During 1888 he wrote a series of articles on the industrial organization of society in the British magazine The Nineteenth Century . These collected articles were later published in book form in 1898 as Fields, Factories and Workshops (Eng .: Agriculture, Industry and Crafts ). Widespread the brochure was The Wage System (dt .: The salary system ), which was translated shortly after publication in ten different languages and is based on a presentation of Kropotkin's 1,888th In Paris, the successor to Le Révolté - under the direction of Jean Grave - was the magazine La Révolte , for which Kropotkin wrote many articles. He summarized some of these articles in 1892 in his most famous book on anarchism with the name La Conquête du Pain (Eng .: The Conquest of Bread ).

Kropotkin made his first lecture tour in North America in 1897 and later played a major role in the settlement of Russian Duchoborzen in western Canada. On another trip through North America, he gave lectures on Russian literature and was later on the basis of these lectures the book Ideals and Realities in Russian Literature (dt .: ideals and reality in Russian literature ) out. In 1900 Kropotkin's memoirs appeared, which had already been published two years earlier in a series in the American magazine The Atlantic Monthly . After the turn of the century, Kropotkin was rarely able to give lectures because his health deteriorated markedly.

Kropotkin in his study while in England

His probably best-known scientific work Mutual Aid in the Animal and Human World first appeared in English in 1902 as Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution . The book was Kropotkin's answer to the theses of social Darwinism and was based on a series of articles for the magazine Nineteenth Century from 1890 to 1896. In it he tried to demonstrate, using numerous examples from nature and human history, that the most successful strategy in evolution is based on mutual help and Support and not based on the survival of the fittest.

In the period that followed, Kropotkin increasingly took different standpoints than the majority of anarchists on certain issues. This was particularly noticeable when it came to the question of how anarchists should behave in the event of a war between Germany and France. While a large majority of anarchists took anti-militarist standpoints, Kropotkin was convinced that anarchists should participate in a war on the French side, since a German victory would assert authoritarian tendencies in society. In 1903 Kropotkin founded the magazine Chleb i Volja ( Eng .: Bread and Freedom ), which was intended for Russia and whose political orientation was based on communist anarchism. The communist anarchists, also known as Chlebovolzi in Russia because of the magazine , had little influence on the course of the 1905 revolution .

The brutal suppression of the Russian Revolution of 1905, which culminated in St. Petersburg's Bloody Sunday , made waves in the circles of the Russians in exile. Kropotkin then wrote a report entitled Opinion on White Terrorism in Russia , which was widely used and had a major impact on British public opinion. That same year, Kropotkin suffered a heart attack after giving a lecture at the anniversary celebration of the Decembrist uprising in London. As a result, he had to take it easy and regularly spent the winter months in places with a milder climate in Italy, France or Switzerland. In 1909 his works The Terror in Russia (German: The Terror in Russia ) and La Grande Révolution 1789–1793 (German: The Great French Revolution 1789–1793 ), an extensive historical study of the French Revolution, appeared. In 1911 Kropotkin moved to Brighton and was partially severely restricted in his work for health reasons.

First World War and return to Russia (1914–1921)

Kropotkin at a meeting with Pavel Milyukov , Foreign Minister of the Provisional Government, 1917

After the outbreak of the First World War , Kropotkin campaigned openly for the anarchists to participate on the part of the Entente powers against the German Reich . Together with Jean Grave , Warlaam Tscherkessow and some other anarchists, however, he saw himself isolated within the anarchist movement, as the great majority was anti-militarist. During the war, Kropotkin campaigned for the anarchists to participate in the war in the magazine Freedom , until after a conflict with Kropotkin, Freedom continued as an anti-war magazine and stopped publishing its articles. The open break between the majority of the anarchist movement and Kropotkin occurred after the publication of the Manifesto of the Sixteen , in which he and fourteen other anarchists called for a common struggle against Germany. This step led to a break with many personal friends, such as Errico Malatesta , Emma Goldman and Rudolf Rocker .

In June 1917, Kropotkin returned to Russia after the February Revolution and was enthusiastically received there by around 60,000 people in St. Petersburg. In Russia he spoke out in favor of continuing the Russian mission in the First World War. However, the appeal was almost ineffective among the war-weary Russian population and led to the majority of anarchists in Russia turning against Kropotkin.

Kropotkin was offered the post of education minister in Kerensky's provisional government , but as an anarchist he declined. After the Bolsheviks came to power in the October Revolution , the persecution of political opponents began, and the anarchists were particularly hard hit. However, due to his influence and popularity among the Russian population, Kropotkin remained undisturbed and was able to lead a relatively free life. In the summer of 1918, Kropotkin moved from Moscow to Dmitrov with his wife and began work on a history of morality called Ethics , of which he was only able to complete the first of two volumes. At the same time, Kropotkin's appeal against intervention by the Western European powers in Russia appeared in various Western European media and was widely circulated.

Image from Kropotkin's funeral with some of the speakers: Emma Goldman , Alexander Berkman , GP Maximov and Aaron Baron

The Bolsheviks endeavored to maintain friendly relations with Kropotkin. In May 1919 a face-to-face meeting between Kropotkin and Lenin was held where they discussed the revolution and Kropotkin criticized the course of the revolution and the actions of the Bolsheviks. Kropotkin was offered 250,000 rubles by the Commissioner for Education Lunacharsky for the publication of his collected works, which he refused because he did not accept any help from the state. After the Bolsheviks began to take high-ranking officers of the White Army hostage in the fall of 1920 to protect themselves from attack, Kropotkin criticized this. He described the practices in his well-known open letter to Lenin as "backward" and "medieval".

Weakened by pneumonia , Kropotkin died on February 8, 1921. Representatives of various anarchist groups, including Alexander Berkman and Emma Goldman, formed a funeral committee and were able to obtain the partial release of imprisoned Russian anarchists by the Soviet authorities, provided that they follow suit would return to prisons for the funeral. Tens of thousands of people attended the funeral on February 13, 1921, making it the last major demonstration of anarchist forces in Soviet Russia .

Kropotkin's wife Sophia died - unmolested by the authorities - in 1938.


After Kropotkin's death, a museum in his honor was set up in the house where he was born in Moscow. In 1921 the town of Kropotkin was named after him. After the death of his wife, the museum was closed by the authorities and the collection dispersed. The Kropotkinskaya station on the Moscow Metro has been named after him since 1957 . In the Antarctic, Mount Kropotkin in the Mühlig-Hofmann Mountains bears his name.



  • Alexander Bolz (Ed.): Pjotr ​​Alexejewitsch Kropotkin . An autobiographical portrait 1842–1921. AL.BE.CH.-Verlag, Lüneburg 2003, ISBN 3-926623-42-X .
  • Gudrun Goes (Ed.): Not fools, not saints . Memories of Russian folk peoples. Reclam-Verlag , Leipzig 1984.
  • Heinz Hug: Kropotkin for an introduction . Junius Verlag , Hamburg 1989, ISBN 3-88506-845-1 .
  • Heinz Hug: Peter Kropotkin (1842–1921) . Bibliography. Edition Anares in anyway Verlag, Bern-Grafenau 1994, ISBN 3-922209-92-0 .
  • Michael Lausberg: Kropotkin's philosophy of communist anarchism . Unrast Verlag , Münster 2016, ISBN 978-3-89771-598-1
  • Gotelind Müller: China, Kropotkin and Anarchism . Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden 2001, ISBN 3-447-04508-6 .
  • George Woodcock , Ivan Avakumovic: The Anarchist Prince . TV Boardman & Co., London 1950.
  • Max Nettlau , History of Anarchy . Newly published by Heiner Becker. In cooperation with the International Institute for Social History (IISG). Library Thélème, Münster 1993, 1st edition. Reprint of the Berlin edition, Verlag Der Syndikalist 1927.
    • Volume 2: The anarchism from Proudhon to Kropotkin. Its historical development in the years 1859–1880.
    • Volume 3: Anarchists and Social Revolutionaries. The historical development of anarchism in the years 1880–1886.
    • Volume 4: The first heyday of anarchy 1886–1894.
    • Volume: 8–9: Anarchists and Syndicalists.

Web links

Wikisource: Pyotr Alexejewitsch Kropotkin  - sources and full texts
Wikisource: Peter Kropotkin  - Sources and full texts (English)
Commons : Peter Kropotkin  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. See on this: Max Nettlau: History of Anarchy . Volume 4: The first heyday of anarchy 1886–1894 . Chapter III, Kropotkin's Works of Agriculture, Industry and Crafts and The Conquest of Bread, Writings 1888-1891 .
  2. quoted from Peter A. Kropotkin: Memoirs of a Revolutionary . Volume I. Münster, 2002, p. 192.
  3. Cf. on this: Max Nettlau: History of Anarchy , Volume 2, Chapter XVI: Peter Kropotkin in the years 1872–1876
  4. See on this: Max Nettlau: History of Anarchy . Volume 4, Chapter II, The Areas of Study of Kropotkin and His Exposition of the Foundations of Anarchist Communism in 1887 and Chapter XVII, Kropotkin in the years 1890 to 1896; critical voices on communist anarchism and outlook on the overall development of the anarchist idea .
  5. See on this: Max Nettlau: History of Anarchy . Volume 2, Chapter XVII, The Internationale and Peter Kropotkin from January to August 1877
  6. See on this: Max Nettlau: History of Anarchy . Volume 3, Chapter II, Peter Kropotkin from October 1880 to his imprisonment since December 1882, in Geneva, London and Thonon .
  7. See on this: Max Nettlau: History of Anarchy . Volume 2, Chapter XIX. The "Révolté", Geneva, in 1879 and Kropotkin's Anarchist Idea from the point of view of its practical realization (October 1879) .
  8. See on this: Max Nettlau: History of Anarchy . Volume 3, Chapter XVI, The Beginnings of Modern Socialism in England. Kropotkin and the Freedom Group, 1886 .
  9. See on this: Max Nettlau: History of Anarchy . Volume 4, Chapter I, Kropotkin's French and English propaganda activity from 1886 to 1888 .
  10. Cf. on this: Max Nettlau: History of Anarchy , Volume 8–9, Chapter VI, Kropotkin's activity based on his letters; his serious illness in 1901 and the beginning of his elaboration of ethics .
  11. See on this: Max Nettlau: History of Anarchy . Volumes 8–9, Chapter VIII, Kropotkin from spring 1908 to summer 1914 in London, Brighton, Locarno and Italy.